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The Eight, The Ashcan school - 1908:
Arthur B. Davies
Robert Henri
George Luks
William J. Glackens
John Sloan
Everett Shinn
Ernest Lawson
Alfred Maurer
George Bellows
Edward Hopper
Guy Pene Du Bois
Jerome Myers

Artists Groups 1908-1909:
Allied Artists’ Association [A.A.A.]. London, 1908
Noucentisme. Cultural movement of artistic activity in Catalonia, 1908
New Artists' Association group founded in 1909
he Eight.
Hungarian group founded in 1909
Septem group. Finnish group founded in 1909
Neukunstgruppe. Austrian group in Vienna in 1909




The Eight


William J. Glackens


Everett Shinn


John Sloan


Maurice Prendergast


Ernest Lawson


Alfred Maurer

Group of American painters who exhibited together only once, in New York City in 1908, but who established one of the main currents in 20th-century American painting. The original Eight included Robert Henri, leader of the group, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, George Luks, and William J. Glackens. George Bellows later joined them. The group's determination to bring art into closer touch with everyday life greatly influenced the course of American art.

Robert Henri

Reacting against an American academic and aesthetic tradition that was subservient to European aesthetics, the members of The Eight established their own artistic society in the bustling neighbourhoods of New York and set out to create a native American painting. Luks, Sloan, Glackens, and Shinn worked as newspaper illustrator-cartoonists. They and the four other artists used the teeming life they found in New York as the subject of their art, presenting unidealized views of city life in the saloons, tenements, pool halls, and slums. Some members of The Eight adopted a rough, realistic style, utilizing flashy brushwork on a dark ground in a manner reminiscent of
Edouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, and the German Dusseldorf school. Other members took different directions: Prendergast utilized the decorative patterns of colour he found in the work of the French Nabi group in his translations of the American landscape; Davies painted dreamy, twilight scenes evolved from lyrical allegories rather than from contemporary life; Lawson adopted a style that was lyrically atmospheric. In spite of such deviations in style, the artists banded together for a group show in 1908 at the Macbeth Gallery, organizing it as a direct reaction against slights by the National Academy of Design. The show was well-attended but received mixed reviews: while some critics admired the daring of the work, more were shocked by what they saw as poor draftsmanship and dreary subject matter.

A few years after their only joint exhibition, the eight painters were absorbed into a larger group called the Ashcan school, which included Bellows, Edward Hopper, and Jerome Myers. The Ashcan school, whose principles and aims were similar to those of The Eight, further paved the way for the development of a vital and native trend in American painting of the 20th century.


George Wesley Bellows

The Ashcan School


The Ashcan School was a small group of artists who sought to document everyday life in turn-of-the-century New York City, capturing it in realistic and unglamorized paintings and etchings of urban street scenes. It largely consisted of Robert Henri and his circle. Henri, an influential teacher, was an admirer of the unpretentious and masculine realism of Thomas Eakins and Thomas Anshutz. In addition to Henri, the Ashcan School consisted of George Wesley Bellows, William J. Glackens, Everett Shinn, George Luks and John Sloan. The spirit of the Ashcan School was continued in the American Scene Painting of the 1920's and 1930's.


Arthur B. Davies

George Luks

Artists who have extensively in this group include 
Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928), Robert Henri (1865-1929), George Luks (1867-1933), William J. Glackens (1870-1938), John Sloan (1871-1951), and Everett Shinn (1876-1953). Others who are considered in the Ashcan school: Alfred Maurer (1868-1932), George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), Edward Hopper (1882-1967), and Guy Pene Du Bois (1884-1958).

Edward Hopper

* * *

Jerome Myers

The Playground

Children at Play

Sunday Morning

* * *

Guy Pene du Bois

Studio Window

Trapeze Performers

Dining Out

Woman Playing Accordion

Americans in Paris





Allied Artists’ Association

Organization established in London in 1908, dedicated to non-juried exhibitions of international artists’ work. The main impetus for the A.A.A. came from Frank Rutter (1876–1937), art critic of the Sunday Times, and the first exhibition was held at the Albert Hall, London. Inspired by the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, Rutter wanted to set up an exhibiting platform for the work of progressive artists. On payment of a subscription, artists were entitled to exhibit five works (subsequently reduced to three) and over 3000 items were included in the first show. Rutter also wanted the A.A.A. to have a foreign section and for the first exhibition collaborated with Jan de Holewinski (1871–1927), who had been sent to London to organize an exhibition of Russian arts and crafts.






