Developments in the 19th Century



 




Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map


 




SYMBOLISM

in

FRANCE




(Between Romanticism and Expressionism)




 




Aristide Maillol

(1861- 1944)
 

     


 

   

Aristide Maillol

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Aristide Maillol, french painter, printmaker, and one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, whose monumental statues of female nudes restored to early 20th-century sculpture a concern for mass and rigorous formal analysis; his works paved the way forthe radical experimentation of the various schools ofmodern abstract sculpture.

 Maillol began as a painter and tapestry designer whose work reflected his great admiration for the Nabis, a group of artists whose work was composed typically of decorative patterns of colour. He was almost 40 years old when an eye disease made him decide to become a sculptor. His mature style of sculpture rejected the highly emotional sculpture of his contemporary Auguste Rodin, and he attempted to preserve and purify the tradition of sculpture derived from classical Greece and Rome. “The Mediterranean” (c. 1901) and “Night” (1902) show the emotional restraint, clear composition, and serene surfaces he employed in his sculpture for therest of his life. Although most of his work depicts the mature female form, a notable exception is the lean “Cyclist” (1907–08), which greatly influenced subsequent developments in figurative expressionistic sculpture.

 After 1910 Maillol was internationally famous and received a constant flood of commissions. Because of his strict economy of aesthetic means, hemanaged successfully to turn out the same subject repeatedly, sometimes varying little more than the title from work to work. Only in “Action in Chains” (1906) and “The River” (c. 1939–43) did he vary his basic formula and represent the human form in turbulent activity.

 Maillol resumed painting in 1939, but sculpture never relinquished preeminence in his affections. He also made many woodcut illustrations forfine editions of Latin poets during the 1920s and '30s, doing much to revivethe art of the book.
 

 
Night
1902

 
Study for Action in Chains
1905



 

 

  b Banyuls-sur-Mer, 8 Oct 1861; d Perpignan, 24 Sept 1944.

 French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.
 
 
Statue at the Jardin des Tuileries
1906
 
   
The River
1938
   
La Mediterranee
1905

 
 
   
The Three Nymphs
1930
Tate Gallery, London
 
   
Crouching Woman  
1909
Hermitage, St Petersburg
 
   
Venus
1918
Young Woman Kneeling  
1902
Hermitage, St Petersburg
 
   
Venus sans bras
1920
Standing Woman  
1900
Hermitage, St Petersburg
 
   
Spring  
1911
Hermitage, St Petersburg
Girl Covering her Face with her Hand  
1905
Hermitage, St Petersburg
 
   
Standing Woman-Bather Fixing Her Hair  
1900
Hermitage, St Petersburg
L'action enchainee
 
   
The mountain
1937
 
   
 
Air
 1938
 
 
   
 
Torso  
 
   
Pomona Pomona with Lowered Arms
 1937
 
   
Flora
1912
Torso
1910
 
   
Venus with a Necklace 1918
Tate Gallery, London
Nymph
1930
 
   
 
Le monument aux morts  
 

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