The Romantic Era



nineteenth century




(Classical Music Map)




 

I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
 
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz
 





Ludwig van Beethoven




(1770-1827)



 

 

Beethoven was born in Bonn in Germany, the son of a singer in the service of die Elector of Cologne. His father was weak-spirited and drank excessively, but he recognized the boy's talent and was disappointed when the young Beethoven failed to emulate Mozart as a child prodigy. Nevertheless, Beethoven soon held positions as harpsichordist in the court theatre and assistant organist in the Electoral chapel, where he obtained his first lessons in composition from the court organist.

During his first visit to Vienna in 1787 Beethoven impressed Mozart with his improvisations at the keyboard. Before any formal tuition could take place, however, news that Beethoven's mother was dying took him back to Bonn. By the time he returned to Vienna in 1792, Mozart too was dead. He went instead to Haydn for composition lessons, but the two men were temperamental opposites, and the instruction he received from Johann Albrechtsberger proved more valuable.

Meanwhile, Beethoven's career as a pianist made a promising start. His passion and dynamism at the keyboard more than compensated for a lack of polish. He made his first appearance in Vienna in 1795 playing his Piano concerto Л'о. 2 m В flat, and was soon established as the city's leading pianist. Other compositions from the 1790s include piano sonatas, cello sonatas, and violin sonatas. The two forms that were to have special significance for Beethoven were still to come: he completed his first symphony in 1800 and his first set of string quartets in 1801. Beethoven was Vienna's first successful freelance musician: he never again held a court position after leaving Bonn. Instead he had wealthy aristocratic friends, patrons and perhaps lovers, to whom he dedicated his early compositions in return for payment. His success in such circles, despite notoriously awkward manners, an unpredictable temper, and a refusal to defer to superior social rank, can be attributed to his genius and personal magnetism. Beginning in 1798, Beethoven experienced a continual humming and whistling m his ears that gradually grew stronger, eventually prompting the agonizing realization that he was going deaf. In 1802, in a state of desperation in which he contemplated suicide, Beethoven retired to the secluded village of Heiligenstadt and addressed to his brothers a statement expressing his anguish. The ''Heiligenstadt Testament", as it is known, marks the start of a new period in Beethoven's output; the next ten years saw one of the most prodigious outpourings of masterpieces in the history of music. By 1812 he had completed Symphonies 2—8, Piano concertos 4 and 5, the Violin concerto, his opera Fidelio, the three Rasumovsky string quartets and a wealth of piano sonatas and other works.

Haydn and Mozart had demonstrated that melody alone, no matter how beautiful, could not hold an audience's attention for more than a minute or two and had mastered the principle of using harmonic tension to sustain large-scale structures. But Beethoven went further; with the first movement or the Eroica symphony (1803) he created a single span of uninterrupted music of unprecedented length. He also widened the scope of the piano sonata to symphonic proportions with his Waldstein sonata (1803) - dedicated to his old friend Count Waldstein — and even more with the Appassionata (1804—5). In this he introduces new dynamic extremes, shattering the thoughtful calm of the opening with sudden fortissimo chords. This music was revolutionary, and not only in technique. Beethoven's expanded forms broadened the scope for emotional expression, giving voice to the revolutionary spirit of the age. He was a passionate democrat and greatly admired the young Napoleon, whose name in fact originally appeared on the title page of the Eroica symphony. When Beethoven heard that Napoleon had declared himself Emperor, however, he tore the page out and substituted "In Memory of a Great Man."
What raises Beethoven's genius in music to the level of Shakespeare's in literature is his supreme master)' of musical form. He was able to create vast and complex musical structures stemming from the fundamental building blocks of music itself. For him a simple musical figure had manifold implications that could generate an entire symphony. So, for example, the opening four notes of his Fifth symphony (1807), supposedly depicting Fate knocking at the door, are especially portentous, since some derivation of them is heard in nearly every bar of the first movement.

After 1812 Beethoven's output dropped drastically. He became involved in a number of lawsuits, including one over royalties for his only truly programmatic and probably his worst published work - Wellington's victory. In 1820 he won custody of his nephew Karl, following the death in 1815 of Beethoven's brother. Although there is no doubting his good intentions and love for the boy the arrangement was not a success. Beethoven had never married and wanted to treat Karl as his own son, but deepening poverty and a frenetic resumption of composition meant that his nephew was neglected. The year before Beethoven's death the boy attempted suicide.

Beethoven began composing intensively again in 1817. Most of 1818 was taken up with his colossal Hammerklavier sonata, and the years until 1824 were divided between the last three Piano sonatas, the Diabelli variations, the Missa Solemnis -a Mass commissioned by Beethoven's patron Archduke Rudolph, delivered three years late owing to the complexities of its composition — and the Ninth symphony. This work, whose final movement is a triumphant setting of Schiller's Ode to joy, again broke new ground in terms of scale and introduced choral forces into the symphony for the first time. After the first performance Beethoven stood stone deaf on the stage, oblivious of everything, until one of the soloists turned him around to see the thunderous applause.

In his final years Beethoven turned once again to the string quartet. In 1 825 and 1826 he produced five works, at once profoundly complex and serene, for this intimate medium. He had become preoccupied with fugal techniques, just as in later life Bach had done, and the Grossc fuge — originally the finale to his Quartet in В flat - is one of the most extended and elaborate examples of the form.