Cultural movement that influenced all areas of artistic activity in Catalonia between 1908 and 1923. The term was coined by the philosopher EUGENIO D’ORS, who used it to refer to a new ‘20th-century’ spirit that he perceived in Catalan art at the beginning of the century. In a series of articles in periodicals d’Ors qualified as Noucentistes those artists and writers whose work in his opinion was characterized by a new sensibility, and the designation was established in 1911 with the publication of the Almanac dels Noucentistes, a collection of drawings and poems that had in common a reversion to classicism, a particular interest in urban life and a special concern for the determining aspects of private life. Noucentisme was influential in Catalan art for more than two decades and constituted a parallel movement to that of avant-garde art, towards which, however, it showed only a detached curiosity. Noucentisme encouraged a return to order and normality after the radicalism, bohemianism and individualism that had characterized some of the major figures of modernism. Among painters, its leading exponents were JOAQUÍM SUNYER, Jaume Mercade (1887–1967), Francesc Gali (1880–1965) and (in their early work) Josep Torres Garcia (1874–1949) and JOAN MIRÓ, while in sculpture the leading figures were ARISTIDE MAILLOL, MANOLO, JOSEP CLARŔ, Fidel Aguilar and, to some extent, PABLO GARGALLO. In architecture, the classicizing aspects of the Vienna Secession influenced Rafael Massó and Joseph Maria Pericas, while a stricter classicism marked the work of Adolf Florensa (1889–1968), Francesc Folquera (1891–1960), the brothers Ramón (1887–1935) and Josep (1886–1937) Puig Gairalt and Nicolau Maria Rubio i Tuduri (1891–1981). Other influences derived from Modernisme, the Catalan version of Art Nouveau, were introduced by such architects as J. PUIG I CADAFALCH and J. Torres Grau (1879–1945). Noucentisme also inspired the foundation of such cultural institutions as the Universitat Industrial, the Escola Nova, the Bernat Metge Foundation (for the translation into Catalan of Greek and Latin classics) and the Institut d’Estudis Catalans.






Alexei von Jawlensky, Alfred Kubin, and Gabriele Munter, along with other artists who no longer wanted to work within the Munich Secession movement, founded the New Artists' Association of Munich in 1909. Led by Wassily Kandinsky as president, the group met to discuss the need to make art less bound by realism and more inspired by emotions, and to express this "inner world" directly with "necessary" forms rather than in the hackneyed "secondary" forms of existing artistic styles.

The association held its first two shows in 1909 and 1910. including work by many French Fauves and Cubists, which provoked strong criticism. Such hostility, together with the rejection from the group's exhibition of Kandinsky's Composition V, which marked his turn towards abstraction, caused the group to break up.

Alfred Kubin

Neue Kunstlervereinigung (New Artists' Association group)

English New Artists' Association group founded in 1909 by
Wassily Kandinsky, Alexei von Jawlensky, Gabriele Munter, and numerous others who were united by opposition to the official art of Munich rather than by similarity of style. Joined by Adolf Erbslöh, Alexander Kanoldt, Alfred Kubin, Marianne von Werefkin, Karl Hofer, and several other artists as wellas lay people, the group held its first exhibition in December 1909, at Moderne Galerie Tannhäuser, Munich. The works exhibited, which primarily reflected Jugendstil and Fauvist styles, were not favourably received by the critics or the public. Their second exhibition, held September 1910 at Tannhäuser, was international in scope, including, in addition to their works, those of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Georges Rouault, Kees van Dongen, André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Henri Le Fauconnier, and David and Vladimir Burlyuk. The exhibition was denounced for, among other things, including foreign artists, especially Russians, who were considered dangerous to Bavarian culture.

