History of Photography


History of Photography

A World History of Photography

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991

Photographers' Dictionary



Chapter 10



EDWARD STEICHEN (collection)
CECIL BEATON (collection)
MARTIN MUNKACSI  (collection)

TONI FRISSELL (collection)
ANGUS McBEAN (collection)
MAN RAY (collection)
LOUISE DAHL-WOLFE (collection)
SARAH MOON (collection)
IRVING PENN (collection)
RICHARD AVEDON (collection)
W. EUGENE SMITH (collection)






Pictures in Print: Fashion and Celebrities

Commercial uses of photography always have included fashion and celebrity images, a specialty that is neither strictly documentation nor advertising. The appearance in the 1920s of specialized periodicals devoted to fashion enlarged the creative opportunities for photographers interested in these subjects. Often they were permitted a more fanciful approach than was considered suitable in ordinary product advertising or photojournalism because their goal was to create an illusion, in which artifice was a prime ingredient. Made to establish canons of taste while attracting buyers, these pictorial configurations of model, garment, pose, and decor are as much indications of changing styles in the arts as of attire. And it can be argued also that fashion imagery is significant as an index of transformations in social, cultural, and sexual mores and thus is indicative of attitudes by and toward women in society.

Fashion imagery, as might be expected, got its start in the world's fashion capital—Paris—where in the late 1800s the Reutlinger Studio (pi. no. 635), Bissonais et Taponnier, and Seeberger Freres, among others, provided images for Parisian magazines. But it was the transformation of Vogue, late in the second decade of this century, from a society journal to a magazine devoted to presenting elegant attire for the elite that marked the real beginning of fashion photography as a genre. Published in three separate editions in London, New York, and Paris by Conde Nast, Vogue at first featured opulent soft-focus confections (pi. no. 636) exemplified by the work of Pictorialist Adolf de Meyer (known as Baron), who was replaced by Steichcn in 1923, but continued to photograph in what had become an outmoded style for Harper's Bazaar. Steichen, in his role as chief photographer for Conde Nast publications in the United States, was the catalyst behind the "new look" in fashion photography during the 1920s; he arranged and composed individual models, groups, and properties into vividly patterned ensembles that displayed an instinctive flair for dramatic contrasts and for the decorative possibilities of geometric shapes. His work was immediately recognized as stylistically consistent with Other emblems of 1920s modernism—the skyscraper, machine forms, and jazz. And Toward the end of the decade, as the New Objectivity came to the fore, Steichen transformed this style into a chic yet expressive language suitable for both fashion and celebrity images, as can be seen in his close-up of actress Anna May Wong (pi, no. 637), which, in addition to creating an arresting design reminiscent of Brancusi's sculptured heads, suggests characteristics of inwardness and mystery.

Steichen's influence was felt in Europe as well as in the United States. In its wake, George Hoyningen-Huene born in Russia and active in France between 192s and 1935, during which time he contributed regularly to Paris Vogjue) combined his strong admiration for the statuary of classical antiquity with the clean functionalism of the New Objectivity, achieving the distinctive if somewhat bizarre style typified by his 1930 spread for bathing attire (pi. no. 638). In France at the time, Madame D'Ora and Egidio Scaione, an Italian photographer with a large commercial practice, handled similar themes with an icy elegance that epitomizes the style moderne—the French version of the New Objectivity. When inventive British photographer and stage designer Beaton turned to celebrity and fashion images in 1929, he joined his penchant for lush baroque fantasies with a modern touch, producing alluring pictures such as Marlene Dietrich (pi. no. 639). The British editions of both Vogue and Harper's Bazaar provided commissions for a number of British fashion photographers, among them Dorothy Wilding and Barbara Ker-Seymer, who transferred the mechanistic suavities of the objective manner to their portraits of celebrities.

635. REUTLINGER STUDIO, Pans. Dinner Dress by Panem,
published in Les Modes Magazine, March. 1906.
Halftone reproduction-Fashion Institute of Technology, New York.

636. BARON ADOLF DE MEYER. A Wedding Dress, Modeled by Helen Lee Worthing, 1920.
Gelatin silver print. Vogue, New York.

BARON ADOLF DE MEYER (see collection)

637. EDWARD STEICHEN. Anna May Wong, 1930.
Gelatin silver print. Collection George H. Dalsheimer, Baltimore. Vanity Fair, New York.

EDWARD STEICHEN  (see collection)

