History of Literature




 



The Book of the Dead






 

 




THE BOOK OF THE DEAD
 

TRANSLATION

by

E. A. WALLIS BUDGE

(1895)






 
"Hail to you, Osiris Wennefer the
vindicated, the son of Nut! You are the
first-born of Geb, the Great One who
came forth front Nut. . . shout with joy,
Osiris, for I have come to you; I am
Horns, I have saved you alive today. "

The Book of the Dead




 




PLATE XVII.

 

Vignette: Ani standing in adoration before three gods, each of whom holds a sceptre in his left hand, and the symbol of life in his right.

[1. Adding thest ftu, from the papyrus of Nebseni.

2. Var. ### axemu. this word see Brugsch, W÷rterbuch (Suppl.), p. 279.]

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Text [CHAPTER XCIII.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING A MAN PASS OVER TO THE EAST IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "Hail, manhood of (2) Ra, which advanceth and beateth down opposition; things which have been without movement for millions of years come into being through the god Baba. Hereby am I made stronger than (3) the strong, and hereby have I more power than they who are mighty. And therefore neither shall I be borne away nor carried by force to the East, to take part in the festivals of the fiends; (4) nor shall there [be given unto me] cruel gashes with knives, nor shall I be shut in on every side, nor gored by the horns [of the god Khepera]". . . . . . . . . . . .[1]

Vignette: Ani adoring a god in a boat whose head is turned face backwards.

Text [CHAPTER XCIIIA.]: ANOTHER CHAPTER.[2] [Saith Osiris Ani]: "So then shall no evil things be done unto me by the fiends, neither shall I (6) be gored by the horns [of Khepera]; and the manhood of Ra, which is the head of Osiris, shall not be swallowed up. Behold me, (7) I enter into my homestead, and I reap the harvest. The gods speak with me. (8) Gore thou not them, O Ra-khepera. In very truth sickness shall not arise in the eye of Tmu nor shall it (9) be destroyed. Let me be brought to an end, may I not be carried into the East to take part in the festivals of the fiends who are my enemies (10); may no cruel gashes be made in me. I, Osiris, the scribe Ani, the teller of the divine offerings of all the gods, triumphant with happy victory, the lord to be revered. am not carried away into the East."

Text [CHAPTER XLIII.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEAD OF A MAN BE CUT OFF FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: (2) "I am the great One, son of the great One; I am Fire, the son of Fire, to whom was (3) given his head after it had been cut off. The head of Osiris was not carried away from him; let not the head of Osiris Ani (4) be carried away from him. I have knit together my bones, I have made myself whole and sound; I have become young once more; I am Osiris, the Lord of eternity."

Vignette: The mummy of Ani lying on a bier; above is his soul in the form of a human-headed bird, holding shen, the emblem of eternity, in its claws. At the head and foot stands an incense burner with fire in it.

[1. The text of the rest of this chapter is corrupt.

2. In other early papyri these two chapters form one; the division probably arose from a blunder on the part of the scribe.]

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Text [CHAPTER LXXXIX.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CAUSING THE SOUL TO BE UNITED TO ITS BODY IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "Hail, thou god Annitu! Hail, O Runner, (2) dwelling in thy hall! O thou great god, grant thou " that my soul may come unto me from wheresoever it may be. If it would tarry, then bring thou unto me (3) my soul from wheresoever it may be. [ If] thou findest [me], O Eye of Horus, make thou me to stand up like those beings who are like unto Osiris and who never lie down in death. Let not (4) Osiris Ani, triumphant, triumphant, lie down in death in Annu, the land wherein souls are joined unto their bodies, even in thousands. My soul doth bear away with it my victorious spirit (5) whithersoever it goeth[1] . . . . . . . . . . . (6) If it would tarry, grant thou that my soul may look upon my body. [If] thou findest [me], O Eye of Horus, make thou me to stand up like unto those[1] . . . . . . . (7) Hail, ye gods, who row in the boat of the lord of millions of years, who tow it (8) above the underworld, who make it to pass over the ways of Nu, who make souls to enter into their glorified bodies, (9) whose hands are filled with righteousness, and whose fingers grasp your sceptres, destroy ye (10) the foe. The boat of the Sun rejoiceth, and the great god advanceth in peace. Behold [ye gods], grant that this soul of Osiris Ani (11) may come forth triumphant before the gods, and triumphant before you, from the eastern horizon of heaven, to follow unto the place where it was yesterday, in peace, in peace, in Amenta. (12) May he behold his body, may he rest in his glorified frame, may he never perish, and may his body never see corruption."

Rubric: To be said over a golden [figure of a] soul inlaid with precious stones, which is to be placed on the neck of Osiris.

Vignette: Ani's soul, in the form of a human-headed bird, standing in front of a pylon.[2]

[1. Some words are omitted here.

2. The three following variants show: (1) the soul flying through the door of the tomb to the deceased; (2) the deceased, accompanied by his soul, standing at the open door of the tomb; and (3) the deceased, with his soul hovering over him, standing with his back to the door of the tomb, upon which is the disk of the rayed sun.

{Illustrations}

]

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Text [CHAPTER XCI.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE CAPTIVE IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "Hail thou who art exalted, thou who art adored, (2) thou mighty one of souls, thou Ram (or Soul), possessor of terrible power, who dost put fear of thee into the hearts of the gods, thou who art crowned upon thy mighty throne! It is he who maketh the path for the khu and for (3) the soul of Osiris Ani. I am furnished [with that which I need], I am a khu furnished [with that which I need], I have made my way unto the place wherein are Ra and Hathor."

Rubric: If this chapter be known, Ani shall become like unto a shining being fully equipped in the underworld. He shall not be stopped at any door in the underworld from going in and coming out millions of times.

Vignette:[1] Ani standing at the doorway of the tomb; and Ani's shadow, accompanied by his soul.

Text [CHAPTER XCII.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE TOMB TO THE SOUL OF THE SHADOW, OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND OF GETTING POWER OVER THE LEGS. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "(2) The place of bondage is opened, that which was shut is opened,[2] and; the place of bondage is opened unto my soul [according to the bidding of][3] the eye of Horus. I have bound and stablished (3) glories upon the brow of Ra. [My] steps are made long, [my] thighs are lifted up; I have passed along the great path, and my limbs are strong. (4) 1 am Horus, the avenger of his father, and I bring the ureret crown to rest upon its place. The path of souls is opened [to my soul]."

 



 




PLATE XVIII.

 

My soul (5) seeth the great god within the boat of Ra on the day of souls. My soul is (6) in the front among those who tell the years. Come; the eye of Horus, which stablisheth glories (7) upon the brow of Ra and rays of light upon the faces of those who are with the limbs of Osiris, hath delivered my soul. (8) O shut ye not in my soul, fetter ye not my shade (9) may it behold the great god

[1. See Plate XVIII.

2 The reading of the Nebseni papyrus is ###.

3 Adding ### from the Nebseni papyrus.]

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within the shrine on the day of the judgment of souls, may it repeat the words of Osiris. (10) May those beings whose dwelling-places are hidden, who fetter the limbs of Osiris, who fetter the souls of the khu, who shut in (11) the shade[s] of the dead and can do evil unto me-may they do no evil unto me, may they turn away their path from me. Thy heart (12) is with thee; may my soul and my khu be prepared against their attack. May I sit down among the great rulers who (13) dwell in their abodes; may my soul not be set in bondage by those who fetter the limbs of Osiris, and who fetter souls, and who shut in (14) the shade[s] of the dead. The place which thou possessest, is it not Heaven? "

Rubric: If this chapter be known, he shall come forth by day and his soul shall not be shut in.

Vignette: Ani kneeling, with both hands raised in adoration, by the side of the Seker[1] boat placed upon its sledge.

Text [CHAPTER LXXIV.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF WALKING WITH THE TWO LEGS, AND OF COMING FORTH UPON EARTH. Saith Osiris Ani: "Thou hast done all thy work, O Seker, thou hast done all thy work, O Seker, in thy dwelling place within my legs in the (2) underworld. I shine above the Leg[2] of the Sky, I come forth from heaven; I recline with the glorified (3) spirits. Alas! I am weak and feeble; alas! I am weak and feeble. I walk. I am weak and feeble in the (4) presence of those who gnash with the teeth in the underworld, I Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace."

Vignette: The emblem of Amenta and Ani standing with a staff in his left hand.

Text [CHAPTER VIII.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF PASSING THROUGH AMENTA, AND OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. Saith Osiris Ani: "The hour (?) openeth; (2) the head of Thoth is sealed up; perfect is the eye of Horus. I have delivered the eye of Horus which shineth with splendours on the forehead of Ra, (3) the father of the gods. I am the same Osiris, dwelling in Amenta. Osiris knoweth his day and that he shall not live therein; nor shall I live therein. (4) I am the Moon among the gods; I shall not come to an end. Stand up, therefore, O Horus; Osiris hath counted thee among the gods."

[1. The god Seker was a form of the night sun, like Ptah, Osiris and Tanen; see Lanzone, Dizionario, P. 1113.

2 The name of a constellation.]

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Text [CHAPTER II. (1) THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND OF LIVING AFTER DEATH. Saith Osiris Ani: "Hail, Only One, shining from the Moon! (2) Hail, Only One, shining from the Moon! Grant that this Osiris Ani may come forth among the multitudes which are round about thee; (3) let him be established as a dweller among the shining ones; and let the underworld be opened unto him. And behold Osiris, (4) Osiris Ani shall come forth by day to do his will upon earth among the living."

Vignette: Ani, standing with both hands raised in adoration before a ram crowned with plumes and disk; in front of the ram is a table, upon which are a libation vase and a lotus flower.

Text [CHAPTER IX.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, HAVING PASSED THROUGH THE TOMB. Saith Osiris Ani: "Hail Soul, thou mighty one of strength! (2) Verily I am here, I have come, I behold thee. I have passed through the underworld, I have seen [my] father (3) Osiris, I have scattered the gloom of night. I am his beloved one. I have come; I behold my father (4) Osiris. I have stabbed Set to the heart. I have done the things [needed] by my father Osiris. (5) I have opened every way in heaven and upon earth. I am the son beloved of his father Osiris (6). I have become a ruler, I have become glorious, I am furnished [with what I need]. Hail, all ye gods, and all ye shining ones, make ye a way for me, the Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant."

Vignette: Ani, with a staff in his left hand, standing before a door.

Text [CHAPTER CXXXII.]: THE CHAPTER OF MAKING A MAN TO RETURN TO SEE AGAIN HIS HOME UPON EARTH. Saith Osiris Ani: "I am the Lion-god (2) coming forth with strides. I have shot forth arrows, I have wounded [the prey], I have wounded the prey. I am the Eye of Horus; I have opened the (3) eye of Horus in his hour. I am come unto the furrows. Let Osiris Ani come in peace."

Vignette: Ani piercing a serpent.

Text [CHAPTER X. [XLVIII.]: ANOTHER CHAPTER OF ONE WHO COMETH FORTH BY DAY AGAINST HIS FOES IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "I have divided the heavens, (2) I have passed through the horizon, I have traversed the earth, [following] upon his footsteps. I am borne away by the mighty and shining ones because, behold, (3) I am furnished with millions of years which

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have magic virtues. I eat with my mouth, I chew with my jaws; and, behold, (4) I am the god who is the lord of the underworld: May there be given unto me, Osiris Ani, that which abideth for ever without corruption."

 

 




PLATE XIX.

 

Vignette: Ani standing, with both hands raised in adoration, before Ra, hawk-headed and seated in a boat floating upon the sky. On the bows sits Heru-pa-khrat (Harpocrates) or, "Horus the child"; and the side is ornamented with feathers of Maat, and the utchat. The handles of the oars and the tops of the rowlocks are shaped as hawks' heads, and on the blades of the oars are ###.

Text [CHAPTER XV.]: (I) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH UPON THE HORIZON, AND WHEN HE SETTETH IN THE [LAND OF] LIFE. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani: "Homage to thee, O Ra, (2) when thou risest [as] Tmu-Heru-khuti (Harmachis), Thou art adored [by me] when thy beauties are before mine eyes, and when thy shining rays (3) [fall] upon my body. Thou goest forth in peace in the Sektet boat with [fair] winds, and thy heart is glad; [thou goest forth] in the Atet boat, (4) and its heart is glad. Thou stridest over the heavens in peace, and thy foes are cast down; the never-resting stars (5) sing hymns of praise unto thee, and the stars which never set glorify thee as thou (6) sinkest in the horizon of Manu, O thou who art beautiful in the two parts of heaven, thou lord who livest and art established, O my lord! Homage to thee, O thou who art Ra when thou risest, and Tmu (7) when thou settest in beauty. Thou risest and shinest upon the back of thy mother [the sky], O thou who art crowned king (8) of the gods. Nut doth homage unto thee, and everlasting and never-changing order embraceth thee at morn and at eve. Thou stridest over the heaven, being glad of heart, and the Lake (9) Testes is at peace. The Fiend hath fallen to the ground; his arms and his hands have been hewn off, and the knife hath severed the joints of his body. Ra hath a fair wind (10); the Sektet boat goeth forth and sailing along it cometh into port. The gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east praise thee, (11) from whom all forms of life came into being. Thou sendest forth the word, and the earth is flooded with silence, O thou only One, who livedst in heaven before ever the earth and the mountains were made. (12) O Runner, Lord, only One, thou maker of things which are, thou hast moulded the tongue of the company of the gods, thou hast drawn forth whatsoever cometh from the waters, and thou springest up from them over the flooded land of the Lake of Horus (13). Make me to sniff the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother [the Sky]. Make thou glorious my shining form, O Osiris, make thou (14) strong my soul. Thou art worshipped in peace, O lord of the gods, thou art exalted by reason of thy wondrous works. Shine with thy rays of light upon my body day by day, upon me, (15) Osiris, the scribe, the teller of the divine offerings it of all the gods, the overseer of the granary of the lords of Abydos, the royal it scribe in truth, who loveth him (i.e., Ra); Ani, triumphant in peace."