While preparing for their third exhibition, held December 1911 at Tannhäuser, differences in aesthetic outlook caused a split in the group, partially brought on by the jury's rejection of Kandinsky's large, rather abstract painting, “Last Judgment.” Franz Marc (the last painter to join the group) and Kandinsky, favouring freedom of expression, were aligned against the more conservative art historian Otto Fischer (who later became the group's spokesman), Kanoldt, and Erbslöh. Kandinsky and Marc left the association (as did Münter and Kubin) and together formed Der Blaue Reiter, exhibiting their works that same month at Tannhäuser, in rooms adjoining those of the Neue Künstlervereinigung.

Adolf Erbsloh

Germany Gebirge, Brannenburg, 1911

Badende Frauen, 1913

Schlafende Frau, Akt, 1913

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Alexander Kanoldt

Still Life

Marianne von Werefkin


Karl Hofer
(1878 - 1955)






he Eight  (Hung. Nyolcak

Hungarian avant-garde group founded in early 1909 and consisting of the painters Róbert Berény, Béla Czóbel, Dezso Czigány, Károly Kernstok, Ödön Márffy, Dezso Orbán (1884–1986), Bertalan Pór and Lajos Tihanyi. Later the sculptors Márk Vedres (1870–1961) and Vilmos Fémes Beck and the industrial designer Anna Lesznai (b 1885) also became members. The group was originally called the Searchers (Keresok) and had formed the most radical section within MIENK (Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists), a broad-based group of artists. They left MIENK in order to develop a more modern aesthetic. The name the Eight was adopted on the occasion of the second exhibition in 1911, and its leader and organizer was Kernstok. Unlike the earlier Nagybánya school or other contemporary Western movements, the Eight had no homogeneous style, individual artists being influenced by a variety of sources ranging from Cézanne to Cubism. Though unified by a sense of the social function of art, the details of this belief again varied with each artist.


Robert Bereny
(1887- 1953)

Woman in a Red Dress

Dezso Orban

Still-life with Green Pear






Finnish group of painters founded in 1909 and named after the number of its co-founders. The leaders were Alfred William Finch and Knut Magnus Enckell, and the other members were Yrjö Ollila (1887–1932), Mikko Oinonen (1883–1956), Juho Rissanen, Ellen Thesleff and Verner Thomé (1878–1953). The formation of the group was prompted by the poor reception of a Finnish exhibition in Paris in 1908, with critics claiming that Finnish art was dull and gloomy. Its inspiration came from a Franco-Belgian exhibition held in Helsinki in 1904. This comprised Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist works by Paul Signac, Henri Edmond Cross, Théo Van Rysselberghe and Finch among others, these styles being virtually unknown in Finland at the time. Finch himself had been one of the co-founders of Les XX in Belgium and had since 1897 been living in Finland, where he had been invited to run the ceramics department of the Iris factory at Porvoo. He had also been a friend of Signac and Georges Seurat and was therefore well placed to introduce these artistic innovations into Finland.



Alfred William Finch

Kew Bridge

Knut Magnus Enckell

Riviergezicht met boerderij en enkele
aangemeerde schepen






Name given to a group of Austrian artists formed in Vienna in 1909. They exhibited together at the Gustav Pisko Galerie, Vienna, in December 1909 as the Neukünstler. The application of the term Neukunst may have been influenced by Ludwig Hevesi’s book Altkunst–Neukunst (Vienna, 1909). Egon Schiele is credited with inventing the name ‘Neukünstler’. He was not only one of the exhibitors but also author of an untitled manifesto (published in Die Aktion, 1914) that demanded the complete independence of the artist from tradition, and that preached subjective creativity as an absolute: ‘The "Neukünstler" is and must be his unlimited self, he must be a creator, he must be able to build his foundations completely alone, directly, without all the past and the traditional.... Each one of us must be—himself’. The other artists who participated in the Neukünstler exhibition included Anton Faistauer (whose poster for the exhibition was derivative of Schiele), Franz Wiegele, Rudolf Kalvach, Albert Paris von Gütersloh and Hans Böhler (1884–1961). Like Schiele and Faistauer, Gütersloh was fascinated at that time by the gestural language of thin, young, male figures. Kalvach and Gütersloh, as far as can be seen from their few extant graphic works, shared a preference at the time of this exhibition for small-scale narratives similar to caricature.

Franz Wiegele

Akte im Walde

Rudolf Kalvach


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