638. GEORGE HOYNINGEN-HUENE. Untitled, (Fashion Izod), 1930.
Vogue, New York.

GEORGE HOYNINGEN-HUENE  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Baron George Hoyningen-Huene (1900 - 1968) was a seminal fashion photographer of the 1920s and 1930s. He was born in Russia to Baltic German and American parents and spent his working life in France, England and the United States.
Born in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on September 4, 1900, Hoyningen-Huene was the only son of Baron Barthold Theodorevitch von Hoyningen-Huene (1859-1942), a Baltic nobleman and military officer, and his wife, Emily Anne "Nan" Lothrop (1860-1927), a daughter of George Van Ness Lothrop, an American minister to Russia. (The couple was married in Detroit, Michigan, in 1888.) He had two sisters. Helen (died 1976) became a fashion designer in France and the United States, using the name Helen de Huene. Elizabeth (1891-1973), also known as Betty, also became a fashion designer (using the name Mme. Yteb in the 1920s and 1930s) and married, first, Baron Wrangel, and, second, Lt. Col. Charles Norman Buzzard, a British Army officer.
During the Russian Revolution, the Hoyningen-Huenes fled to first London, and later Paris. By 1925 George had already worked his way up to chief of photography of the French Vogue. In 1931 he met Horst, the future photographer, who became his lover and frequent model, and traveled to England with him that winter. While there, they visited photographer Cecil Beaton, who was working for the British edition of Vogue. In 1931, Horst began his association with vouge, publishing his first photograph in the French edition of Vogue in November of that year.
In 1935 Hoyningen-Huene moved to New York City where he did most of his work for Harper's Bazaar. He published two art books on Greece and Egypt before relocating to Hollywood, where he earned his wedge by shooting glamorous portraits for the film industry.
Hoyningen-Huene worked before anything resembling contemporary flash photography was known. Working in huge studios and with whatever lighting worked best. There is something about the texture of his black and whites that one seldom finds in contemporary work. Beyond fashion, he was a master portraitist as well from Hollywood stars to other celebrities.
He also worked in Hollywood in various capacities in the film industry, working closely with George Cukor, notably as special visual and color consultant for the 1954 Judy Garland movie A Star Is Born. He served a similar role for the 1957 film Les Girls, which starred Kay Kendall and Mitzi Gaynor and the Sophia Loren film Heller in Pink Tights.
He died at 68 years of age in Los Angeles.



639. CECIL BEATON. Marlene Dietrich, 1932.
Gelatin silver print. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

CECIL BEATON  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton (14 January 1904 – 18 January 1980) was an English fashion and portrait photographer and an Academy Award-winning stage and costume designer for films and the theatre.
Beaton was born in Hampstead the son of Ernest Beaton and his wife Etty Sissons. His grandfather had founded the family business of Beaton Brothers Timber Merchants and Agents, and his father followed into the business. Ernest Beaton was also an amateur actor and had met his wife, Cecil's mother, when playing the lead in a play. Cecil Beaton was educated at Heath Mount School and St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne, where his artistic talent was quickly recognised. Both Cyril Connolly and Henry Longhurst report in their autobiographies being overwhelmed by the beauty of Beaton's singing at the St Cyprian's school concerts. When Beaton was growing up his Nanny had a Kodak 3A Camera, a popular model which was renowned for being an ideal piece of equipment to learn on. Beaton's nanny began teaching him the basics of photography and developing them in his basement. He would often get his sisters and mother to sit for him. When he was sufficiently proficient, he would send the photos off to London society magazines, often writing under a pen name and ‘recommending’ the work of Beaton.
Beaton went on to Harrow, and then, despite having little or no interest in academia, moved on to St John's College, Cambridge, and studied history, art and architecture. Beaton continued his photography, and through his university contacts managed to get a portrait sitting with the Duchess of Amalfi — actually George "Dadie" Rylands, and as Beaton recalled years later: "It was a slightly out-of-focus snapshot of him as Webster's Duchess of Malfi standing in the sub-aqueous light outside the men's lavatory of the ADC Theatre at Cambridge." The resulting images gave Beaton his first ever piece of published work when Vogue magazine bought and printed the photos.
Beaton left Cambridge without a degree in 1925, but only coped with salaried employment in his father's timber business for eight days.
Beaton designed book jackets and costumes for charity matinees, learning the professional craft of photography at the studio of Paul Tanqueray, until Vogue took him on regularly in 1927. He also set up his own studio, and one of his earliest clients and, later, best friends was Stephen Tennant; Beaton's photographs of Tennant and his circle are considered some of the best representations of the "Bright Young Things" of the twenties and thirties.
He was a photographer for the British edition of Vogue in 1931 when George Hoyningen-Huene, photographer for the French Vogue traveled to England with his new friend Horst. Horst himself would begin to work for French Vogue in November of that year. The exchange and cross pollination of ideas between this collegial circle of artists across the Channel and the Atlantic gave rise to the look of style and sophistication for which the 1930s are known.
Beaton is best known for his fashion photographs and society portraits. He worked as a staff photographer for Vanity Fair and Vogue in addition to photographing celebrities in Hollywood.Beaton's first camera was a Kodak 3A folding camera. Over the course of his career, he employed both large format cameras, and smaller Rolleiflex cameras. Beaton was never known as a highly skilled technical photographer, and instead focused on staging a compelling model or scene and looking for the perfect shutter-release moment.
Beaton often photographed the Royal Family for official publication. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother was his favourite Royal sitter, and he once pocketed her scented hankie as a keepsake from a highly successful shoot. Beaton took the famous wedding pictures of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor (wearing an ensemble by the noted fashion designer Mainbocher).
During the Second World War, Beaton was initially posted to the Ministry of Information and given the task of recording images from the home front. During this assignment he captured one of the most enduring images of British suffering during the war, that of three-year-old Blitz victim Eileen Dunne recovering in hospital, clutching her beloved teddy bear. When the image was published, America had not yet officially joined the war — but splashed across the press in the USA, images such as Beaton’s helped push the American public to put pressure on their Government to help Britain in its hour of need.
Beaton had a major influence on and relationship with two other leading lights in British photography, that of Angus McBean and David Bailey. McBean was arguably the best portrait photographer of his era — in the second part of McBeans career (post war) his work is clearly heavily influenced by Beaton, though arguably McBean was technically far more proficient in his execution. Bailey was also enormously influenced by Beaton when they met whilst working for British Vogue in the early 1960s, Bailey's stark use of square format (6x6) images bears clear connections to Beaton's own working patterns.
After the war, Beaton tackled the Broadway stage, designing sets, costumes, and lighting for a 1946 revival of Lady Windermere's Fan, in which he also acted.
His most lauded achievement for the stage was the sets and costumes for Lerner and Loewe's My Fair Lady (1956), which led to two Lerner and Loewe film musicals, Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964), both of which earned Beaton the Academy Award for Costume Design. He also designed the period costumes for the 1970 film On a Clear Day You Can See Forever.
Additional Broadway credits include The Grass Harp (1952), The Chalk Garden (1955), Saratoga (1959), Tenderloin (1960), and Coco (1969). He is the winner of four Tony Awards.