Vignette: Ani, standing with both hands raised in adoration. Behind him is his wife:

Ausar nebt per qematet en Amen Thuthu.
Osiris, the lady of the house, priestess of Amen, Thuthu.

Text [CHAPTER XV.]: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE. "O OSIRIS, lord of eternity, Un-nefer, Horus of the two horizons, whose forms are manifold, whose creations are without number, (2) Ptah-Seker-Tem in Annu, the lord of the tomb, and the creator of Memphis and of the gods, the guide of the underworld, whom [the gods] (3) glorify when thou settest in Nut. Isis embraceth thee in peace, and she driveth away the fiends from the mouth of (4) thy paths. Thou turnest thy face upon Amenta, thou makest the world to shine as with smu metal. The dead rise up to behold thee, they breathe the (5) air and they look upon thy face when the disk shineth on its horizon; their hearts are at peace for that they behold thee, O thou who art eternity and everlastingness."

[Litany]: (1) "Homage to thee, [O lord of] starry deities in An, and of heavenly beings in Kher-aba; thou god Unti, who art more glorious than the gods who are hidden in Annu.

"(2) Homage to thee, O An in Antes (?), Horus, thou dweller in both horizons, with long strides thou stridest over heaven, O thou who dwellest in both horizons.

"(3) Homage to thee, O soul of everlastingness, thou Soul who dwellest in Tattu, Un-nefer, son of Nut; thou art lord of Akert.

"(4) Homage to thee in thy dominion over Tattu; the urerit crown is established upon thy head; thou art the One whose strength is in himself, and thou dwellest in peace in Tattu.

"(5) Homage to thee, O lord of the acacia tree, the Seker boat is set upon its sledge; thou turnest back the Fiend, the worker of evil, and thou causest the utchat to rest upon its seat.

"(6) Homage to thee, O thou who art mighty in thine hour, thou great and mighty god, dweller in An-rut-f, lord of eternity and creator of everlastingness; thou art the lord of Suten-henen.

"(7) Homage to thee, O thou who restest upon Right and Truth, thou art the lord of Abtu, and thy limbs are joined unto Ta-sertet; thou art he to whom fraud and guile are hateful.

"(8) Homage to thee, O thou who art within thy boat, thou bringest Hapi (i.e., the Nile) forth from his source; the light shineth upon thy body, and thou art the dweller in Nekhen.

"(9) Homage to thee, O creator of the gods, thou King of the North and of the South; O Osiris, victorious, ruler of the world in thy gracious seasons; thou art the lord of the world.

"O grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

 

 




PLATE XX.

 

Vignette: Osiris and Isis in a sepulchral shrine.

Text [CHAPTER XV.]: (I) A HYMN OF PRAISE To RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF THE HEAVEN. They who are in (2) his train rejoice, and lo! Osiris Ani in triumph saith "Hail, thou Disk, thou lord of rays, who risest (3) in the horizon day by day. Shine thou with thy beams of light upon the face of Osiris Ani, who is victorious: for he singeth hymns of praise unto thee at (4) dawn, and he maketh thee to set at eventide with words of adoration. May the soul of Osiris Ani, the triumphant one, come forth with (5) thee from heaven, may he go forth in the matet boat, may he come into port in the sektet boat, may he cleave his path among the (6) never resting stars in the heavens."

Osiris Ani, being at peace and in triumph, adoreth his lord, the lord of (7) eternity, saying: "Homage to thee, O Horus of the two horizons, who art

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Khepera the self-created; when thou risest on the horizon and (8) sheddest thy beams of light upon the lands of the North and the South thou art beautiful, yea beautiful, and all the gods rejoice when they behold thee, (9) the King of heaven. The goddess Nebt-Unnet is stablished upon thy head; her portions of the south and of the north are upon thy brow (10); she taketh her place before thee. The god Thoth is stablished in the bows of thy boat to destroy utterly all thy foes. (11) Those who dwell in the underworld come forth to meet thee, bowing in homage as they come towards thee, and to behold [thy] beautiful (12) Image. And I have come before thee that I may be with thee to behold thy Disk every day. May I not be shut in the tomb, may I not be turned back (13), may the limbs of my body be made new again when I view thy beauties, even as do all thy favoured ones, {14) because I am one of those who worshipped thee whilst they lived upon earth. May I come in unto the land of eternity, may I come even (15) unto the everlasting land, for behold, O my lord, this hast thou ordained for me."

And lo, Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace, the triumphant one, saith (16) Homage to thee, O thou who risest in thy horizon as Ra, thou art stablished by a law which changeth not nor can it be altered. Thou passest over the sky, and every face watcheth thee (17) and thy course, for thou hast been hidden from their gaze. Thou dost show thyself at dawn and at eventide day by day. (18) The Sektet boat, wherein is thy majesty, goeth forth with might; thy beams shine upon [all] faces; [the number] of thy yellow rays cannot be known, nor can thy bright beams (19) be told. The lands of the gods, and the colours of the eastern lands of Punt, must be seen, ere that which is hidden (20) [in thee] may be measured [by man]. Alone and by thyself thou dost manifest thyself [when] thou comest into being above Nu. May Ani (21) advance, even as thou dost advance; may he never cease [to go forward], even as thy majesty ceaseth not [to go forward], even though it be for a moment; for with strides dost thou (22) in one little moment pass over the spaces which would need hundreds of thousands and millions of years [for man to pass over; this] thou doest, and then dost thou sink down. Thou (23) puttest an end to the hours of the night, and thou dost number them, even thou; thou endest them in thine own appointed season, and the earth becometh light. (24) Thou settest thyself before thy handiwork[1] in the likeness of Ra;[1] thou risest in the horizon."

[1. There is a play on the words ### and ###.]

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Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, declareth his (25) praise of thee when thou shinest, and when thou risest at dawn he crieth in his joy at thy birth: (26) "Thou art crowned with the majesty of thy beauties; thou mouldest thy limbs as thou dost advance, and thou bringest them forth without birth-pangs in the form of Ra (27), as thou dost climb up into the upper air. Grant thou that I may come unto the heaven which is everlasting, and unto the mountain [where dwell] thy favoured ones. (28) May I be joined unto those shining beings, holy and perfect, who are in the underworld; and may I come forth with them to behold thy beauties when thou shinest (29) at eventide and goest to thy mother Nut.

 

 




PLATE XXI.

 

"Thou dost place thy disk in the west, and my two hands are [raised] in adoration [of thee] when thou settest (30) as a living being. Behold, thou art the maker of eternity, and thou art adored [when] thou settest in the heavens. I have given my heart unto thee without wavering, (31) O thou who art mightier than the gods."

Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: "A hymn of praise to thee, O thou who risest (32) like unto gold, and who dost flood the world with light on the day of thy birth. Thy mother giveth thee birth upon [her] hand, and thou dost give light unto the course of the Disk. (33) O thou mighty Light, who shinest in the heavens, thou dost strengthen the generations of men with the Nile-flood, and dost cause gladness in all lands, and in all (34) cities, and in all the temples. Thou art glorious by reason of thy splendours, and thou makest strong thy ka with hu and tchefau foods. O thou who art the mighty one of victories, (35) thou who art the Power of [all] Powers, who dost make strong thy throne against the powers of wickedness, who art glorious in majesty in the sektet boat, and who art exceeding (1-6) mighty in the atet boat, make thou glorious Osiris Ani with victory in the netherworld; grant thou that in the underworld he may be void of (37) sin. I pray thee to put away [his] faults behind thee; grant that he may be one of thy venerable (38) servants who are with the shining ones; may he be joined unto the souls which are in Ta-sertet; and may he journey into the Sekhet-Aaru (39) by a prosperous and happy path, he the Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant.

"(40) Thou shalt come forth into heaven, thou shalt pass over the sky, thou shalt be joined unto the starry deities. (41) Praises shall be offered unto thee in thy boat, thou shalt be hymned in the diet boat, (42) thou shalt behold Ra within

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his shrine, thou shalt set together with his disk day by day, thou shalt see (43) the ant fish when it springeth into being in the waters of turquoise, and thou shalt see (44) the abtu fish in his hour. May it come to pass that the Evil One shall fall when he layeth a snare to destroy me, (45) and may the joints of his neck and of his back be cut in sunder."

"Ra [saileth] with a fair wind, and the sektet boat draweth on (46) and cometh into port. The mariners of Ra rejoice, and the heart of Nebt-ankh (47) is glad, for the enemy of her lord hath fallen to the ground. Thou shalt behold Horus on the watch [in the Boat], and Thoth and Maat upon either side of him. (48) All the gods rejoice when they behold Ra coming in peace (49) to make the hearts of the shining ones to live. May Osiris Ani, triumphant, the scribe of the divine offerings of the lords of Thebes, be with them."

Vignette: Ra, hawk-headed, with the disk upon his head and the emblem of life upon his knees, seated in the solar bark;[1] before him stands Ani with both hands raised in adoration.

Text [CHAPTER CXXXIII.]: (1) TO BE SAID ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH.[2] (2) Osiris Ani, the scribe, triumphant in peace, triumphant, saith: "Ra riseth (2) in his horizon, and the company of his gods follow after the god when he appeareth from his secret place, when he showeth strength and bringeth himself forth (3) from the eastern horizon of heaven at the word of the goddess Nut. They rejoice at the journeyings of Ra, the Ancient One; the Great One (4) rolleth along in his course. Thy joints are knitted together,[3] O Ra, within thy shrine. Thou breathest the winds, thou drawest in the breezes, (5) thou makest thy jaw-bones to cat in thy dwelling on the day when thou dost scent right and truth. Thou turnest aside the godlike followers (6) [who] sail after the sacred boat, in order that they may return again unto the mighty ones according to thy word. Thou numberest thy bones, thou gatherest together thy members; (7) thou turnest thy face towards the beautiful Amenta; thou comest thither renewed

[1. In the Nebseni papyrus the god is seated on a throne, and he holds the sceptre in his right hand; in the Turin papyrus (Lepsius, Bl. 54) the god is seated within a shrine.

2. This chapter is generally entitled "The Book of making perfect (or strong) the khu in the netherworld, in the presence of the great company of the gods.

3. Or, "thou art exalted."]

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day by day. Behold, thou Image of gold, who possessest the splendours (8) of the Disk of heaven, thou lord of terror; thou rollest along and art renewed day by day. Hail, there (9) is rejoicing in the heavenly horizon, and shouts of joy are It raised to the ropes which tow thee along. May the gods who dwell in (10) heaven ascribe praises unto Osiris Ani, when they behold him in triumph, as unto Ra. May Osiris, the scribe Ani, be a prince (11) who is known by the ureret crown; and may the meat offerings and the drink offerings of Osiris Ani, triumphant, be apportioned unto him; may he wax exceeding strong in his body; and may he be the (12) chief of those who are in the presence of Ra. May Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, be strong upon earth and in the world under the earth; and (13) O Osiris, scribe Ani, triumphant, mayest thou rise up strengthened like unto Ra day by day. Osiris Am, triumphant, shall not tarry, (14) nor shall he rest without motion in the earth for ever. Clearly, clearly shall he see with his two eyes, and with his two ears shall be hear what is right and true. (15) Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, cometh back, cometh back from Annu; Osiris Ani, triumphant, is as Ra when he rangeth the oars (16) among the followers of Nu.

 

 




PLATE XXII.

 

"Osiris Ani, triumphant, hath not revealed what he hath seen,(17) he hath not, he hath not told again what he hath heard in the house which is hidden. Hail, there are shouts of joy to Osiris Ani, triumphant, (18) for he is a god and the flesh of Ra, he is in the boat of Nu, and his ka is well pleased according to the will of the god. (19) Osiris Ani, triumphant, is in peace, he is triumphant like unto Horus, and he is mighty because he hath divers forms."

Vignette: Ra seated in a boat, sailing across the sky towards the starstudded heaven.

