The Midle Ages and the Renaissance



12th to 16th century




(Classical Music Map)




 

I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
 
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz
 




Andrea Gabrieli




(с. 1510 -1586)





Giovanni Gabrieli




(c. 1553 - 1612)


 

Andrea Gabrieli (с. 1510 -1586) Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1553 - 1612)
 

Although these two related Venetian composers (uncle and nephew) are usually coupled together, each earned his own place in the development of music. Towards the end of the sixteenth century Venice was at the height of its prosperity, with the cathedral of St Mark's at the hub of its ceremonial and sacred occasions. The Gabriclis were among the first Italians to hold important positions there, following the eminent Franco-Flemish composer Adrian Willaert. who was Maestro di Capella there from 1527.

The young Andrea Gabrieli was probably one of Willaert's pupils. Certainly he sang in St Mark's, was organist at the church of San Geremia. and travelled as part of Duke Albrecht's retinue, meeting Lassus in Germany. He became Maestro di Capella at St Mark's in 1 555, gaming a reputation as a composer, organist, and teacher. He remained there until his death.

His madrigals were lighter and more pastoral than those of his peers, and he decorated his themes with rhythmic patterns. He was also responsible for evolving a style of sacred music appropriate to the performing requirements of St Mark's, as well as suited to the Venetian love of pomp, using several choirs (cori spezzati, or "spaced choirs") placed around the galleries of the church and often accompanied by groups of instruments such as violins and violas, cornetts, trumpets, trombones and bassoons, and the organ. Such polychoral or "antiphonal" works are typical of, although not exclusive to, Venetian music of the time.

Giovanni came to be regarded as Italy's greatest exponent of High Renaissance music. Taught by his uncle, he followed very much in Andrea's footsteps, including service in Duke Albrecht's court and a post at St Mark's as organist from 1585 until his death in 1612.

Giovanni was the earliest known composer to use the word "concerto", in a volume he published in 1587 entitled Concerti that contained a variety of works by himself and Andrea. Although he was primarily an organist, many of his most important instrumental compositions were ensemble works. His motet In ecclesiis for 14 voices plus instruments is one of the greatest polychoral works of the time, even using the Baroque-oriented concept of soloists. Giovanni also used the "dialogue" technique — an aspect of the Venetian tradition — in which an independent instrumental accompaniment was set to contrast against the vocal lines.

Giovanni's work, and in particular his teaching of composers such as the German Heinrich Schutz, had considerable impact across the Alps in Austria and Germany. Both Andrea and Giovanni were important to the music of the Italian High Renaissance; Giovanni, especially, with his more expressive style of composition and foward-lookmg techniques, provides a link between the Renaissance and Baroque eras.

 




Giovanni Gabrieli



Gabrieli

 

Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1553 - 1612)


REPRESENTATIVE WORKS

 

Beata es Virgo Maria
 
Sonata 13

Canzona per sonare No. 1

Magnificat

 


 



 

 

Byrd

Dowland

Gabrieli

Gesualdo

Hildegard

Palestrina

Tallis

Victoria

Orff  "Carmina Burana"

 

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