In 1972, he was knighted. Two years later he suffered a stroke that would leave him permanently paralysed on the right side of his body. Although he learnt to write and draw with his left hand, and had cameras adapted, Beaton became frustrated by the new limitations the stroke had put upon his work. As a result of his stroke, Beaton became anxious about financial security for his old age and, in 1976, entered into negotiations with Philippe Garner, expert-in-charge of photographs at Sotheby's. On behalf of the auction house, Garner acquired Beaton's archive — excluding all portraits of the Royal Family, and the five decades of prints held by Vogue in London, Paris and New York. Garner, who had almost singlehandedly invented the photographic auction, oversaw the archive's preservation and partial dispersal, so that Beaton's only tangible assets, and what he considered his life's work, would ensure him an annual income. The first of five auctions was held in 1977, the last in 1980.
By the end of the 1970s, Beaton's health had faded to that of an old man. In January 1980, he died during the night at his grand home in Broad Chalke in Wiltshire.

Although the great love of his life was art collector Peter Watson, he did, however, have relationships with women, including the actress Greta Garbo and the British socialite Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse. His heterosexual virginity was taken by the American socialite Marjorie Oelrichs. Beaton also claimed to have had an affair with the American actor Gary Cooper, who was a close friend of his for many years.

CECIL BEATON. Audrey Hepburn


Involved primarily with form—indeed, the content is seldom the actual personage or garment but the "aura" created by the photographer—fashion and celebrity images were especially quick to relect changes in aesthetic sensibilitv. During the Depression, the cool hermetic elegance of the New Objectivity was challenged in the United States both by the naturalism of small-camera photojournalistic documentation and by the preference for American-made products that prompted editors to avoid what they conceived as aesthetic styles imported from Europe. Also, as a consequence of the search for a wide readership, fashion imagery became more democratic in theme and approach. Ironically, this breath of air was imported; as noted earlier, it was the Hungarian Munkacsi who first applied candid techniques to fashion photography, snapping a bathing-suit model running on a beach (pi. no. 640). These unstilted images of active, athletic models photographed out-of-doors in natural light established this approach as one of the two poles between which fashion imagery has continually rebounded, the other extreme being the contrived studio shot. The American Toni Frissell was one of a number of fashion photographers who combined natural settings and the casual stances of photojournalism with angled shots and stark silhouettes, exemplified in a 1939 series for Vogue featuring fur garments out-of-doors (pi. no. 641).

Images that ostensibly explored the landscape of the mind and reflected the prevailing interest in psychoanaly sis and the Surrealist art movement began to appear in fashion work during the 1930s. Horst Peter Horst, a former student of Purist architecture in Paris, devised montages and mirror tricks to confound reality with trompe Voeil settings. Others—including the Londoners Yevonde Cumbers (Madame Yevonde) and Angus McBean, who ordered a Daliesque background to be constructed and painted especially for a portrait of the actress Elsa Lanchester (pi. no. 642)—were directly inspired  Surrealist paintings. Besides the well-known Dali, the painters Christian Berard, Giorgio de Chirico, and Yves Tanguy influenced fashion images by the English painter-photographer Peter Rose-Pulham and the Americans Clifford Coffin and George Platt Lynes, for example. Surrealist photographs were a natural offshoot of Beaton's preoccupation with fantasy, while Man Ray, in arranging a couturier beach robe against a backdrop of his own painting entitled Observatory Time—The Lovers (pi. no. 644) for a spread in Harper's Bazaar, came to this languid mix of luxury and desire from the even more irrational precincts of Dadaism. Continued interest in the temporal and spatial confusions of dreams combined during the 1940s with awareness of the war in Europe to give fashion images, as conceived by Erwin Blumenfeld and the American John Rawlings, a macabre aspect. Rawlings, a former director of Vogue's London studio, arranged mirrors to create a sense of undefined time and place (pi. no. 643) suggestive of austerity and even regimentation for a Vogue cover that came out during the second World War in 1944. A multiple image by Blumenfeld (pi. no. 645), who worked in the United States after his release from a Nazi internment camp, brings to mind the shattering experiences of war and incarceration rather than the seductive fantasies one usually finds in fashion pictures.

In the postwar years, fashion photographers were heir to a wealth of traditions that included New Objectivity, Surrealism, and the documentary mode. They sought to integrate these concepts with the revived taste for luxury, at the same time developing distinctive individual styles. Less elitist than formerly but often more opulent because fashion images were now made largely in color for a readership eager to make up for wartime austerity, the new sensibility is apparent in the work of Richard Avedon, Lillian Bassman, Louise Dahl-Wolfe, Irving Penn, and Bert Stern, and in the still lifes of Leslie Gill, to name only a small number of those active in the field after the war.