Rubric: These words shall be recited over a boat (20) seven cubits in length, and painted green for the godlike rulers. Then shalt thou make a heaven of stars (21) washed and purified with natron and incense. Behold, thou shalt make an image (22) of Ra upon a table of stone painted yellow (?), and it shall be placed in the fore-part of the boat. (23) Behold, thou shalt make an image of the dead man whom thou wilt make perfect in strength (24) in the boat; and thou shalt make it to travel in the divine boat of Ra, (25) and Ra himself will look upon it therein. Thou shalt show it to no man but thyself, (26) or to thy father or to

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thy son; let them watch with their faces, and he shall be seen in the underworld as a messenger of Ra.

Vignette: Ra, hawk-headed, with a disk upon his head, seated in a boat; before him is a large disk.

Text [CHAPTER CXXXIV.]: (I) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH WHEREON HE SAILETH IN THE BOAT. [Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith]: "Homage to thee, O thou who art in thy boat! Thou risest, thou risest, (2) thou shinest with thy rays, and thou hast made mankind to rejoice for millions of years according to thy will. Thou showest thy face unto the beings whom thou hast created, O Khepera, (3) in thy boat. Thou hast overthrown Apepi. O ye children of Seb, overthrow ye the foes of Osiris (4) Ani, triumphant, destroy ye the adversaries of righteousness from the boat of Ra. Horus shall cut off your (5) heads in heaven in the likeness of ducks; ye shall fall down upon the earth and become beasts, and into the water in the likeness of fishes. [Osiris, the scribe Ani,] destroyeth every hostile fiend, male (6) and female, whether he passeth through heaven, [or] appeareth (7) upon earth, or cometh forth upon the water, or passeth along before the starry deities; and Thoth strengtheneth them . . . . . . (8) coming forth from Anreti. Osiris, the scribe Ani, is silent, and becometh the second of Ra. Behold thou the god, the great slaughterer, (9) greatly to be feared, he washeth in your blood, he batheth in your gore; Osiris, (10) the scribe Ani, destroyeth them from the boat of his father Ra-Horus. The mother Isis giveth birth unto Osiris, the scribe (11) Ani, triumphant, whose heart liveth, and Nephthys nurseth him (12); even as they did for Horus, who drove back the fiends of Sut. They saw (13) the urertu crown stablished upon his head, and they fell down upon their faces. Behold, O ye shining ones, ye men (14) and gods, ye damned ones, when ye behold Osiris Ani, triumphant like unto Horus and adored (15) by reason of the ureret crown, fall ye down upon your faces; for Osiris Ani is victorious (16) over his foes in the heavens above and [on the earth] beneath, in the presence of the godlike rulers (17) Of all the gods and goddesses."

Rubric: These words shall be recited over a great hawk which hath the white crown set upon his head. Then shall the names of Tmu, (18) Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, be written with green colour upon a (19) new table, anointed with unguents and placed in a boat together with a figure of the dead man (20). Then shall they put incense upon the fire, and set ducks to

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be roasted (21). This is a rite of Ra when his boat cometh; and it shall cause the dead man to go with Ra into every place whithersoever he saileth, and the foes of Ra shall be (22) slaughtered in very truth. The Chapter of the sektet boat shall be recited on the sixth day of the festival.

Vignette: The ladder by which the soul passes from the underworld to the body.[1]

 

 




PLATE XXIII. AND PLATE XXIV.

 

The whole of Plate XXIII. and part of Plate XXIV contain a repetition of the XVIIIth Chapter of the "Book of the Dead," which has also been given on Plates XIII. and XIV. The arrangement of the gods in the vignette is, however, slightly different.

PLATE XXIV. (2).

Vignette: Ani and his wife adoring three gods, who are seated on a pylon or door-shaped pedestal.

Text [CHAPTER CXXIV.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF GOING UNTO THE GODLIKE RULERS OF OSIRIS. Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, saith: "My soul hath builded for me a (2) dwelling-place in Tattu. I have waxed strong in the town Pe. I have ploughed [my] fields in all my forms, and my palm tree standeth therein like unto the god Amsu. I eat not that which I abominate, (3) I eat not that which I loathe; that which I abominate I abominate, and I feed not upon filth. (4) There are food offerings and meat for those who shall not be destroyed thereby. I raise not up myself on my two arms unto any abomination, I walk not thereupon (5) with my shoes, because my bread is [made] from white grain, and my ale from the red (6) barley of the Nile. The sektet boat and the atet boat bring them unto me, and I feed upon them (7) under the trees, whose beautiful branches I myself do know. (8) How glorious do I make the white crown [when] I lift up the urŠi! (9) Hail, guardian of the door, who givest peace unto the two lands, bring thou unto me those who make offerings! Grant that

[1. In the Appendix to Plates V. and V1. (see above, p. 265), is a reproduction from the papyrus of Neb-set at Paris, of a scene in which the soul of the deceased is represented as descending the ladder with food for the body in the tomb below.]

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I may (10) lift up the earth; that the shining ones may open their arms unto me; that the company of the gods may (11) speak with the words of the shining ones unto Osiris Ani; that the hearts of the gods may direct [him] (12); and that they may make him powerful in heaven among the gods who have taken unto themselves visible forms. (13) Yea, let every god and every goddess whom he passeth make Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant at the new year. He feedeth upon hearts (14) and consumeth them when he cometh forth from the east. He hath been judged by the forefather of Light. He is (15) a shining one arrayed in heaven among the mighty ones. The food of Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, is even (16) the cakes and ale which are made for their mouths. I go in through the Disk, I come out through the god Ahui. I speak with the followers (17) of the gods, I speak with the Disk, I speak with the shining ones, and the Disk granteth me to be victorious in the (18) blackness of night within Meh-urt near unto his forehead. Behold, I am with Osiris, and I (19) proclaim that which he telleth forth among the mighty ones. He speaketh unto me the words of men, and I listen and (20) 1 tell again unto him the words of the gods. I, Osiris Ani, triumphant, come even as one who is equipped for the journey. Thou raisest up [right and truth] (2 1) for those who love them. I am a shining one clothed in power, mightier than any other shining one."

 

 




PLATE XXV.

 

Vignette: A swallow perched on a conical object painted red and green.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXVI.]: (I) HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF MAKING TRANSFORMATIONS. THE CHANGING INTO A SWALLOW. (2) Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "I am the swallow, [I am] the swallow, [I am] the scorpion, the daughter of Ra. Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet! Hail, thou Flame, which comest forth from (4) the horizon! Hail, thou who art in the city. May the Guardian of the Bight lead me on. O stretch out up unto me (5) thine bands that I may be able to pass my days in the Island of Flame. I have fared forth with my warrant. I have come with the power thereof. Let the doors be opened unto me (6). How shall I tell what I have seen therein? Horus was like unto the prince of the sacred bark, and the throne of his father was given unto him. Sut, the son of Nut, also hath gotten the fall which he (7) wrought for Horus. He who is in Sekhem passed judgment upon me. I stretched out my hands and my arms unto Osiris. I have passed on

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to judgment, (8) and I have come that I may speak; grant that I may pass on and deliver my message. I enter in, having been judged; I come out (9) at the door of Neb-er-tcher magnified and glorified. I am found pure at the Great place of passage [of souls]. I have put away my faults. (10) I have done away mine offences. I have cast out the sins which were a part of me. I, even I, am pure, (11) I, even I, am mighty. O ye doorkeepers, I have made my way [unto you]. I am like unto you. I have come forth by day. I have walked with my legs, and I have gotten the power of the footstep wherewith do walk the shining ones of light (12). I, even I, know the hidden ways to the doors of the Field of Aaru; and (13), though my body be buried, yet let me rise up; and may I come forth and overthrow all my foes upon earth."

Appendix[1]: Rubric. If this chapter be known [by the deceased], he shall come forth by day in Neter-khert, and he shall go in again after he hath come forth. if this chapter be not known, he shall not enter in after he hath come forth, nor shall he come forth by day.

Vignette: A golden hawk holding a flail, emblem of rule.

Text [CHAPTER LXXVII.]: (1) CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO A GOLDEN HAWK. Saith Osiris Ani: "(2) May I, even I, arise in the seshet chamber, like unto a hawk of gold (3) coming forth from his egg. May I fly and may I hover as a hawk, with a back seven (4) cubits wide, and with wings made of emeralds of the South. May I come forth from the sektet boat (5), and may my heart be brought unto me from the mountain of the east. May I alight on the atet boat, and may those who are in (6) their companies be brought unto me, bowing down as they come. May I rise, may I gather myself together (7) as the beautiful golden hawk [which hath] the head of a bennu bird. May I enter into the presence of Ra daily to hear his words, and may I sit down among the (8) mighty gods of Nut. May a homestead be made ready for me, and may offerings of food and drink be put before me therein. May I eat therein; (9) may I become a shining one therein; may I be filled therein to, my heart's fullest desire; may sacred wheat be given unto me to eat. May I, by myself, get power over the guardian of my head."

Vignette: A green hawk, holding a flail, and standing upon a pylon-shaped pedestal.

[1. See Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 32.]

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Text [CHAPTER LXXVIII.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO A SACRED HAWK. Saith Osiris Ani: (2) "Hail, thou mighty one, come unto Tattu. Make thou my paths, and let me pass round [to visit] my (3) thrones. Make me to renew myself and make me to wax strong. (4) Grant that I may be feared, and make me to be a terror. May the gods of the underworld fear me, and may they fight for me in their (5) habitations. Let not him that would do harm unto me draw nigh unto me. Let me walk through the house of darkness. May I (6), the feeble, clothe and cover myself; and may they (i.e., the gods) not do the like unto me. Hail, ye gods who hear my speech! Hail, ye rulers who are among the followers of Osiris. Be ye therefore silent, O ye gods, [when] the god speaketh with me; he heareth what is right and (7) true. What I speak unto him, do thou also speak, O Osiris. Grant thou that I may go round my course according to the order which cometh forth from thy mouth concerning me. May I see thy forms; (8) may I be able to understand thy will. Grant that I may come forth, that I may get power over my legs, and that I may be like unto Neb-er-tcher (9) upon his throne. May the gods of the underworld fear me, and may they fight for me in their habitations. Grant thou that I may pass on my way with the godlike ones who rise up (10). May I be set up upon my resting-place like unto the Lord of Life; may I be joined unto Isis, the divine Lady. May the gods (11) make me strong against him that would do harm unto me, and may no one come to see me fall helpless. May I pass over the paths (12), may I come into the furthermost parts of heaven. I entreat for speech with Seb, I make supplication unto Hu (13) and unto Neb-er-tcher that the gods of the underworld may fear me, and that they may fight for me in their habitations, when they see that thou hast (14) provided me with the fowl of the air and the fish of the sea.

"I am one of those shining ones who live in rays of light. (15) 1 have made my form like unto the form [of the god] who cometh out and manifesteth himself in Tattu; for I have become worthy of honour by reason of his honour, (16) and he hath spoken unto thee of the things which concern me. Surely he hath made the fear of me [to go forth], and hath created terror of me! The gods of the {continued next plate}

 

 




PLATE XXVI.

 

underworld fear me, and they (17) fight for me [in their habitations]. I, in very truth I am a shining one and a dweller in light, who hath been created and who hath come into being (18) from the body of the god. I am one of the shining

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ones who dwell in light, whom (19) Tmu himself hath created, and who have.(come into being from the eyelashes of his eye. He doth create and glorify and make noble the faces of those who live with him. (20) Behold, the only One in Nu! They do homage unto him as he cometh forth from the horizon, and they strike fear of him into the gods (21) and into the shining ones who have come into being with him.

