The Baroque Era





17th to mid-18th century




(Classical Music Map)


 

I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
 
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz
 







Antonio Vivaldi



(1678 -1741)


 

The son of a baker, Antonio Vivaldi grew up in a simple Venetian home. His father, Giovanni Battista, broke with the family tradition and gave up baking to become a musician, and from 1685 was employed at St Mark's as a violinist.

A career in the church was an attractive escape from poverty and Antonio began training for the priesthood at the age of 15. He simultaneously developed his own skills on the violin and occasionally deputized for his father at St Mark's. In 1703 betook holy orders but after 1705, supposedly because of a chest complaint, he no longer said Mass. (This was to cause him problems later on when in 1737 a production of one of his operas was banned by the papal authorities, describing the composer as a non-practising priest who had an alleged relationship with a female singer.) Also in 1703 Vivaldi became the Maestro di Violino at the Pio Ospedale della Pieta, an orphanage for girls in Venice, where music played an integral part in the curriculum. At the hospice he raised musical standards to a high level; the regular concerts given by the hospice's orchestra, performed behind a "modesty" screen, were extremely popular and, according to a contemporary account, the equal of anything in Paris. Writing in 1740, the traveller Charles de Brasses described the orphanage girls: "They are reared at public expense and trained solely to excel in music. And so they sing like angels ..."

For Vivaldi the appointment was a golden opportunity to develop the concerto form and he produced a large number of works for unusual combinations of instruments as aids to his teaching. Having established himself as a teacher and composer with the publication in 1711 of L'estro annonico (Harmonic inspiration), a collection of concertos for one, two, and four solo violins, Vivaldi also garnered a reputation as a virtuoso violinist of great energy and daring. He became interested in having his works published and arranged for editions to be printed in Amsterdam to give him a professional advantage in northern Europe. Vivaldi was quick to capitalize on his new-found fame with a string of performances and compositions, sometimes altering the dedication of works to flatter illustrious persons passing through Venice. He stopped publishing music when he found it more lucrative to sell direct to visitors.

In 1713 Vivaldi's first opera, Ottone in villa, was performed in Vicenza. This was followed by Orlando, which opened the 1714-15 season at Sant' Angelo, Venice, and subsequently by at least another 40 operas during his career. Around the same time Vivaldi is believed to have composed his Gloria in D, one of a number of sacred works by this prolific composer. Cast in nine movements, the Gloria features solo voices and is full of contrasts in scoring, style, mood, and key.

Vivaldi's one period of work away from Venice was between 1718 and 1720 in the employ of Prince Philip of Hess-Darmstadt at Mantua. In the heartland of northern Italy he worked in the extraordinary splendour of the court with its vast rooms painted with murals, its elaborate Zodiac Hall, and Mall of Rivers. Undoubtedly this environment, rather than the mudflats of the Venetian basin, was the inspiration for Le quattro stagioni (The four seasons). This famous work is part of Vivaldi's Opus 8, which appeared in 1725. Of Vivaldi's 500 concertos, more than 230 are for solo violin, and The four seasons consists of four of them. As in the Gloria, Vivaldi's variety of technique is given free rein. The piece is an early example of programme music (where the music tells a story or depicts a scene). In it Vivaldi employed various instruments to represent, for example, birdsong, a sleeping shepherd, and a barking sheepdog.

After Vivaldi's death his work suffered a rapid decline in popularity and for a long time he was remembered only as a virtuoso musician. In the nineteenth century, however, German research into J.S. Bach revealed that he had transcribed a number of Vivaldi's works for keyboard. Interest in Vivaldi's work was reawakened, and its rich variety and inventiveness became appreciated; in the late twentieth century his music is even more popular than when he was alive.




Antonio Vivaldi



Vivaldi

 

Antonio Vivaldi (с 1678 -1741)


REPRESENTATIVE WORKS
 

"THE FOUR SEASONS"
(Nova Filarmonia Portuguesa, conducted by Rudolf Pribil) - complete

Concerto 1: Spring
Allegro
Largo
Allegro (Danza pastorale)
 
Concerto 2: Summer
Allegro non molto - Allegro
Adagio - Presto - Adagio
Presto
 
Concerto 3: Autumn
Allegro
Adagio molto
Allegro
 
Concerto 4: Winter
Allegro non molto
Largo
Allegro
 
Concerto for Violin, Strings and Cembalo in E flat major "Del Ritico"
(Nova Filarmonia Portuguesa, conducted by Rudolf Pribil) - complete

Allegro assai
Andante
Presto
 
Concerto Grosso OP. 3/8
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Allegro
Larghetto
Allegro

 
Concerto Grosso in D minor
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Allegro

 
Concerto in A major
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Allegro molto
Andante molto
Allegro

 
Concerto in G major
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Presto
Adagio
Allegro

 
Concerto Grosso Op. 3/10
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Allegro
Largo - Larghetto
Allegro

 
Sinfonia in C major
(I Solisti Di Zagreb) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Presto

 
Concerto Grosso for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 3/3 in G major
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Allegro

 
Concerto Grosso for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 3/6 in A minor
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Presto

 
Concerto Grosso for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 3/9 in D major
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Larghetto
Allegro

 
Concerto Grosso for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 3/12 in E major
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Allegro

 
Concerto Grosso for Violin and String Orchestra Op. 4/2 in E minor
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Largo
Allegro

 
  Concerto for Flute and String Orchestra in D major Op. 10/3 "Il Gardellino"
(Camerata Romana, Conductor Eugen Duvier) - complete

Allegro
Cantabile
Allegro

 
  Gloria in D, RV589
  Magnificat in G minor
  Stabat mater
  Juditha triumphans
  Orlando

 



 

 

Albinoni

Allegri

Arne

Bach

Carissimi

Charpentier

Corelli

Couperin

Handel

Lully

Monteverdi

Pachelbel

Purcell

Rameau

Scarlatti

Schutz

Telemann

Vivaldi

 

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