640. MARTIN MUNKACSI. Lucile Brokaw on the Long Island Beach, 1933.
Reproduced in Harper's Bazaar, December 1934.
Gelatin silver print. Joan Munkacsi, Woodstock, N.Y.

MARTIN MUNKACSI  (see collection)

641. TONI FRISSELL. Boom for Brown Beavers, 1939.
Reproduced in Vogue, August 1, 1939.
Gelatin silver print. Toni Frissell Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

TONI FRISSELL  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Toni Frissell, or Antoinette Frissell Bacon, (March 10, 1907 - April 17, 1988) was an American photographer, known for her fashion photography, World War II photographs, portraits of famous Americans and Europeans, children, and women from all walks of life.
Antoinette Frissell was born in 1907 in New York City, New York, but took photos under the name Toni Frissell, even after her marriage to Manhattan socialite McNeil Bacon. She worked with many famous photographers of the day, as an apprentice to Cecil Beaton, and with advice from Edward Steichen. Her initial job, as a fashion photographer for Vogue in 1931, was due to Condé Montrose Nast personally. She later took photographs for Harper's Bazaar. Her fashion photos, even of evening gowns and such, were often notable for their outdoor settings, emphasizing active women.
In 1941, Frissell volunteered her photographic services to the American Red Cross. Later she worked for the Eighth Army Air Force and became the official photographer of the Women's Army Corps. On their behalf, she took thousands of images of nurses, front-line soldiers, WACs, African-American airmen, and orphaned children. She traveled to the European front twice. Her moving photographs of military women and African American fighter pilots in the elite 332d Fighter Group (the "Tuskegee Airmen") were used to encourage public support for women and blacks in the service.
In the 1950's, she took informal portraits of the famous and powerful in the United States and Europe, including Winston Churchill, Eleanor Roosevelt, and John F. and Jacqueline Kennedy, and worked for Sports Illustrated and Life magazines. Continuing her interest in active women and sports, she was the first woman on the staff of Sports Illustrated in 1953, and continued to be one of very few female sport photographers for several decades.
In later work she concentrated on photographing women from all walks of life, often as a commentary on the human condition.

TONI FRISSELL. Lady in the Water, 1947


642. ANGUS McBEAN. Elsa Lanchester, 1938.
Reproduced in The Sketch, June 22, 1938. Gelatin silver print.

ANGUS McBEAN  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Angus McBean (June 8, 1904 - June 9, 1990), was a Welsh photographer, associated with surrealism.
McBean was born in Newbridge, Monmouthshire, the son of a coal mine surveyor. He bought his first camera - a 2 1/2 x 3 1/2 inch autographic Kodak - and tripod as World War I was ending. Fascinated by the apparently magical properties of photography, he wanted to be able to take pictures of people and sold a gold watch left to him by his grandfather to raise the five pounds necessary for the equipment.
In 1925, after his father's early death, McBean moved with his mother and younger sister to Acton, London. He worked for Liberty's department store in the antiques department learning restoration, while his personal life was spent in photography, mask-making and watching plays in the West End theatre. In 1932 he left Liberty and grew his distinctive beard to symbolize the fact that he would never be a wage-slave again. The worked as a maker of theatrical prop's, including a commission of medieval scenery for John Gielgud's 1933 production of "Richard of Bordeaux."
McBean's masks became a talking point in social columns, and were much admired by the leading Bond Street photographer Hugh Cecil. Cecil offered McBean an assistant's post at his Mayfair studio, and having learnt the secrets of Cecil's softer style and after using the studio at night, McBean set up his own studio 18months later in a basement in Belgrave Road, Victoria, London.
The artist McBean as he was still known as a mask maker, gained a commission in 1936 from Ivor Novello for masks for his play "The Happy Hypocrite." Novello was so impressed with McBean's romantic photographs that he commissioned him to take a set of production photographs as well, including young actress Vivien Leigh. The results, taken on stage with McBean's idiosyncratic lighting, instantly replaced the set already made by the long-established but stolid Stage Photo Company. McBean had a new career and a photographic leading lady: he was to photograph Vivien Leigh on stage and in the studio for almost every performance she gave until her death thirty years later.
McBean resultantly became one of the most significant portrait photographers of the 20th century, and was known as a photographer of celebrities. In the Spring of 1942 his career was temporarily ruined when he was arrested in Bath for criminal acts of homosexuality. He was sentenced to four years in prison and was released in the autumn of 1944. After the Second World War, McBean was able to successfully resume his career.
There were in effect two periods to McBeans career, his pre and post war phases. Pre war he was a lot more confident in himself and experimented successfully with surrealism, indeed his work with the likes of Vivian Leigh are some of the most accessible surrealist photographic images known. Post war he reverted to a more regular style of portraiture photography, nearly always working with the entertainment and theatre profession.
In 1945, not sure whether he would find work again, McBean set up a new studio in a bomb-damaged building in Endell Street, Covent Garden. He sold his Soho camera for £35, and bought a new half-plate Kodak View monorail camera to which he attached his trusted Zeiss lenses. McBean was commissioned first by the Stratford Memorial Theatre to photograph a production of "Anthony and Cleopatra", and all his former clients quickly returned. Through the late 1940s and 50s he was the official photographer at Stratford, the Royal Opera House, Sadlers Wells, Glyndebourne, the Old Vic and at all the productions of H.M. Tennent, servicing the theatrical, musical and ballet star system. Magazines such as the Daily Sketch and Tatler vied to commission McBean's new series of surreal portraits.
McBean's later works included being the photographer for The Beatles' first album, surrealist work as well as classic photographs of individuals such as Agatha Christie, Audrey Hepburn, Laurence Olivier and Noel Coward. Both periods or his work (pre and post war) are now eagerly sought by collectors and his work sits in many major collections around the world.