"I am the One among the worms which the eye of the Lord, the only One, hath created. And lo! (22) before Isis was, and when Horus was not yet, I had waxed strong, and flourished. I had grown old, and I had become greater (23) than they who were among the shining ones who had come into being with him, and I, even I, arose in the form of a sacred hawk (24), and Horus made me worthy in the form of his own soul, to take possession of all that belongeth unto Osiris in the underworld. The double Lion-god, (25) the warder of the things that belong to the house of the nemmes crown which is in his hiding place, saith unto me: 'Get thee back to the heights of heaven, seeing that through Horus (26) thou hast become glorified in thy form; the nemmes crown is not for thee; thou hast speech even unto the ends (27) of heaven.' I, the guardian, take possession of the things which belong to Horus and Osiris in the underworld. Horus telleth aloud unto me that which (28) his father had said concerning me in years [gone by], on the day of the burial [of Osiris]. I have given unto thee the nemmes of the double Lion-god which I possess, (29) that thou mayest pass onward and mayest travel over the path of heaven, and that they who dwell on the confines of the horizon may see thee, and that the gods of the underworld may fear thee (30) and may fight for thee in their habitations. The god Auhet is of them. The gods, the lords of the boundaries of heaven, they who are the warders (31) of the shrine of the lord, the only One, have fallen before my words, have fallen down before [my] words. Hail! He that is exalted upon his tomb is on my side, and he hath bound upon my head the nemmes crown. (32) The double Lion-god hath decreed it, the god Auhet hath made a way for me. I, even I, am exalted, and the double Lion-god hath bound the nemmes crown on me, and (33) my head covering hath been given unto me. He hath stablished my heart through his strength and through his great might, and I shall not (34) fall through Shu. I am Hetep, the lord of the two urŠi, the being who is adored. I know the shining god, (35) and his breath is in my body. I shall not be driven back by the Bull which causeth men to tremble, but I shall come daily into the house of the double Lion-god, and I shall come forth therefrom into the house of Isis. I shall behold sacred things which are hidden, there shall be

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done unto me holy (37) hidden rites, I shall see what is there; my words shall make full the majesty of Shu, and they shall drive away evil hap. (38) I, even I, am Horus who dwell in splendours. I have gained power over his crown, I have gained power over his radiance (39), and I have travelled over the remotest parts of heaven. Horus is upon his throne, Horus is upon his seat. My (40) face is like unto that of a divine hawk. I am one who hath been armed by his lord. I have come forth from Tattu. I have seen Osiris, I have risen up on (41) either side of him. Nut [hath shrouded me]. The gods behold me, and I have beheld the gods. The eye of Horus hath consumed me, who dwell in darkness. The gods (42) stretch forth their arms unto me. I rise up, I get the mastery, and I drive back evil which opposeth me. The gods open unto me the holy (43) way, they see my form, and they hear my words which I utter in their presence. O ye gods of the underworld, who set yourselves up against me, (44) and who resist the mighty ones, the stars which never set have led me on my way. I have passed along the holy paths of the hemtet chamber unto your lord, (45) the exceedingly mighty and terrible Soul. Horus hath commanded that ye lift up your faces to (46) look upon me. I have risen up in the likeness of a divine hawk, and Horus hath set me apart in the likeness of his own soul, to take possession of that which belongeth unto Osiris in the underworld. (47) I have passed along the way, I have travelled on and I have come even among those who live in their hiding places and who guard the house of Osiris. (48) 1 speak unto them of his power and I make them to know the terrible power of him that is provided with two horns [to fight] against Sut; and they (49) know who hath carried off the sacred food which the power (?) of Tmu had brought for him. The gods of the underworld have proclaimed (50) a happy coming for me. O Ye who live in your hiding places and who guard the house of Osiris, and who have magnified your names, (51) grant ye that I may come unto you. I bind together and I gather up your powers, and I order the strength of the paths of those who guard the (52) horizon of the hemtet of heaven. I have stablished their habitations for Osiris, I have ordered his ways, I have done what hath been bidden. (53) I have come forth from Tattu, I have beheld Osiris, I have spoken unto him concerning the things of his son, the divine Prince whom he loveth. There is a wound in the heart of Set, (54) and I have seen him who is without

 

 




PLATE XXVII.

 

life. O, I have made them to know the plans of the gods which Horus hath devised (55) at the bidding of his father Osiris. Hail, lord, thou most terrible

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and mighty soul! Let me come, even me, (56) let me lift myself up! I have opened and passed through the underworld. I have opened the paths of the warders (57) of heaven and of the warders of the earth. I have not been driven back by them; and I have lifted up thy face, O lord of eternity."

Appendix: The following is the end of the LXXVIIIth chapter according to the Paris papyrus quoted by Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 89, ll. 43-48):--

"Thou art exalted upon thy throne, O Osiris. Thou hearest joyful things, O Osiris. Thy, strength is vigorous, O Osiris. Thy head is bound to thy body, O Osiris. Thy brow is made firm, O Osiris. Thy heart is joyful. O be thou pleased to establish gladness for thy servants. Thou art stablished as a bull of Amenta. Thy son Horus is crowned king upon thy throne; all life is with him. Unto thy son are given millions of years, and the fear of him shall endure for untold ages. The company of the gods shall fear him. Unto thy son is given . . . . . . . . . of the company of the gods; he changeth not his word. Horus is the food and the altar. I go to unite myself unto [my] father; and deliverance cometh from [my] father, from [my] brother, and from the friend of Horus. Horus is in the following of his father. He dwelleth amid decay. He ruleth Khem. To thy son have the gods given the crown of millions of years, and for millions of years it maketh him to live in the eye [of Horus], the single eye of the god [which is called] Nebt-er-tcher, the queen of the gods."

Vignette: The deceased kneeling, with both hands raised in adoration, before three gods.

Text [CHAPTER LXXIX.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF BEING AMONG THE COMPANY OF THE GODS AND OF BEING CHANGED INTO THE (2) PRINCE OF THE GODLIKE RULERS. [The deceased] saith: "Homage to thee, O Tmu, (3) lord of heaven, thou creator of things which are and which come forth from the earth; who makest to come into being that which is sown, the lord of things which shall be, the begetter of the gods, the great god (4) who made himself, the lord of life who maketh mankind to flourish. Homage to you, O ye lords of creation, ye pure being whose abodes (5) are hidden. Homage to you, O ye lords of eternity, whose forms are hidden, and whose dwelling-places are unknown. (6) Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the abode (?) of the flooded lands. Homage to you, O ye gods who live in the underworld. Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in heaven. (7) Grant ye that I may come [unto you], for I know you. I am pure, I am holy, I am mighty, I have a soul, (8) 1 have become powerful, I am glorious; I have brought unto you perfume and incense, and natron. Blot out from your hearts (9) whatsoever ye have in them against me. I have come, having done away all the evil which dwelleth in your hearts against me, I have made an end of all the sin which I committed (10) against you; I have brought unto you that which is good, I have made to come unto you that which is right and true. I, even I, know (11) you, I know your names, I know your forms which are not known, which come into being (12) with you. I have come unto you.

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I have risen among men like unto the god, living among the (13) gods. I am strong before you like unto the god who is exalted upon his resting-place; when he cometh the gods rejoice, and goddesses and mortal women (14) are glad when they behold him. I have come unto you. I have risen (15) upon the throne of Ra, I sit upon my seat in the horizon. I receive offerings upon my altar, (16) 1 drink drink-offerings at eventide as one made noble by the lord of mortals. I am exalted (17) even as the holy god, the lord of the great House. The gods rejoice when they see him in his (18) beautiful manifestation on the body of Nut, who giveth birth unto him daily."

Vignette: The serpent Seta, with human legs.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXVI L]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO SETA. Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: "I am the serpent Seta, whose years are many. I lie down and I am born day by day. I am (3) the serpent Seta, which dwelleth in the limits of the earth. I lie down, I am born, (4) I renew myself, I grow young day by day."

Vignette: A crocodile upon a pylon or doorway.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXVIII.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO A CROCODILE. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: (2) "I am the crocodile which dwelleth in terror, I am the sacred crocodile and I cause destruction. (3) I am the great fish in Kamui. I am the lord to whom homage (4) is paid in Sekhem; and Osiris Ani is the lord to whom homage is paid in Sekhem."

Vignette: The god Ptah in a shrine, before which is a table of offerings.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXII.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO PTAH. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "I eat bread, (2) I drink ale, I put on apparel, (3) I fly like a hawk, I cackle like a goose, and I alight upon the path (4) hard by the hill of the dead on the festival of the great Being. That which is abominable, that which is abominable, have I not eaten; and that which (5) is foul have I not swallowed. That which my ka doth abominate hath not entered into my body. I have lived according to the (6) knowledge of the glorious gods. I live and I get strength from their bread, I get strength when I eat it beneath the (7) shade of the tree of Hathor, my lady. I make an offering, and I make bread in Tattu, and oblations in (8) Annu. I array myself in the robe of the goddess Matait, and I rise up and I sit me down wheresoever my heart desireth (9). My head is like unto the head of Ra; when my limbs are gathered

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together, I am like unto Tmu. The four regions of Ra are the limits of the earth. I come forth; my tongue (10) is like unto the tongue of Ptah, my throat is even as that of Hathor, and I tell forth the words of my father Tmu with my lips. He it is who constrained (11) the handmaid, the wife of Seb; and unto him are bowed [all] heads, and there is fear of him. Hymns of praise are sung in honour of my mighty deeds (12), and I am accounted the heir of Seb, the lord of the earth, the protector. The god Seb giveth cool water, he maketh his dawnings to be mine. They who dwell in (13) Annu bow down their heads before me, for I am their bull. I grow strong from moment to moment; my loins are made strong for millions of years."

Vignette: A Ram.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXV.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO THE SOUL OF Tmu. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: (2) "I have not entered into the house of destruction; I have not been brought to naught, I have not known decay. I am (3) Ra who come forth from Nu, the divine Soul, the creator of his own limbs. Sin is an abomination unto me, (4) and I look not thereon; I cry not out against right and truth, but I have my being (5) therein. I am the god Hu, and I never die (6) in my name of 'Soul.' I have brought myself into being together with Nu in my name of (7) 'Khepera.' In their forms have I come into being in the likeness of Ra. I am the lord of light."

Appendix: In other ancient papyri the LXXXVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead ends as follows (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 97):--

"What I hate shall be buried (5). Let me not enter into the secret place of the god Tuaa. I ascribe glory unto Osiris, and I pacify the heart of those who dwell in the god of creation, who love me, who spread (6) abroad fear of me, and who strike terror of me into those who dwell in their own places. Behold me, for I am exalted upon my resting-place, Nu, (7) upon the place which is adjudged unto me. I am Nu, and those who work evil shall not overthrow me. I am the eldest and the first-born son of matter; my (8) soul is the gods, who are the eternal souls. I am the creator of darkness who maketh his dwelling-place in the limits of the regions of heaven. I come, and my soul advanceth (9) over the way of the Ancient Ones. I cause darkness in the limits of the sky, and at my will I come unto the boundaries thereof I walk upon my feet, I am strong (10) to pass over the sky, and I fetter with bonds the darkness and the worm that hideth therein. I make my steps to advance unto the lord of the two hands (?) My soul (11) and the soul of my body are the urŠi, and I live for

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ever, the lord of years, and the prince of eternity. I am exalted as lord of the earth, I am exalted (?). I grow young in (12) the cities, I grow youthful in my homestead, my name is 'My name decayeth not.' I am the Soul, the creator of Nu, who maketh his dwelling-place in (13) Neter-khert. My nest is not seen, my egg is not broken. I am the lord of millions of years. I make my nest in the limits of heaven. I descend unto the earth of Seb (14). I do away with my faults. I behold my father, the lord of Mash; and his body breatheth in Annu. I am provided with what I need 05) by Khnemu and Khui in the place of burial in Amenta . . . . . . . .

Vignette: A bennu bird

Text [CHAPTER LXXXIII.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO A bennu.

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace: "I came into being from unformed matter, (2) I created myself in the image of the god Khepera, and I grew in the form of plants. I am hidden in the likeness of the Tortoise. I am formed out of the atoms of all the gods. (3) I am the yesterday of the four [quarters of the world], and I am the seven urŠi which came into existence in the East, the mighty one who illumineth the nations (4) by his body. He is god in the likeness of Set; and Thoth dwelleth in the midst of them by (5) judgment of the dweller in Sekhem and of the spirits of Annu. I sail (6) among them, and I come; I am crowned, I am become a shining one, (7) I am mighty, I am become holy among the gods. I am the god Khonsu who driveth back all that opposeth him."

Appendix: The following rubric to this chapter is found in a papyrus at Paris; see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 185:--

If this chapter be known, the purified one shall come forth by day after his burial, and he shall change his forms at his heart's desire. He shall dwell among the servants of Un-nefer, and he shall be satisfied with the food of Osiris, and with the meals of the tomb. He shall behold the disk of the Sun, and shall travel over the earth with Ra. He shall be triumphant before Osiris, and there shall no evil thing get dominion over him for ever and for all eternity and for ever.

 

 




PLATE XXVIII.

 

Vignette: A heron.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXIV.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF CHANGING INTO A HERON.

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani: (2) "I have gotten dominion over the beasts which are brought for sacrifice, with the knife held at their heads and their hair, (3) for

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those who dwell in their emerald [fields], the ancient and the shining ones who make ready (4) the hour of Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace. He maketh slaughter upon earth, and I make slaughter upon earth. I am strong, and I have passed along the (5) lofty path [which leadeth] unto heaven. I have made myself pure, with long strides I have gone unto my city, holding on my way to Sepu (?). (6) I have stablished [the one who is] in Unnu. I have set the gods upon their places, and I have made glorious the temples of those who live in their shrines. (7) I know the goddess Nut, I know the god Tatunen, I know Teshert, I have brought with me their horns. I know (8) Heka, I have heard his words, I am the red calf which is limned with the pen. When they hear [my words], the gods say: (9) 'Let us bow down our faces, and let him come unto us; the light shineth beyond you.' My hour is within my body. (10) I have not spoken [evil] in the place of right and truth, and each day I advance in right and truth. I am shrouded in darkness when I sail up to celebrate the festival of the (11) dead one, and to embalm the Aged one, the guardian of the earth--I the Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant! I have not entered into (12) the hiding places of the starry deities. I have ascribed glory unto Osiris. I have pacified the heart of the gods who follow after him. I have not felt fear (13) Of those who cause terror, even those who dwell in their own lands. Behold, I am exalted (14) upon [my] resting place upon my throne. I am Nu, and I shall never be overthrown by the Evil-doer. I am the god Shu (15) who sprang from unformed matter. My soul is god; my soul is eternity. I am the creator of darkness, and I (16) appoint unto it a resting place in the uttermost parts of heaven. I am the prince of eternity, I am the exalted one [in] Nebu. I grow young in [my] city, ( 17) I grow young in my homestead. My name is 'Never-failing.' My name is 'Soul, Creator of Nu, who maketh (18) his abode in the underworld.' My nest is not seen, and I have not broken my egg. I am lord of millions of years- I have made my nest (19) in the uttermost parts of heaven. I have come down unto the earth of Seb. I have done away with my faults. I have seen my father (20) as the lord of Shautat. As concerning Osiris Ani, may his body dwell in Annu; may it be manifested unto those who are with the Shining One in the place of burial in Amenta. . . . . ."