These last works were far ahead of their time and still challenge scholars and listeners. Beethoven did not live to complete sketches he had made for further works. At his funeral in 1827 he was mourned by a huge crowd, including fellow artists and aristocratic friends. His tombstone bore a single word: "Beethoven."

 








Ludwig van Beethoven
Portrait  by Carl Traugott Riedel
1801





Ludwig van Beethoven
Portrait  by W.J. Mahler
1804






Ludwig van
Portrait  by Karl Stieler
1820






Ludwig van Beethoven
Portrait  by F. G. Waldmuller
1823
 



Beethoven

 

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

REPRESENTATIVE WORKS

 

Kaila Rochelle
Sonata No. 1
Allegro
Allegretto
Rondo

Sonata No. 2
Allegro
Allegretto
Presto

Stefano Micheletti
Sonata No. 3 in C major
Allegro con brio
Adagio
Scherzo
Allegro assai

Serg van Gennip
Sonata in f Op. 2, no. 1

M. McCarthy
Sonata no.5 in C minor op.10 no.1

Molto allegro e con brio
Adagio molto

J.Robson
Sonata no.7 in D major op.10 no.3
Presto
Largo e mesto
Menuetto, Allegro
Rondo, Allegro

Sonata No.8 "Patetique"
Grave
Adagio catabile
Allegro

J. Lebenstedt
Sonata no.9 in E major Op.14 no.1
Allegro
Allegretto
Rondo

H. Shields
Sonata no.10 in G major Op.14 no.2
Allegro
Andante
Scherzo. Allegro assai

Richard Pohl
Sonata no.12 in A-flat major Op.26

Hotaik Sung
Sonata no.13 in Eb major Op.27 No.1
Andante
Allegro molto vivace
Adagio con espressione - Allegro vivace

Sonata No. 14 "Moonlight"
Adagio sostenuto
Allegretto
Presto agitato

Christof Paal
Sonata No. 15  "Pastorale"
Allegro
Andante
Schero
Rondo

Serg van Gennip
Sonate  No.17 in D minor op. 31  "Tempest"

N. Morin-Paul
Sonata no.20 in G major Op.49 No.2
Allegro

Boris Giltburg
Sonata No. 21
"Waldstein-Sonate"

Allegro con brio
Introduzione (Adagio molto)
Rondo (Allegrett moderato - Prestissimo)

Serg van Gennip
Sonata  No.23 "Appassionata"

H. Underwood
Sonata no.25 in G major - Op.79
Presto alla tedesca

R. Pohl
Sonata no.27 in E minor - Op.90
Mit Lebhaftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfindung und Ausdruck
Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vorzutragen

J. Kingma
Sonata no.30 in E major - Op.109
Vivace, ma no troppo
Prestissimo
Gesangvoll, mit innigster Empfindung

J. Froschhammer
Sonata no.31 in A-flat major - Op.110
Moderato cantabile, molto espressivo
Allegro molto
Adagio ma non troppo - Fuga

Sonata No. 32
Allegro molto
Arietta molto semplice e cantabile

Stefano Micheletti, Orchestra Sinfonica di Perugia, Giuliano Silveri - conductor
Concert no. 4 for piano and orchestra
Allegro Moderato
Andante con moto
Rondo vivace

Concert no. 5 for piano and orchestra "Emperor"
Allegro Alessio Benvenuti
Rondo (Allegro) Willem Mengelberg

Corey Cerovsek, violin, Paavali Jumppanen, piano
Sonata No. 9 for violin with piano "Kreutzer"

Corey Cerovsek, violin
Violin Sonata No. 3

Corey Cerovsek, violin
Violin Sonata No. 4

Corey Cerovsek, violin
Violin Sonata No. 5 in F Major, Op. 24 "Spring"

Violin concerto in D major Op.61
Allegro
Larghetto
Rondo

Violin Romance in G major Op.40

Violin Romance in F major Op.40

Moonling Sonata in C sharp minor Op.27 No.2
Adagio sostenuto
Allegretto
Presto agitato

Waldstein Sonata in C minor Op.13
Allegro con brio
Adagio molto
Allegro moderato

Kaila Rochelle
Fur Elise

Serg van Gennip
Rondo in C Op. 51, no. 1

Symphony Nr. 1 in C major op. 21
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 2 in D major op. 36
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 3 in E flat major op. 55 "Eroica"
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 4 in B flat major op. 60
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 5 in c minor op. 67
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 6 in F major op. 68 "Pastorale"
1
2
3
4
5

Symphony Nr. 7 in A major op. 92
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 8 in F major op. 93
1
2
3
4

Symphony Nr. 9 in D minor op. 125
1
2
3
4
Choir finale of Friedrich Schiller's "An die Freude"

Overture op. 84 "Egmond"

Overture op. 62  "Coriolan"

Overture op. 72a  "Leonore"

Overture op. 72b  "Fidelio"

   
 


 Eugene Delacroix
 

 

 

Beethoven

Bellini

Berlioz

Bizet

Borodin

Brahms

Bruckner

Chopin

Donizetti

Glinka

Gounod

Liszt

Mendelssohn

Mussorgsky

Paganini

Rimsky-Korsakov

Rossini

Schumann

J.S. Strauss

Tchaikovsky

Verdi

 

Wagner

 

 

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