ANGUS McBEAN. Dame Margot Fonteyn, 1951


643. JOHN RAWLINGS. Untitled, 1944. Vogue cover, January 1, 1944.
Halftone reproduction. Fashion Institute of Technology, New York;
Edward C. Blum Design Laboratory. Vogue, New York.

JOHN RAWLINGS. Vogue Cover, October 1957

644. MAN RAY. Untitled, 1936.
Published in Harper's Bazaar, November, 1936.
Halftone reproduction. New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.

MAN RAY  (see collection)

645. ERWIN BLUMENFELD. What Looks New, 1947.
Reproduced in Vogue, March 15, 1947.
Color (chromogenic development) transparency. Collection Marina Schinz, New York.

ERWIN BLUMENFELD  (see collection)

Richly patterned colors and decor were orchestrated for Harper's Bazaar by Dahl-Wolfe (originally a painter), who rose to prominence on the strength of an impeccable color sense combined with skill in arranging the more naturalistic decor now desired in fashion photography (pi. no. 646). Her task, along with that of others in the field, was made easier by the increase in air travel that enabled photographers to drop themselves and their models virtually anywhere around the globe—on Caribbean beaches and western American deserts, in front of monuments and palaces in North Africa, India, and Europe. Penn (also a trained painter) created elegant confections that often make reference in their arrangements and color schemes to well-known paintings, as in an image featuring model Lisa Fonssagrives taken in an exotic setting in Morocco (pi. no. 649). Working in similar style but with still-life objects rather than live models, Gill created numerous covers and spreads of uncluttered opulence for Harper's Bazaar over more than a 20-year period beginning in 1935 (pi. no. 650). From the 1960s on, Avedon, whose stated desire was to "never bring the same mental attitude toward the same problem twice"'6 probably had the greatest influence on fashion photography. The style of his own work veered between an early somewhat frenetic naturalism, derived from Munkacsi, and a later taste for highly contrived lighting, pose, and camera angle, as in Donyale Luna in Dress by Paco Rabanne (pi. no. 651), which appeared in Vogue in December, 1966. This particular treatment of female form and dress has been seen as a reflection of the decade's profound changes in sexual and social mores rather than merely as a search for novelty to attract the jaded eye. Both naturalism and mannerism continued to inspire up-and-coming fashion photographers to frame individualized approaches. Casual documentation ostensibly characterized the fashion style of Diane Arbus, William Klein, and Bob Richardson, while Stern updated the Surrealism of Blumenfeld and the mannerism of Perm with a touch of "pop" culture. In the 1970s, Hiro (born Yasuhiro Wakcbayashi in Shanghai), working in the United States for Vogue, achieved a distinctive amalgam combining athleticism and elegance with his own aesthetic heritage (pi. no. 647).

Eclipsed by Americans during the war and immediate postwar years, the European fashion world regained its aplomb at the beginning of the 1960s with David Bailey's work in London; by the 1970s, when Paris Vogue featured the work of European newcomers Guy Bourdin and Helmut Newton, it reflected changing perceptions of women (by men and women themselves). Bourdin's macabre fantasies depict them as graceless, vulnerable, and frenzied while Newton shows them as sexually aggressive yet frigid. These strange visions, photographed in strident color, inspired the French photographer Sarah Moon (pi. no. 648) and the American Deborah Turbeville (pi. no. 652), but, though still concerned with alienation and uneasiness, both have softened the vision of women as social and sexual predators, in part through the atmospheric backgrounds and muted impressionist color they favor.

One of the developments of the 1980s is the attention paid male fashion by both manufacturers and the fashion industry, but it is doubtful whether this new thrust will forestall the problems faced by arbiters of fashion as the democratization of this once elitist interest continued in Europe as well as the United States. With a broad range of styles offering a heterogeneous public many choices of how to look, prominent fashion photographers found themselves with greater freedom to choose models, styles, decor, and ambience and even to suggest how their work be used in publication. At the same time, however, as fashion images also are collected and studied as aesthetic artifacts, photographers in this field have been compedng with a wider spectrum of image-makers for a place on gallery and museum walls and in the critical sun, as well as on the printed page.

"The transformation of everything into images" has had an unsetding effect on perception, as Roland Barthes noted in Camera Lucida, The omnipresent photograph may not have served to "de-realize the human world of conflicts and desires" to the extent this author suggests, but there is no question that it has affected responses to pain, suffering, and pleasure in real lite, making these facets of human experience seem somehow commonplace, less intensely felt, and less urgent. Advertising photography in particular has promoted a continuous search for pictorial novelty; while this emphasis may be of value in selling products in consumer-oriented societies, it is open to question as an end in itself in creative expression. The fact that commercial photographs may be seen only subliminally, with the message registered but the relationship of forms and the disposition of light unremarked, has influenced the casual way in which the public approaches expressive camera images in general. Conversely, it also is true that the prevalence of the photographic image in print, whether in advertising or journalism, has made the public more willing to accept camera images in all their guises and has led to a more sophisticated appreciation of them, providing readers for books on photography, viewers for exhibitions, and collectors for individual works.