Vignette: A human head springing from a lotus in a pool of water.

Text [CHAPTER LXXXIA.]: (1) [THE CHAPTER OF] CHANGING INTO A LOTUS. Saith Osiris Ani: "I am the (2) pure lotus which cometh forth from the

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god of light, the guardian of the nostrils of Ra, the guardian (3) of the nose of Hathor. I advance and I hasten (4) after him who is Horus. I am, the pure one who cometh forth from the field."

Vignette: A god with a disk upon his head.

Text [CHAPTER LXXX.]: (I) [Tim, CHAPTER OF] CHANGING INTO THE GOD WHO GIVETH LIGHT IN THE DARKNESS. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: I am (2) the girdle of the robe of the god Nu, which shineth and sheddeth light, which abideth in his presence and sendeth forth light into the darkness, which knitteth together the two fighters (3) who live in my body through the mighty spell of the words of my mouth, which raiseth up him that hath fallen--for (4) he who was with him in the valley of Abtu hath fallen--and I rest. I have remembered him. (5) I have carried away the god Hu from my city wherein I found him, (6) and I have led away the darkness captive by my might. I have upheld the Eye [of the Sun] when its power waned (7) at the coming of the festival of the, fifteenth day, and I have weighed Sut in the heavenly mansions beside the Aged one who is with him. I have endowed (8) Thoth in the House of the Moon-god with all that is needful for the coming of the festival of the fifteenth day. I have carried off the ureret crown; right and truth are in my body. (9) The months are of emerald and crystal. My homestead is among the sapphire furrows. (10) I am the lady who sheddeth light in darkness. I have come to give forth light in darkness, and lo! it is lightened and made bright. I have illumined the blackness (11) and I have overthrown the destroyers. I have made obeisance unto those who are in darkness, and I have raised up (12) those who wept and who had bidden their faces and had sunk down. Then did they look upon me. I am the Lady, and I will not let you hear concerning me."

 

 




PLATES XXIX. AND XXX.

 

Vignette (PLATE XXIX.): Ani and his wife standing with hands raised in adoration before the god Thoth, who has ankh, "life," upon his knees, and is seated on a pylon-shaped throne.

Text [CHAPTER CLXXV.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF NOT DYING A SECOND TIME. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "(2) Hail, Thoth! What is it that hath happened unto the holy children of Nut? (3) They have done battle, they have upheld

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strife, they have done evil, (4) they have created the fiends, they have made slaughter, they have caused (5) trouble; in truth, in all their doings the mighty have worked against the weak. (6) Grant, O might of Thoth, that that which the god Tmu hath decreed [may be done]! And thou regardest not evil, nor art thou (7) provoked to anger when they bring their years to confusion and throng in and push to disturb their months; for in all that they have done (8) unto thee they have worked iniquity in secret. I am thy writing palette, O Thoth, and I have brought unto thee thine ink jar. I am not (9) of those who work iniquity in their secret places; let not evil happen unto me."

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani: (10) "Hail, Tmu! What manner [of land] is this into which I have come? It hath not water, it hath not air; it is deep unfathomable, (11) it is black as the blackest night, and men wander helplessly therein. In it a man may not live in quietness of heart; nor may the longings of love be satisfied therein. (12) But let the state of the shining ones be given unto me for water and for air and for the satisfying of the longings of love, and let quietness of heart be given unto me for bread (13) and for ale. The god Tmu hath decreed that I shall see his face, and that I shall not suffer from the things which pain him. May the gods hand on (14) their thrones for millions of years. Thy throne hath descended unto thy son Horus. The god Tmu hath decreed that his course shall be among the holy princes. (15) In truth, he shall rule over thy throne, and he shall be heir of the throne of the dweller in the Lake of Fire. It hath been decreed that in me he shall see his likeness, and that (16) my face shall look upon the lord Tmu. How long then have I to live? It is decreed that thou shalt live for millions of millions of years, a life of millions of years. (17) May it be granted that I pass on unto the holy princes, for I am doing away with all that I did when this earth came into being from Nu (18), and when it sprang from the watery abyss even as it was in the days of old. I am Fate (?) and Osiris, and I have changed my form into the likeness of divers serpents (19). Man knoweth not, and the gods cannot see, the two-fold beauty which I have made for Osiris, who is greater than all the gods. I have granted that he [shall rule] in the mount of the dead (20). Verily his son Horus is seated upon the throne of the dweller in the double Lake of Fire, as his heir. I have set his throne in (21) the boat of millions of years. Horus is established upon his throne, amid the friends [of Osiris] and all that belonged unto him. Verily the soul of Sut, which (22) is greater than all the gods, hath departed to [Amenta]. May it be granted that I bind his soul in the divine boat (23) at my will . . . . . . . . . O my Osiris, thou hast done for me that which thy father

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Ra did for thee. May I abide upon the earth lastingly; (24) may I keep possession of my throne; may my heir be strong; may my tomb and my friends who are upon earth flourish; (25) may my enemies be given over to destruction and to the shackles of the goddess Serq! I am thy son, and Ra is my father (26). For me likewise hast thou made life, strength and health. Horus is established upon his throne. Grant that the days of my life may come unto worship and honour."

Appendix: From the fragmentary copy of this chapter which M. Naville has published in his Todtenbuch, Bd. L, Bll. 198, 199, it is clear that the text given in the papyrus of Ani forms only about one-half of it, and that its contents refer to the glorious state of the deceased, who lives again in the form of Horus. He enters among the revered dead; shouts of joy ascend in Suten-henen, and gladness reigns in Naarutef he hath inherited the throne of Osiris, and ruleth the whole earth, and the company of the gods are content thereat; the god Sut feareth him; all sorts and conditions of men both dead and living come before him, and bow down in homage when they behold him; the god hath made all to fear him; Sut cometh unto him with head bent low to the earth; the deceased breaketh and turneth up the earth in blood in Suten-henen; (compare Chap. XVIII., žG); his name shall endure for millions of millions of years; his name shall abide in Suten-henen, and he shall wear the mighty atef crown upon his head for millions, and hundreds of thousands, and tens of thousands, and thousands, and hundreds, and tens of years; bread, ale, oxen, wild fowl, all good and pure things and fresh water from the river shall in abundance be offered unto him, etc. From the concluding lines we find that the chapter was to be recited over a figure of the god Horus made of lapis-lazuli, which was to be placed near the neck of the deceased, and which was supposed to give him power upon earth with men, gods, and the shining spirits; the effect upon him would, moreover, be exceedingly beneficial if it were recited in the underworld.

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Vignette I. (PLATE XXX.): The god Osiris, bearded and wearing the id white crown, stands in a shrine the roof of which is surmounted by a hawk's head and urŠi; at the back of his neck hangs the menat (see above p. 245), and in his hands he holds the crook, sceptre, and flail, emblems of royalty, power, and dominion. Behind him stands the goddess Isis, who rests her right hand upon his right shoulder; in her left hand she holds the sign of life. Before Osiris, upon a lotus flower, stand the four children of Horus, the gods of the cardinal points, Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf.

Vignette II. (PLATE XXIX.): Ani and his wife Thuthu standing, with hands raised in adoration to Osiris, before a table of offerings.

Text [CHAPTER CXXV.]: (1) THE CHAPTER OF ENTERING INTO THE HALL OF DOUBLE RIGHT AND TRUTH: A HYMN OF PRAISE TO OSIRIS, THE DWELLER IN AMENTET. Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, saith: (2) "I have come and I have drawn nigh to see thy beauties; my two hands are raised in adoration of thy name Right and Truth. I have drawn nigh unto the place where the acacia tree groweth not, (3) where the tree thick with leaves existeth not, and where the ground yieldeth neither herb nor grass. And I have entered in unto the place of secret and hidden things, (4) 1 have held converse with the god Sut . . . . . . . Osiris, the scribe Ani, hath entered into the House of Osiris, and he hath seen the hidden (5) and secret things which are therein. The holy rulers of the pylons are in the form of shining ones. (6) Anubis spake unto him with the speech of man when he came from Ta-mera, saying, 'He knoweth our paths and our cities, I have been pacified, (7) and the smell of him is to me even as the smell of one of you.'"

Ani saith unto him: "I am Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace, triumphant! (8) I have drawn nigh to behold the great gods, and I feed upon the meals of sacrifice whereon their kas feed. I have been to the boundaries [of the

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lands] (9) of the Ram, the lord of Tattu, and he hath granted that I may come forth as a bennu bird and that I may have the power of speech. I have passed through the river-flood. I have made (10) offerings with incense. I have made my way by the side of the thick-leaved tree of the children (?). I have been in Abtu in the House of Satet. (11) I have flooded and I have sunk the boat of my enemies. I have sailed forth upon the Lake in the neshem boat. I have seen the noble (12) ones of Kam-ur. I have been in Tattu, and I have constrained myself to silence. I have set the divine Form upon his two feet. (13) I have been with the god Pa-tep-tu-f, and I have seen the dweller in the Holy Temple. I have entered into the House (14) Of Osiris, and I have arrayed myself in the apparel of him who is therein. I have entered into Re-stau, and I have beheld the hidden things (15) which are therein. I have been swathed, but I found for myself a thoroughfare. I have entered into An-aarut-f, and I have clothed my body with the apparel (16) which is therein. The antu unguent of women hath been given unto me . . . . . . . . Verily, Sut spake unto me (17) the things which concern himself, and I said, I Let the thought of the trial of the balance by thee be even within our hearts.'"

The majesty of the god Anubis saith: (18) "Dost thou know the name of this door to declare it unto me?" Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, (19) triumphant in peace, saith: "'Driven away of Shu' is the name of this (20) door." Saith the majesty of the god Anubis: (21) "Dost thou know the name of the upper (22) leaf and of the lower leaf thereof?" [Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace saith]:"' Lord of right and truth, [standing] (23) upon his 'two feet' is the name of the upper (24) leaf, and 'Lord of might and power, dispenser of (25) cattle' [is the name of the lower leaf]." [The majesty of the god Anubis saith]: "Pass thou, for thou knowest [the names] (26), O Osiris, the scribe, teller (27) of the divine offerings of all the gods of Thebes, Ani, triumphant, lord to be revered."

Appendix: The usual introduction to the CXXVth Chapter reads (see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 133) as follows:--

I. (1) THE FOLLOWING SHALL BE SAID BY A MAN WHEN HE COMETH UNTO THE HALL OF DOUBLE RIGHT AND TRUTH, WHEREIN HE IS PURGED (2) OF ALL THE SINS WHICH HE HATH DONE, AND WHEREIN HE SEETH THE FACES OF ALL THE GODS: Hail to thee, great god, the lord of Right and Truth! I have come unto thee, O my lord, (3) and I have drawn nigh that I may look upon thy beauties. I know thee, and I know the names of the forty-two gods who dwell with thee in this (4) Hall of Double Right and Truth, and that they may set the sinners in the gives, who live and who feed upon their blood on the day (5) when the natures of men are accounted before Un-neferu.

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In very truth 'Rekhti-merti-f-ent-Maat' is thy name. Verily (6) I have come unto thee, and I bring before thee Right and Truth. For thy sake I have rejected wickedness. I have done no hurt unto man, nor have I wrought harm unto beasts. I have committed no crime (7) in the place of Right and Truth. I have had no knowledge of evil; nor have I acted (8) wickedly. Each day have I laboured more than was required of me. (9) My name hath not come forth to the boat of the Prince. I have not despised God. (10) I have not caused misery; nor have I worked affliction. I have done not (11) that which God doth abominate. I have caused no wrong to be done to the servant by his master. I have (12) caused none to feel pain. I have made [no man] to weep. (13) I have not committed murder; nor have I ever bidden any man "to slay on my behalf. I have not wronged the people. I have not filched that which hath been offered in (14) the temples; nor have I purloined the cakes of the gods. I have not carried away the (15) offerings made unto the blessed dead. I have not committed fornication, nor have I defiled my body. (16) I have not added unto nor have I minished the offerings which are due. I have not stolen from the orchards; nor have I trampled down the fields. I have not added to the weight of the balance; (17) nor have I made light the weight in the scales. I have not snatched the milk from the mouth of the babe. I have not (18) driven the cattle from their pastures. I have not snared the water-fowl of the gods. I have not caught fishes (19) with bait of their own bodies. I have not turned back water at its springtide. I have not broken the channel of running water. I have not quenched the flame (20) in its fulness. I have not disregarded the seasons for the offerings which are appointed; I have not turned away the cattle set apart for sacrifice. I have not thwarted the processions of the god. (21) 1 am pure. I am pure. I am pure. I am pure. I am pure with the purity of the great Bennu bird which is in Suten-henen; for, lo! I am the nostrils of (22) the lord of the winds who maketh all men to live on the day when the eye of the sun becometh full in Annu, in the second month of the season of coming forth until the end thereof, (23) in the presence of the lord of this earth. I behold the eye of the sun wax full in Annu. May no evil happen unto me in this land in the (24) Hall of Double Right and Truth, because I know, even I, the names of the gods who live therein and who are the followers of the great god."

