Developments in the 19th Century



 




Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map


 




SYMBOLISM

in

FRANCE




(Between Romanticism and Expressionism)


 




Edouard Vuillard

(1868- 1940)

 

 
 
 


Edouard Vuillard

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

 Edouard Vuillard, french painter, printmaker, and decorator, who, with Pierre Bonnard,developed the Intimist style of painting (Intimism).

Vuillard met Bonnard, Paul Serusier, and Felix Vallotton while studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and, along with his old friends Maurice Denis and Ker-Xavier Roussel, they formed an association called the Nabis (q.v.) that drew its inspiration from the Synthetist works of Gauguin's Pont-Aven period. Vuillard's “Jardin de Paris,” a series of decorative panels, is characteristic of his mature work as a Nabi. In those nine panels (1894; examples in the Cleveland Museum of Art; Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris; Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas; and Musée des Beaux-Arts, Brussels), Vuillard used pale light and discreet areas of neutral colours as flat surface pattern to create a mood of restful calm. In contrast to his earlier work, all modelling was avoided. Instead, unaltered colour filled the contours of the forms depicted, producing a two-dimensional, tapestry-like effect.

In 1899 the Nabis exhibited together for the last time. That year Vuillard painted works that show the influence of the techniques of Impressionism and his admiration for the subtle interior compositions of Manet and Degas. He also executed two series of masterful lithographs that reveal his great debt to Japanese woodcuts, then in vogue in Europe.

Vuillard never married. He lived with his widowed mother until her death, and the majority of his works deal with domestic scenes set in his mother's bourgeois home. As early as 1892, his production of small paintings of daily home life, such as “Woman Sweeping” (c. 1892; Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.), led him to be called an Intimist.

Vuillard received numerous commissions to do decorative works. These included the decorations (1913) in the foyer of the Théâtre des Champs-Elysees, and murals in the Palais deChaillot (1937) and in the League of Nations, Geneva (1939). In addition, he did designs for the Théâtre de l'Oeuvre and the Ballets Russes.

After the turn of the century, he painted several works in his Intimist manner. The majority of his late works, however, lackthe charm and directness of his early work.

 

 
 


 

 

b Cuiseaux, Saone-et-Loire, 11 Nov 1868; d La Baule, nr Saint-Nazaire, 21 June 1940.

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker.He was brought up in Paris in modest circumstances, and his home life was closely involved with his mother’s and elder sister’s dressmaking work. He attended the Lycée Condorcet where his contemporaries included the musician Pierre Hermant and the writer Pierre Véber, as well as Maurice Denis. His closest friend was Ker-Xavier Roussel, and, on leaving school in 1885, Roussel encouraged Vuillard to join him at the studio of the painter Diogene Maillart (1840–1926), where they received the rudiments of artistic training. Vuillard began to frequent the Louvre and soon determined on an artistic career, breaking the family tradition of a career in the army.

 
 
   
Self-Portrait
1889
 
   
Self-Portrait
1889
National Gallery of Art, Washington
 
   
Monsieur Bute
1890
 
   
Child Wearing a Red Scarf
1891
National Gallery of Art, Washington
 
   
Woman at Her Toilette
1891
 
   
The Conversation
1891
 

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