646. LOUISE DAHL-WOLFE. The Covert Look, I949.
Reproduced in Harper's Bazaar, August, 1949.
Color (chromogenic development) transparency.
Fashion Institute of Technology, New York; Edward C. Blum Design Laboratory.

LOUISE DAHL-WOLFE  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Louise Emma Augusta Dahl (November 19, 1895 in San Francisco, California – December 11, 1989) was a photographer, known primarily for her work for Harper's Bazaar with fashion editor Diana Vreeland.
Born to Norwegian parents, Dahl-Wolfe was known for taking photographs outdoors, with natural light in distant locations from South America to Africa in what became known as "environmental" fashion photography. She married sculptor Meyer Wolfe, who constructed the backgrounds of many of her photos.
She preferred portraiture to fashion photography. Notable portraits include: Mae West, Cecil Beaton, Eudora Welty, W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Orson Welles, Carson McCullers, Edward Hopper, Colette and Josephine Baker. She is known for having "discovered" a teenage Lauren Bacall. She was a great influence on photographers Irving Penn and Richard Avedon. One of her assistants was Milton H. Greene.

LOUISE DAHL-WOLFE. In Sarasota, 1947


647. HIRO. Fabric, Harper's Bazaar, February. 1967.
Color (chromogenic development) transparency.

648. SARAH MOON. Faces, 1973. Reproduced in French Vqaue, February, 1973.
Color (chromogenic development) transparency. Courtesy the artist.

SARAH MOON (see collection)

Born in England in 1940.

Studied drawing. Between 1960 and 1966: worked as a model in London and Paris. Since 1967: fashion photographer and publicity filmmaker.
Works in illustration, fashion and still life, in black and white and color. Lives in Paris.




649. IRVING PENN. Woman in Moroccan Palace (Lisa Fonssagrives), Morocco, 1951.
Gelatin silver print. Vogue, New York.

IRVING PENN  (see collection)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Irving Penn (born 16 June 1917) is an American photographer known for his portraiture and fashion photography.
Irving Penn studied under Alexey Brodovitch at the Philadelphia Museum School from which he graduated in 1938. Penn's drawings were published by Harper's Bazaar and he also painted. As his career in photography blossomed, he became known for post World War II feminine chic and glamour photography.
Penn has worked for many years doing fashion photography for Vogue magazine. He was among the first photographers to pose subjects against a simple grey or white backdrop and used this simplicity more effectively than other photographers. Expanding his austere studio surroundings, Penn constructed a set of upright angled backdrops, to form a stark, acute corner. Posing his subjects within this tight, unorthodox space, Penn brought an unprecedented sense of drama to his portraits, driving the viewer's focus onto the person and their expression. In many photos, the subjects appeared wedged into the corner. Subjects photographed with this technique included Martha Graham, Marcel Duchamp, Georgia O'Keeffe, W. H. Auden, Igor Stravinsky and Marlene Dietrich.
While a master of the studio flash, most of Penn's portraits are lighted with window light. For travelling to New Guinea and other locations to photograph indigenous people, Penn created a portable studio with a skylight deployed facing north with impressive results. These pictures had the same feel as his portraits of celebrities; fully adorned, naturally lighted, yet placed before the neutral backdrop, his tribal subjects appear as strangely defined models for a 19-century ethnographic investigation.
In 1950, Penn married his favorite model, Lisa Fonssagrives and he founded his studio in 1953. They have one son together, who is named Tom.
Clarity, composition, careful arrangement of objects or people, form, and the use of light characterize Penn's work. Penn also photographs still life objects and found objects in unusual arrangements with great detail and clarity.
While his prints are always clean and clear, Penn's subjects vary widely. Many times his photographs are so ahead of their time that they only came to be appreciated as important works in the modernist canon years after their creation. For example, a series of posed nudes whose physical shapes range from thin to plump were shot in 1949-1950, but were not exhibited until 1980.
His still life compositions are skilfully arranged assemblages of food or objects; at once spare and highly organized, the objects are raised to a graphic perfection, articulating the abstract interplay of line and volume.
He has published numerous books including the recent, "A Notebook at Random" which offers a generous selection of photographs, paintings, and documents of his working methods. Penn's wife, Lisa Fonssagrives, died in 1992.

IRVING PENN. Kate Moss (Hand on Neck), New York


650. LESLIE GILL. Chocolate Pot and Apples I, 1950.
Gelatin silver print.

651. RICHARD AVEDON. Donyale Luna in Dress by Paco Rabanne, New York Studio, January, 1966.
Gelatin silver print.

RICHARD AVEDON  (see collection)

652. DEBORAH TURBEVILLE. Terry Covering, 1975.
Gelatin silver print. Vogue, New York.

DEBORAH TURBEVILLE  (see collection)

(American, 1938)

Born and raised in New England, Deborah Turbeville moved to New York at the age of twenty to work for designer Claire McCardell and later became an editor for Harper’s Bazaar and Mademoiselle before turning to photography.
Her editorial work appears regularly in such publications as American, British, French, Italian, and Russian Vogue, L’Uomo Vogue, Zoom, and W. Turbeville’s photographic essays in 2004 have included "Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico" (Casa, July 2004), "Russian Soul” (Harper’s Bazaar, December 2004), "Julia Roberts” (The New York Times Magazine, November 14, 2004), and "Ritual Fashion” (BlackBook, December 2004/January 2005). Monographs of her work include Wallflower (1978), Newport Remembered (1994) and Studio St. Petersburg (1997). Her work has been exhibited in galleries and museums, both nationally and internationally.
Turbeville's distinctively evocative style was recognized by the Fashion Group Lifetime Award for Fashion Photography in 1989 and the Alfred Eisenstadt Award for Magazine Photography for the Fashion Single Image and Photo Essay in 1998. In 2002, Turbeville received a Fulbright scholarship for a lecture series in photography at the Baltic School of Photography in St. Petersburg, Russia; this year she will be teaching at Smolney Institut in that city, on behalf of Bard College. She divides her time between New York, Mexico, and Russia.