 

 




PLATES XXXI. AND XXXII.
 

Vignettes: The Hall of Double Right and Truth, wherein Ani has to address severally the forty-two gods, who are seated in a row in the middle of the, hall. At each end is a door that on the right is called "Neb-Maat-heri-tep-retui-f" and that on the left "Neb-pehti-thesu-menment." On the centre of the roof, which is crowned with

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a series of urŠi and feathers emblematic of Maat, is a seated deity with hands extended, the right over the eye of Horus and the left over a pool (see the Vignette of Plate VIII. above, p. 278).[1] On the right, at the end of the hall (Plate XXXII.), are four small vignettes, in which are depicted: (1) Two seated figures of the goddess Maat, with emblematic of Right and Truth, on the head, and sceptres and emblems of life in the right and left hands. (2) Osiris, seated, wearing the atef crown, and holding in his hands the crook and flail. Before him, by the side of an altar of offerings, stands Ani, with both hands raised in adoration. (3) A balance with the heart, symbolizing the conscience of Ani, in one scale, and emblematic of Right and Truth, in the other. Beside the balance is the tri-formed monster Amemit. (4) Thoth, ibis-headed, seated on a pylon-shaped pedestal, painting a large feather of Maat.

Text: [THE NEGATIVE CONFESSION.]

(1) Ani saith: "Hail, thou whose strides are long, who comest forth from Annu, I have not done iniquity."

(2) "Hail, thou who art embraced by flame, who comest forth from Kheraba, I have not robbed with violence."

(3) "Hail, Fentiu, who comest forth from Khemennu, I have not stolen."

(4) "Hail, Devourer of the Shade, who comest forth from Qernet, I have done no murder; I have done no harm."

(5) "Hail, Nehau, who comest forth from Re-stau, I have not defrauded offerings."

(6) "Hail, god in the form of two lions, who comest forth from heaven, I have not minished oblations."

(7) "Hail, thou whose eyes are of fire, who comest forth from Saut, I have not plundered the god."

(8) "Hail, thou Flame, which comest and goest, I have spoken no lies."

(9) "Hail, Crusher of bones, who comest forth from Suten-henen, I have not snatched away food."

(10) "Hail, thou who shootest forth the Flame, who comest forth from Het-Ptah-ka, I have not caused pain."

[1. In the Nebseni Papyrus a dog-headed ape and a balance are represented on each side of the seated deity, and at each end of the roof; and each urŠus wears a disk and horns.]

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(11) "Hall, Qerer, who comest forth from Amentet, I have not committed fornication."

(12) "Hail, thou whose face is turned back, who comest forth from thy hiding place, I have not caused shedding of tears."

(13) "Hail, Bast, who comest forth from the secret place, I have not dealt deceitfully."

(14) "Hail, thou whose legs are of fire, who comest forth out of the darkness, I have not transgressed."

(15) "Hail, Devourer of Blood, who comest forth from the block of slaughter, I have not acted guilefully."

(16) "Hail, Devourer of the inward parts, who comest forth from Mabet, I have not laid waste the ploughed land."

(17) "Hail, Lord of Right and Truth, who comest forth from the city of Right and Truth, I have not been an eavesdropper."

(18) "Hail, thou who dost stride backwards, who comest forth from the city of Bast, I have not set my lips in motion [against any man]."

(19) "Hail, Sertiu, who comest forth from Annu, I have not been angry and wrathful except for a just cause."

(20) "Hail, thou. being of two-fold wickedness, who comest forth from Ati (?) I have not defiled the wife of any man."

(21) "Hail, thou two-headed serpent, who comest forth from the torture-chamber, I have not defiled the wife of any man."

(22) "Hail, thou who dost regard what is brought unto thee, who comest forth from Pa-Amsu, I have not polluted myself."

(23) "Hail, thou Chief of the mighty, who comest forth from Amentet, I have not caused terror."

(24) "Hail, thou Destroyer, who comest forth from Kesiu, I have not transgressed."

(25) "Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth from Urit, I have not burned with rage."

(26) "Hail, thou Babe, who comest forth from Uab, I have not stopped my ears against the words of Right and Truth."

(27) "Hail, Kenemti, who comest forth from Kenemet, I have not worked grief"

(28) "Hail, thou who bringest thy offering, I have not acted with insolence."

(29) "Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth from Unaset, I have not stirred up strife."

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(30) "Hail, Lord of faces, who comest forth from Netchfet, I have not judged hastily."

(31) "Hail, Sekheriu, who comest forth from Utten, I have not been an eavesdropper."

(32) "Hail, Lord of the two horns, who comest forth from Sa´s, I have not multiplied words exceedingly."

(33) "Hail, Nefer-Tmu, who comest forth from Het-Ptah-ka, I have done neither harm nor ill."

 

 




PLATE XXXII.

 

(34) "Hail, Tmu in thine hour, who comest forth from Tattu, I have never cursed the king."

(35) "Hail, thou who workest with thy will, who comest forth from Tebu, I have never fouled the water."

(36) "Hail, thou bearer of the sistrum, who comest forth from Nu, I have not spoken scornfully."

(37) "Hail, thou who makest mankind to flourish, who comest forth from Sa´s, I have never cursed God."

(38) "Flail, Neheb-ka, who comest forth from thy hiding place, I have not stolen."

(39) "Hail, Neheb-nefert, who comest forth from thy hiding place, I have not defrauded the offerings of the gods."

(40) "Hail, thou who dost set in order the head, who comest forth from thy shrine, I have not plundered the offerings to the blessed dead."

(40 "Hail, thou who bringest thy arm, who comest forth from the city of Maati, I have not filched the food of the infant, neither have I sinned against the god of my native town."

(42) "Hail, thou whose teeth are white, why comest forth from Ta-she, I have not slaughtered with evil intent the cattle of the god."

Appendix: The following version of the Negative Confession is given in the Nebseni Papyrus (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 134, 135), showing important variations in the text and in the order in which the gods are addressed.

"(1) Hail, thou whose strides are long, who comest forth from Annu, I have not done iniquity. (2) Hail, thou who art embraced by flame, who comest forth from Kher-aba, I have not robbed with violence. (3) Hail Fenti who comest forth from

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Khemennu, I have not made any to suffer pain. (4) Hail, Devourer of Shades, who comest forth from [thy] retreat, I have not robbed. (5) Hail, thou whose limbs are terrible to look upon, who comest forth from Restau, I have done no murder. (6) Hail, thou god who art in the form of two lions, who comest forth from heaven, I have not defrauded offerings. (7) Hail, thou god whose two eyes are of fire, who comest forth from Sekhem, I have not done harm.[1] (8) Hail, Fiery god, who comest and goest,[2] I have not robbed God. (9) Hail, Crusher of Bones, who comest forth from Suten-henen, I have told no lies. (10) Hail, thou who shootest thyself forth from the flame, who comest forth from Het-Ptah-ka, I have not snatched away food. (11) Hail, Qerti, who comest forth from Amentet, I have not worked affliction. (12) Hail, thou whose teeth are white, who comest forth from Ta-she, I have not transgressed. (13) Hail, Devourer of blood, who comest forth from the block, I have not slaughtered the cattle which are set apart for the gods. (14) Hail, Devourer of the inward parts, who comest forth from Mabit, I have done no evil. (15) Hail, lord of Right and Truth, who comest forth from Maati, I have not laid waste the ploughed lands. (16) Hail, Strider, who comest forth from Bast, I have not been an eavesdropper. (17) Hail, Aaati, who comest forth from Annu, I have not set my lips in motion against any man. (18) Hail, thou god of two-fold evil, who comest forth from Ati, I have not been angry without a cause. (19) Hail, thou god who art in the likeness of a serpent, who comest forth from the torture-chamber, I have not committed adultery with the wife of any man. (20) Hail, thou who regardest that which is brought before thee, who comest forth from Pa-Amsu, I have not polluted myself (21) Hail, thou mighty Chief, who comest forth from the city of acacia trees, I have not caused terror. (22) Hail, Khemi, who comest forth from Kesui, I have not done that which is abominable. (23) Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth from Urib, I have never uttered fiery words. (24) Hail, thou Babe, who comest forth from the Heq-at nome, I have not stopped my ears against the words of Right and Truth. (25) Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth from Unes, I have not stirred up strife. (26) Hail, Bast, who comest forth from the secret city, I have not caused [any] to weep. (27) Hail, thou whose face is turned behind thee, I have not lusted, nor have I committed fornication, nor have I done any other abominable thing. (28) Hail, Blazing feet, who comest forth from the darkness, I have not avenged myself (29) Hail, Kenemti, who comest forth from Kenemti, I have never worked grief. (30) Hail, thou who bringest thy offering, who comest forth from Sau, I have not acted insolently. (31) Hail, lord of faces, who comest forth from Tchefet, I have never judged hastily. (32) Hail, Sekheriu, who comest forth from Unth, I have not transgressed, nor have I vexed or angered God. (33) Hail, lord of the two horns, who comest forth from Saui, I have not multiplied my speech overmuch. (34) Hail, Nefer-Tmu, who comest forth from Het-Ptah-ka, I have done no harm nor have I done

[1. Var. "I have or worked deceit in the place of Right and Truth." See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., p. 292.

2. One variant has, "who comest forth from Seshet" and another, "who comest forth from Annu"; see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 292; Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 47, 1. 21.]

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evil. (35) Hail, Tmu in thine hour, who comest forth from Tattu, I have not worked treason. (36) Hail, thou who workest in thy heart, who comest forth from Tebtu, I have never befouled the water. (37) Hail, thou bearer of the sistrum, who comest forth from Nu, I have not spoken scornfully. (38) Hail, thou who dost make mankind to flourish, who comest forth from thy hall, I have not cursed God. (39) Hail, Neheb-nefert, who comest forth from . . . . . . . I have not behaved myself with arrogance (?). (40) Hail, Neheb-kau, who comest forth from thy city, I have not been overweeningly proud. (40) Hail, Tcheser-tep, who comest forth from thy hiding place, I have never magnified my condition beyond what was fitting. (42) Hail, thou who bringest thine arm, who comest forth from Aukert, I have never slighted the god in my town."

In the Nebseni papyrus (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 137, 138), the CXXVth Chapter ends as follows:--

(2) "Homage to you, O ye gods, I know You, (3) and I know your names. Cast me not down to your (4) knives of slaughter, and bring not my wickedness into the presence of the god whom ye follow, (5) and let not the time of my failings come before you. I pray you, declare me right and true in the presence of the (6) universal God, because I have done that which is right and true in Ta-mera; I have not cursed the god . . . . . . .