Suite of  Three Nudes


Profile: Edward Steichen
(see collection)

In the range and quality of his production in the fashion and advertising fields, Edward Steichen might be said to embody the development of utilitarian photography in the 20th century. Steichen was engaged with much that was vital and new in the medium during the 20th century, from a beginning as a Pictorialist photographer through activities in the commercial sector to a position as director of the most prestigious museum photography department in the United States (at the Museum of Modern Art). As a creative individual, as a designer of exhibitions and periodicals, as a director of projects, he left an unmistakable imprint on the photographic trends of his time.

Born Eduard Steichen, in Luxembourg in 1879, he was brought to the United States as an infant. When he displayed artistic ability he was apprenticed after 1894 to a firm of lithographers in Milwaukee; he both painted and photographed, submitting to Pictorialist salons during the 1890s. Clarence H. White noticed him in 1900 and soon after brought him to the attention of Stieglitz, with whom he shortly began to collaborate on the installations for the gallery 291 and on the founding of Camera Work, for which he designed the first cover and the initial publicity. Still not entirely committed to photography, Steichen spent the greater part of the period before the first World War painting in France. There his knowledge of Symbolism, Expressionism, and Cubism enabled him to direct Stieglitz's attention to these significant art movements. Besides paintings (nearly all of which he later destroyed), Steichen made sensitive photographs in the Symbolist style of landscapes, genre scenes, and New York cityscapes (pi. no. 336) and perceptive portraits of wealthy and creative individuals in Paris and New York during this period. As part of the active New York art scene of the time, he was portrayed photographing Marcel Duchamp in Sunday Afternoon in the Country a 1917 oil by Florine Stettheimer (pi. no. 653). Other photographers included in the painted scene arc Arnold Genthe and Baron de Meyer.

Steichcn's experiences as director of aerial photography for the Allied Forces during World War I, followed by a period of several years of photographic experimentation based on his interest in the theory of dynamic symmetry, enabled him to shed the vestiges of his Pictorialist sensibility' and open himself up to modernist ideas. In his position with Conde Nast from 1923 and also as a free-lance advertising photographer, he explored the vocabulary of the New Objectivity during the 1920s in order to create ingenious advertising and fashion images in what was still a relatively fresh field. This phase of Steichen's career, which he brought to an end in 1937 when he realized that commercial work was no longer personally stimulating, prepared him to embrace a broader concept of photography and to assume a role as administrator. Although not himself involved in photoreportage or the documentary movement, by the late 1930s he was convinced that the fine quality of work produced by photographers working for the Farm Security Administration and for Life had effectively erased aesthetic distinctions among images made as personal expression, as photojournalism, or as social commentary.

In 1947, after serving as director of Naval Combat Photography during World War II, Steichen accepted the directorship of the Department of Photography of the Museum of Modern Art. His purpose, he said, was to make sure that what he called the "aliveness in the melting pot of American photography" and "the restless seekings, probing aspirations and experiments of younger photogra-phers"38 would be represented in the museum collection. During his tenure, which lasted until 1962, he organized and promoted exhibitions, wrote numerous articles, helped publish books on the medium, and was instrumental in making photographic images acceptable in a museum setting. In 1955, Steichen organized The Family of Man exhibition and catalog, which he considered the culmination of his career. He believed that this show promoted photography as "a tool for penetrating beneath the surface of things" and that it proved that journalistic photographs had their own aesthetic forms. Long before he died in 1973, he was recognized as one of the small group of individuals whose ideas, energy, and images had helped shape photography in the 20th century.

653. FLORINE STETTHEIMER. Sunday Afternoon in the Country, 1917.
Oil on canvas. Cleveland Museum of An, Cleveland, Ohio; gift of Ettic Stettheimer.

W. Eugene Smith
(see collection)

A strong sense of compassion made W. Eugene Smith a legend in his own time. Whatever the circumstances and settings of his assignments—and the range of those assignments was broad—he thought of his camera as an extension of his conscience and his images as reflections of his need to get to the heart of the matter. Following a semester as a student at the University of Notre Dame, Smith came to New York City in 1937 at a time when photoreportage was changing the nature of magazine journalism and providing unparalleled opportunities for young photographers. Immediately successful, his early work showed such skillfulness that within two years Smith, though only nineteen years old, found himself on part-time contract to Life magazine.

Demanding of himself as well as others, Smith at first found many assignments trivial, but he continued to cover domestic events for Life, and later Collier's and Parade. As the war expanded to involve the United States, he felt impelled toward the field of conflict in the South Pacific, where he went in 1943 on an assignment for Flying magazine. Eventually he returned to this front, sent bv Life to cover the action on the Pacific islands. Involvement on the field of battle changed Smith's understanding of war and influenced his photographic style, moving him to compose his images as if sharing the same emotionally charged space as his subjects (pi. no. 608). Compulsively driven to partake of the reality of combat, he was seriously wounded in Okinawa in 1945.

Smith's continued advocacy of the moral responsibility of the photojournalist prompted him to join the Photo League after World War II, and to accept its presidency in 1949. He also rejoined the staff of Life in 1946 in an effort to have his images reach as wide an audience as possible. Despite ongoing battles over deadlines, picture size, layout, and captioning, more than 50 of his essays were used between 1946 and 1952, among them the memorable "Spanish Village" (pi. nos. 654-658), "Country Doctor," and "Nurse Midwife." Smith resigned permanently in 1954 when he realized that he could not alter publication policies that denied the photographer a voice in the final appearance and meaning of the published photo essay.

In the following years, Smith took on a variety of photojournalistic projects that gave him freedom to develop his craft and ideas. Although their free-lance nature meant that his income was irregular, his work of this period enabled him to explore the photo essay form more profoundly in order to "force the genre in an epic poetic mode." Works that exemplify this ambitious concept include an extensive essay on Pittsburgh published in Popular Pborography Annual, 1959, under the title "A Labyrinthine Walk" {part of this work also appeared in the book mentioned earlier on that city by Lorant), and a lyrical story entitled "As from My Window I Sometimes Glance," which evokes the tempo of urban life as it is affected by changing seasons, weather, atmosphere, and mood. A project undertaken by the photographer and his second wire from 1971 to 1975 in Minamata, Japan, reveals die agonizing human price of industrial pollution. It includes an image that recalls Michelangelo's Pieta (pi. no. 475) and represents Smith's culminating endeavor to use photography to "right what is wrong."

654. W. EUGENE SMITH. Spanish Village, April 9, 1951.
Issue of Life Magazine. From halftone reproductions. Designer: Bernard Quint. Life Magazine

655. W. EUGENE SMITH. Spanish Village, April 9, 1951.
Issue of Life Magazine. From halftone reproductions.
 Designer: Bernard Quint. Life Magazine

656. W. EUGENE SMITH. Spanish Village, April 9, 1951. Issue of Life Magazine. From halftone reproductions.
Designer: Bernard Quint. Life Magazine

657. W. EUGENE SMITH. Spanish Village, April 9, 1951.
Issue of Life Magazine. From halftone reproductions. Designer: Bernard Quint. Life Magazine

658. W. EUGENE SMITH. Spanish Village, April 9, 1951.
Issue of Life Magazine. From halftone reproductions. Designer: Bernard Quint. Life Magazine

Profile: Henri Cartier-Bresson
 (see collection)

Called "equivocal, ambivalent and accidental" when first exhibited at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1933, the work of French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson has come to be regarded as one of the seminal visions of the 20th century. After studying painting for a number of years, including a year with Andre Lhote, Cartier-Bresson began to photograph with a Leica around 1930, soon revealing a remarkable ability to create images that invest moments in time with enduring mystery or humor. Throughout a career of some 35 years, he consistently upheld the primacy of individuality and spontaneity in the photographic process, maintaining that "you have to be yourself and you have to forget yourself in order to discover the exact instant and position from which the photographer might be able to extract a moment of meaning from ongoing existence.

Commissions from Harper's Bazaar and Vu in 1932 started Cartier-Bresson in photojournalism. Convinced of the constraints of preconception, he approached actuality with an intuitive sense for forms ripe with emblematic significance and an eye for precise visual organization. Although he has often avowed that his way of working is unlearnable, he also has acknowledged the influence on his ideas of the early journalistic images by Kertcsz, Munkacsi, and Umbo, all of whom shared a similar capacity' to give photographic form and structure to evanescent moments of human experience. For example, the disparities of scale and the seemingly irrational juxtapositions of forms in images made in Spain in 1933, among them Arena, Valencia, Spain (pi no. 660), suggest the uneasy tensions that eventually erupted into civil war, even though their intent was poetic rather than political. During the 1930s, he photo-graphed in Mexico and the United States, seeking not only the momentary action framed in the viewfinder of the camera but some essential truth about the larger society of which it was a part. Carder-Bresson approached portraiture in the same way, contending that in the transient expressions of the many figures in the arts whom he photo-graphed during the 1940s in the United States and France can be found the key to their individual personalities.

Cartier-Bresson also studied film technique, working with Strand in the United States and with Jean Renoir in France. In 1937, for Frontier Films, he produced Return to Life, a film about the deliver of medical aid to Spanish Loyalists, and in 1945, after his own escape from 36 months of captivity as a German prisoner-of-war, he made the film Le Retour about the return of French soldiers and prisoners to their homeland. Following a retrospective exhibition of his still photographs at the Museum of Modern Art in 1946, and the founding a year later of the collaborative agency Magnum, Cartier-Bresson embarked on indefatigable travels in Europe, Asia, and the Americas to make photographs. He published the results in scores of magazine articles and more than a dozen books, including D'Une Chine a l'Autre (China in Transition) (1954), Moscou (The People of Moscow) (1955), and Visage d'Asie (Tace of Asia) (1972). While the photographer insists that he is not interested in documenting particular peoples and events but in evoking universal dreams and intuitions, he has drawn nourishment from the political and social contingencies of the events he has witnessed and at the same time affirmed the vitality and intensity of life everywhere. His ideas have had a profound influence on several generations of younger photographers, a number of whom have trans-formed his concepts into personal styles that encompass their own expressive goals.

659. HENRI CARTIER-BRESSON. Brussels, 1932.

660. HENRI CARTIER-BRESSON. Arena, Valencia, Spain, 1933.


see also:
Henri Cartier-Bresson. Germany, 1945


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