"Homage to you, O ye gods who live in your hall Of (7) Right and Truth, and who have no evil in your bodies, who feed on your own substance in (8) the presence of Horus who liveth in his disk, deliver ye me from Baabi, who feedeth on the inwards of the mighty ones on the day of the great judgment which shall be holden by you. (9) I have come unto you; I have committed no faults; I have not sinned; I have done no evil; I have accused no man falsely; therefore let nothing be done against me. I live in right and truth, (10) and I feed my heart upon right and truth. That which men have bidden I have done, and the gods are satisfied thereat. I have pacified the god, for I have done his (11) will. I have given bread unto the hungry and water unto those who thirst, clothing unto the naked, and a boat unto the shipwrecked mariner. (12) I have made holy offerings unto the gods; and I have given meals of the tomb to the sainted dead. O, then, deliver ye me, and protect me; accuse me not before the great god. (13) I am pure of mouth, and I am pure of hands. May those who see me say, 'Come in peace, come in peace.' For I have heard the speech which the Ass held with the Cat in the House of Hept-re. (14) 1 have borne witness before him [the god] and he hath given judgment. I have beheld the dividing of the persea trees (15) within Re-stau. I offer up prayers in the presence of the gods, knowing that which concerneth them. I have come forward to make a declaration of right and truth, and to place (16) the balance upon its supports within the groves of amaranth. Hail, thou who art exalted upon thy resting place, thou lord of the atef crown, who declarest thy name as the lord of the (17) winds, deliver thou me from thine angels of destruction, who make dire deeds to happen and calamities to arise, and (18) who have no covering upon their faces, because I have done right and truth, O thou Lord of right and truth. I am pure, in my fore-parts have I been made clean, and in my hinder parts have I (19) been purified; my reins have been bathed in the Pool of right and

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truth, and no member of my body was wanting. I have been purified in the pool of the south. I have rested in Hemet, on the north of the (20) field of the grasshoppers, wherein the holy mariners do purify themselves in the night season, that they may pacify (?) the heart of the gods after I have passed over it (21) by night and by day. May the gods say unto me, 'We let him come,' and they say unto me, 'Who art thou, and what is thy name?' My name is 'I grew among (22) the flowers, dwelling in the olive tree.' Then shall they say unto me, 'Pass on straightway.' I have passed by the city on the north of the groves, and the gods say, 'What didst thou see there?' [I saw] the Leg and the Thigh. (23) 'What hadst thou to do with them?' I saw rejoicings in the lands of the Fenkhu. 'What did they give thee?' They gave me a (24) flame of fire together with a crystal tablet. 'What didst thou therewith?' I burned it at the place of Maati together with the things of the night. 'What didst thou (25) find there at the place of Maati?' A sceptre of flint which maketh a man to prevail. 'What then is [the name] of this sceptre of flint?' 'Giver of winds' is its name. 'What then didst thou unto the flame of fire with the tablet of (26) crystal after thou didst bury it?' I uttered words over it, I made (27) adjuration thereby, I quenched the fire, and I used the tablet to create (28) a pool of water. 'Come, then, pass through the door of this Hall of two-fold Maati, for thou (29) knowest us.' 'I will not let thee enter in over me,' saith the bolt of the door, (30) 'unless thou tell my name.' 'Weight of the place of right and truth' is thy name. I will not let thee (31) pass in by me,' saith the right post of the door, 'unless thou tell my name.' (32) 'Weigher of the labours of right and truth' is thy name. 'I will not let thee enter in by me,' saith the left Post (33) of the door, 'unless thou tell my name.' 'judge of (34) wine' (?) is thy name. 'I will not let thee pass,' saith the threshold of the door, (35) unless thou tell my name.' 'Ox of Seb' is thy name. 'I will not open unto thee,' (36) saith the bolt-socket of the door, 'unless thou tell my name.' 'Flesh of his (37) mother' is thy name. I will not open unto thee,' saith the lock of the door, 'unless thou tell my name.' The utchat of Sebek, the Lord of Bakhan, liveth' is thy name. (38) 'I will not open unto thee, and I will not let thee pass over me,' saith the dweller at the door, 'unless thou tell my name.' 'Arm of Shu that placeth itself to protect Osiris' (39) is thy name. 'We will not let thee pass by us,' say the posts of the door, 'unless thou tell our names.' 'Serpent children of Rennut' are your names. 'Thou (40) knowest us, pass thou by us.' 'Thou shalt not tread upon me,' saith the floor of the hall, I unless thou tell my name.' 'I am silent, I am pure.' 'I know not (41) [the names of] thy two feet with which thou wouldst walk upon me; tell them unto me.' '. . . . . before Amsu' is the name of my right foot, 'Grief of Nephthys' is the name Of (42) my left foot. 'Tread thou upon me, for thou knowest me.' 'I will not question thee,' saith the warder of the door of the hall, unless thou tell my name.' 'Discerner of hearts, (43) searcher of reins' is thy name. I will question thee now. Who is the god that liveth in his hour? Say thou.' The teller of the two lands. 'Who then is the teller (44) of the two lands?' It is Thoth. 'Come then,' saith Thoth, 'come hither (?).' And I come forward to the test. 'What, now, is thy condition?' I am pure from (45) all evil, I am shielded from the baleful acts of those who live in their days, and I am not among them. 'I have tried thee. (46) Who is he that goeth down into the fire, the walls whereof are [crowned]

{p. 353}

with urŠi, and whose paths are in the lake [of fire]?' He who passeth through it (47) is Osiris. 'Advance thou, in very truth thou hast been tested. Thy bread is in the utchat, thine ale is in the utchat, and meals of the tomb are brought forth unto thee upon earth from the utchat. This hath been decreed for thee.'"



PLATE XXXII. (continued).

Vignette: The god Nu.

Text: (1) The hair of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the hair of Nu.

Vignette: Ra, hawk-headed, and wearing a disk.

Text: (2) The face of Osiris, the scribe Ani, is the face of Ra.

Vignette: The goddess Hathor, wearing disk and horns.

Text: (3) The eyes of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the eyes of Hathor.

Vignette: The god Ap-uat and standard.

Text: (4) The ears of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the ears of Ap-uat.

Vignette: The god Anpu, jackal-headed.

Text: (5) The lips of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the lips of Anpu.

Vignette: The scorpion Serqet, holding the shen, and ankh.

Text: (6) The teeth of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the teeth of Serqet.

Vignette: The goddess Isis.

Text: (7) The neck of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the neck of Isis.

Vignette: The ram-headed god, with urŠus between the horns.

Text: (8) The hands of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the hands of the Ram, the lord of Tattu.

Vignette: The god Uatchit, serpent-headed.

Text: (9) The shoulder of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the shoulder of Uatchit.

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Vignette: The goddess Mert, with outstretched hands, standing upon the emblem of gold, and having on her head a cluster of plants.

Text: (10) The throat of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the. blood of Mert.

Vignette: The goddess Neith.

Text: (11) The fore-arms of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the fore-arms of the lady of Sais.

Vignette: The god Sut.

Text: (12) The backbone of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the backbone of Sut.

Vignette: A god.

Text: (13) The chest of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the chest of the lords of Kher-aba.

Vignette: A god.

Text: (14) The flesh of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the flesh of the Mighty One of terror.

Vignette: The goddess Sekhet, lion-headed, wearing a disk.

Text: (15) The reins and back of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the reins and back of Sekhet.

Vignette: An utchat upon a pylon.

Text: (16) The buttocks of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the buttocks of the Eye of Horus.

Vignette: Osiris, wearing the atef crown and holding the flail and crook.

Text: (17) The privy member of Osiris Ani, triumphant, is the privy member of Osiris.

Vignette: The goddess Nut.

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Text: (18) The legs of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the legs of Nut.

Vignette: The god Ptah.

Text: (19) The feet of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the feet of Ptah.

Vignette: The star Orion.

Text: (20) The fingers of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the fingers of Saah (Orion).

Vignette: Three UrŠi.

Text: (21) The leg-bones of Osiris Ani, triumphant, are the leg-bones of the living urŠi.

Appendix: The complete version of the XLIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead, referring to the identification of the body of Osiris with those of the gods, reads as follows[1]:--

(1) [CHAPTER XLII.] THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK SLAUGHTER IN SUTENHENEN. Saith Osiris: "O land of the sceptre! (2) O white crown of the divine Form! O holy resting place! I am the Child. I am the Child. I am the Child. I am the Child. Hail, thou goddess Aburt! Thou sayest daily, 'The slaughter block is (3) made ready as thou knowest, and thou who wert mighty hast been brought to decay.' I establish those who praise me. I am the holy knot within the tamarisk tree, more beautiful (4) in brightness than yesterday." To be said four times. I am Ra who establish those who praise him. I am the knot within the tamarisk tree, more beautiful in brightness than the disk of yesterday. . . . . . . (5) going forth on this. day. My hair is the hair of Nu. My face is the face of Ra. Mine eyes are the eyes of Hathor. Mine ears are the ears of Ap-uat. (6) My nose is the nose of Khent-sheps.[2] My lips are the lips of Anpu. My teeth are the teeth of Khepera. My neck is the neck of Isis, the divine lady. (7) My hands are the hands of Khnemu, the lord of Tattu. My fore-arms are the fore-arms of Neith, the lady of Sa´s. My backbone is the backbone of Sut. My privy member is the privy member of Osiris. My reins (8) are the reins of the lords of Kher-aba. My breast is the breast of the awful and terrible One. My belly and my backbone are the belly and backbone of Sekhet. My buttocks (9) are the buttocks of

[1. For the text, see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 56.

2. Varr. Khentet-khas, Khentet-khaset, and Khenti-sekhem.]

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the eye of Horus. My hips and thighs are the hips and thighs of Nut. My feet are the feet of Ptah. My fingers and leg-bones arc the fingers and leg-bones of the living (10) urŠi. There is no member of my body which is not the member of some god. Thoth shieldeth my body altogether, and I am [like] unto Ra every day. (11) None shall seize me by mine arms; none shall drag me away by my hand. And there shall do me hurt neither men, nor gods, nor sainted dead, nor they who have perished, nor any one of those of olden times, (12) nor any mortal, nor human being. I come forth and advance, and my name is unknown. I am yesterday, and my (13) name is 'Seer of millions of years.' I travel, I travel along the path of Horus the judge. I am the lord of eternity; I feel and I have power to perceive. I am the lord of the red crown. I am the Sun's eye, yea, (14) I am in my egg, in my egg. It is granted unto me to live therewith. I am in the Sun's eye, when it closeth, and I live by the strength thereof I come forth and I shine; (15) I enter in and I come to life. I am in the Sun's eye, my seat is on my throne, and I sit thereon within the eye. I am Horus who pass through millions of years. (16) I have governed my throne and I rule it by the words of my mouth; and whether [I] speak or whether [I] keep silence, I keep the balance even. Verily my forms are changed. I am the (17) god Unen, from season unto season; what is mine is within me. I am the only One born of an only One, who goeth round about in his course; (18) 1 am within the eye of the Sun. Things are not evil nor hostile unto me, nor are they against me. I open the door of heaven. I govern my throne, and I give [new] birth to myself on this day. [I am] not the Child who trod (19) the path of yesterday, but I am 'To-day' for untold nations. It is I who make you strong for millions of years, whether ye be in the heaven, or (20) in the earth, or in the south, or in the north, or in the west or in the east; fear of me is in your hearts. I am the pure one who dwell within the sacred eye. I shall not die (21) again. My hour resteth with you, but my forms are within my dwelling-place. I am he who is unknown, and the gods with rose-bright countenances are (22) with me. I am the unveiled one. The season wherein [the god] created heaven for me and enlarged the bounds of the earth and made great the progeny thereof cannot be found Out. (23) My name setteth itself apart and removeth from all evil things through the words which I speak unto you. I am he who riseth and shineth; the wall of walls; the only One, [son] of an only One. Ra (24) never lacketh his form, he never passeth away, he never passeth away. Verily, I say: I am the plant which cometh forth from Nu, and my mother is Nut. Hail, (25) O my Creator, I am he who hath no power to walk, the great knot within yesterday. My power is in my hand. I am not known, [but] I am he who knoweth (26) thee. I cannot be held with the hand, but I am he who can hold thee in his hand. [Hail] O Egg! [Hail] O Egg! I am Horus who live for millions of years, whose flame lighteth upon your faces and (27) blazeth in your hearts. I have the command of my throne, and I advance in mine hour. I have opened the paths, I have turned myself away from all evil. I am (28) the ape of gold, three palms and two fingers [high], which is without legs and without arms, and which dwelleth in the House of Ptah. I go forth even as goeth forth the ape Of (29) gold three palms and two fingers [high], which hath neither legs nor arms, and which dwelleth in the house of Ptah." When [thou] hast said this chapter thou shalt open a way and enter thereon.

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PLATE XXXIII.

 

Vignette: A lake of fire, at each corner of which is seated a dog-headed ape.[1]

Rubric: (1) Osiris Ani, triumphant, is girt about with [fine] raiment, he is shod with (2)white sandals, and he is anointed with very precious anta ointment; and a bull, (3) and herbs, and incense, and ducks, and flowers, and ale, and cakes have been offered unto him. And behold, thou shalt limn upon a clean tile (4) the image of a table of offerings in clean colours, and thou shalt bury it in a field whereon (5) swine have not trampled. If this word then be written upon it, he himself shall rise again, (6) and his children's children shall flourish even as Ra flourisheth without ceasing. He shall dwell in favour (7) in the presence of the king among the chiefs, and cakes and cups of drink and portions of meat shall be given unto him upon the table (8) of the great god. He shall not be thrust from any door in Amentet; he shall travel on (9) together with the kings of the north and of the south, and he shall abide with the (10) followers of Osiris near unto Un-nefer, for ever, and for ever, and for ever.

Vignette: a Tet,[2]

[1. A somewhat similar scene forms the vignette to Chapter CXXVI., but in addition to the apes there are two urŠi at each corner. The text reads: "Hail, ye four apes who sit in the bows of the boat of Ra, who make the right and truth of Neb-er-tcher to advance, who apportion unto me my weakness and my strength, who pacify the gods by the flame of your mouths, who give holy offerings unto the gods, and sepulchral meals of the tomb unto the shining ones, who feed upon right and truth, who are without falsehood, and who abominate wickedness. Destroy ye the evil which is in me, do away with mine iniquity, put away the wounds which I had upon earth, and destroy all wickedness which cleaveth unto me." [The apes say]: "Enter thou in and let nothing whatever oppose thee." "Grant ye that I may pass through the tomb, and that I may enter into Re-stau, and that I may go in through the hidden doors of the underworld, and that offerings and other things may be made unto me as unto those shining ones who pass into and out from the paths of the tomb, and who go through [the doors thereof].

2 The ### represents four pillars, i.e., the four quarters of heaven, or the whole universe. As a religious emblem it symbolizes the god Osiris. A fine collection of tets is exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian Room (Table-Case K, and Wall-Case, No. 114), and among them may be noted: No. 2097,.a blue glazed fa´ence pendent tet, with the horns, disk, and plumes No. 739, blue glazed fa´ence pendent tet, with five cross-bars, and No. 8260, lapis-lazuli pendent tet, with horns, disk, and plumes; No. 8275, carnelian tet; No. 8270, agate tet; No. 20,623, opaque blue glass tet inscribed with the name of its owner; No. 20,636, stone tet inlaid with lapis-lazuli, carnelian, plasma, and mother of emerald.]

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Text: [CHAPTER CLV.] (1) THE CHAPTER OF A TET OF GOLD: Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: "Thou risest, O still heart! (2) Thou shinest, O still heart! Place thou thyself upon my side. I have come arid I have brought unto thee a tet of gold; rejoice thou in it."

Appendix: In the late recension of this chapter (Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 75) the rubric is divided into two parts, which read: "To be recited over a Tet of gold inlaid (?) in sycamore wood, and placed on the neck of the shining one; and he shall pass in through the doors of the underworld by the might of the words here spoken. It shall set him in his place on the day of the new year among the followers of Osiris.

"If this chapter be known by the deceased he shall become perfect in the underworld. He shall not be thrust back at the doors of Amentet; cakes and ale and meat offerings shall be offered unto him upon the altars of Ra, or (as some say) of Osiris Un-nefer; and he shall triumph over his foes in the underworld for ever and for ever."

Vignette: A buckle, or tie.

Text: [CHAPTER CLVI.]. (1) THE CHAPTER OF A BUCKLE OF CARNELIAN.[1]

Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "The blood of Isis, the charms of Isis, (2) the power of Isis, are a protection unto me, the chief, and they crush that which I abhor."

Appendix: Rubric:[2] This chapter shall be said over a buckle of red jasper[3] (or carnelian) which hath been dipped in water of ankham flowers and inlaid in sycamore wood, and hath been placed on the neck of the shining one. If this chapter be inscribed upon it, it shall become the power of Isis, and it shall protect him; and Horus, the son of Isis, shall rejoice when he seeth it. No way shall be impassable to him, and one hand shall extend unto heaven, and the other unto earth. If this chapter be known [by the

[1. The Nebseni papyrus adds the words, "to be placed near the neck of this shining one."

2. See Maspero, MÚmoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre, p. 8.

3. The amulet of the buckle is usually made of carnelian, red jasper, red porphyry, red glass, or red fa´ence, but examples in grey and black stone and wood are also known at times it was made entirely of gold, but it was frequently set in gold only. Large wooden models of the buckle were placed in the wooden hands which were fastened on the breasts of coffins; they usually lay upon the left breast, and the tee on the right. In the fine collection of buckles in the British Museum the following are of interest: No. 20,641, pendent buckle of red glass inscribed with the Chapter of the Buckle No. 20,621, black stone pendent buckle, with hollow loop, inscribed with the Chapter of the Buckle; No. 20,646, grey stone buckle inscribed ###. No. 20,619, red glass (?) buckle set in a gold frame, and inscribed with a few words of the Chapter of the Buckle, and the name of Aah-mes the scribe; No. 8258, mottled glass buckle having the loop inlaid with blue composition; No. 8259, red fa´ence double buckle, pierced lengthwise for threading in a necklace.]

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deceased] he shall be among those who follow Osiris Un-nefer, triumphant. The gates of the underworld shall be opened unto him, and a homestead shall be given unto him, together with wheat and barley, in the Sekhet-Aaru; and the followers of Horus who reap therein shall proclaim his name as one of the gods who are therein.

Vignette: A heart.

Text: [CHAPTER XXIXB.]. (1) THE CHAPTER OF A HEART OF CARNELIAN. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "I am the Bennu, the soul of Ra, and the guide of the gods into (2) the underworld. The souls come forth upon earth to do the will of their ka's, and the soul of Osiris Ani cometh forth to do the will of his ka."

Vignette: A head-rest.

Text: [CHAPTER CLXVI.] (I) THE CHAPTER OF THE PILLOW WHICH IS PLACED UNDER THE HEAD OF OSIRIS ANI, TRIUMPHANT, TO WARD OFF WOES FROM THE DEAD BODY OF OSIRIS. (2) [Ani saith]: "Lift up thy head to the heavens, for I have knit thee together triumphantly. Ptah hath overthrown his foes and thine; all his enemies have fallen, and they shall never more rise up again, O Osiris."

 

 
 





PLATES XXXIII AND XXXIV.

 

Vignette: The mummy-chamber, arranged as a plan, representing the floor and walls laid flat, in fifteen compartments. In the centre, under a canopy, is place d the bier bearing the mummy of Ani, beside which stands the god Anubis,[1]

[1. In the Nebseni papyrus the text referring to Anubis reads: "Anubis, who dwelleth in the region of the embalmed, the chief of the holy house, layeth his hands upon the lord of life (i.e., the mummy),

It and provideth him with all that belongeth unto him, and saith: 'Flail to thee, thou beautiful one, the lord! Thou hast been gazed upon by the Sun's eye, thou hast been bound up by Ptah-Seker, thou hast been made whole by Anubis; breath hath been given unto thee by Shu, and thou hast been raised up by the fair one, the prince of eternity. Thou hast thine eyes. Thy right eye is in the sektet boat, and thy left eye is in the sektet boat. Thine eye-brows appear fair before the company of the gods. Thy brow is in the charge of Anubis. The back of thy head is in good case in tile presence of the sacred hawk. Thy fingers are stablished by written decree in the presence of the lord of Khemennu, and Thoth giveth unto thee the speech of the sacred books. Thy hair is in good case in the presence of Ptah-Seker. Osiris is in bliss, and reverence is done unto him before the company of the great gods. He looketh upon the great god, he is led on fair paths, he is made strong with meals of the tomb, and his enemies are cast down beneath him in presence of the company of the great gods who are in the great house of the aged one in Annu.'"]

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with hands outstretched over the body. At the foot of the bier kneels the goddess Isis, and at the head the goddess Nephthys, each being accompanied by a flame of fire, which is placed in the compartment immediately behind her. The Tet occupies the compartment immediately above the bier, and the jackal--emblematic of Anubis or Ap-uat--couchant on the tomb, with a sceptre having pendent menats--occupies the compartment below. The four children of Horus, or gods of the cardinal points--Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf--stand in the corners of the four adjoining compartments. In each of the two upper and outer compartments is the human-headed bird emblematic of the soul, standing on a pylon, the one on the right being turned to the west or setting sun, the other on the left facing the east or rising sun. In the right lower compartment stands the figure of the Perfected Soul; in the corresponding compartment on the left is a Ushabti figure.

Text [CHAPTER CLI.] [Isis saith:] "I have come to be a protector unto thee. I waft (2) unto thee air for thy nostrils, and the north wind, which cometh forth from the god Tmu, unto thy nose (3)- 1 have made whole thy lungs. I have made thee (4) to be like unto a god. Thine enemies have fallen beneath thy feet. (5, 6) Thou hast been made victorious in (7) Nut, and thou art mighty to prevail with the gods."

[Nephthys saith:] "(2) I have gone round about to protect thee, brother Osiris; (3) 1 have come to be a protector unto thee. [My strength shall be behind thee, my strength shall be behind thee, for ever. Ra hath heard thy cry, and the gods have granted that thou shouldst be victorious. Thou art raised up, and thou art victorious over that which hath been done unto thee. Ptah hath thrown down thy foes, and thou art Horus, the son of Hathor.]"[1]

[1. In Ani the text is corrupt, and the passage within brackets is translated from the following version (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 428):

maket-d ha-k sep sen t'etta setem nas-k an Ra smaaxeru an neteru thes-tu semaaxeru-k her arit erek xer en Ptah xeft-k entek Heru sa Het-Heru.]

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[The flame of Isis saith:] "I protect thee with this flame, and I drive away him (the foe) from the valley of the tomb, and I drive away the sand from thy feet. I embrace Osiris Ani, who is triumphant in peace and in right and truth."[1]

[The flame of Nephthys saith:] "I have come to hew in pieces. I am not hewn in pieces, nor will I suffer thee to be hewn in pieces. I have come to do violence, but I will not let violence be done unto thee, for I am protecting thee."

[The Tet saith:] "I have come quickly, and I have driven back the footsteps of the god whose face is hidden.[2] I have illumined his sanctuary. I stand behind the sacred Tet or, the day of repulsing disaster.[3] I protect thee, O Osiris."

[Mestha saith:] I am Mestha, thy son, O Osiris Ani, triumphant. I have come to protect thee, and I will make thine abode to flourish everlastingly. I have commanded Ptah, even as Ra himself commanded him."

[Hapi saith:] "I am Hapi thy son, O Osiris Ani, triumphant. I have come to protect thee. Thy head and thy limbs are knit together; and I have smitten down thine enemies beneath thee. I have given unto thee thy head for ever and for ever, O Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace."

[Tuamautef saith:] "I am thy beloved son Horus. I have come to avenge thee, O my father Osiris, upon him that did evil unto thee; and I have put him under thy feet for ever, and for ever, and for ever; O Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace."

[1. The text here is corrupt. Brit. Mus. papyrus, No. 10,010 (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 429) reads nuk ahu sa er teb ament xesef-a xesef su er teka set au seset-na set au setenem-na uat au-a em sa, "I surround with sand the hidden tomb, and drive away the violent one therefrom. I lighten the valley of the tomb, I cast light therein, I traverse the ways, and I protect [Osiris]."

2 Reading i-a em heh xesef nemmat kep-hra-f sehet' kep-f.

See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 428.

3 Variant hru xesef sat, "day of driving back slaughter."]

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[Qebhsennuf saith:] "I am thy son, O Osiris Ani, triumphant. I have come to protect thee. I have collected thy bones, and I have gathered together thy members. [I have brought thy heart and I have placed it upon its throne within thy body. I have made thy house to flourish after thee, O thou who livest for ever.]"[1]

[The bird which faceth the setting sun saith]: "Praise be to Ra when he setteth in the western part of heaven. Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace in the underworld, saith: 'I am a perfected soul,'"

[The bird which faceth the rising sun saith]: "Praise be to Ra when he riseth in the eastern part of heaven from Osiris Ani, triumphant."

[The Perfected Soul saith]: "I am a perfected soul in the holy egg of the abtu fish. I am the great cat which dwelleth in the seat of right and truth wherein riseth the god Shu."

[The text near the Ushabti Figure (Chapter VI.) reads]: Osiris Ani, the overseer, triumphant, saith: " Hail, shabti figure! If it be decreed that Osiris [Ani] shall do any of the work which is to be done in the underworld, let all that standeth in the way be removed from before him; whether it be to plough the fields, or to fill the channels with water, or to carry sand from [the East to the West]." The shabti figure replies: "I will do [it]; verily I am here [when] thou callest."

Vignette: Ani, with both hands raised in adoration, standing before a table of offerings; behind him is his wife holding lotus and other flowers in her left hand.

Text: [Chapter CX.] (1) HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF THE SEKHET-HETEPU, AND THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND OF GOING INTO AND OF COMING OUT FROM THE UNDERWORLD, AND OF ARRIVING IN THE SEKHET(2) AANRU, AND OF BEING IN PEACE IN THE GREAT CITY WHEREIN ARE FRESH BREEZES. Let me have power there. Let me become strong to plough there. (3) Let me reap there. Let me eat there. Let me drink there. [Let me woo there.][2] And let me do all these things there, even as they are done upon earth.

[1. In the papyrus of Ani the text of the end of the speech of Qebbsennuf appears to be corrupt the words within brackets are translated from other papyri, and the Egyptian would run as follows: an-na nek ab-k ta-a nek su her auset-f em xat-k serut-na pa-k emxet-k anx-tha t'etta.

2. Reading, with the Nebseni papyrus, nehep am.]

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Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: (4) "Set hath carried away Horus to see what is being built in the Field of Peace, and he spreadeth the air over (5) the divine soul within the egg in its day. He hath delivered the innermost part of the body of Horus from the holy ones of Akert (?).[1] Behold I have sailed in the mighty boat on the Lake of Peace.[2] I, even I, have crowned him in the House of (6) Shu. His starry abode reneweth its youth, reneweth its youth. I have sailed on its Lake that I may come unto its cities, and I have drawn nigh It unto the city Hetep.[3] For behold, I repose at the seasons [of Horus]. I have passed through the region of the company of the gods who are aged and venerable. (7) 1 have pacified the two holy Fighters[4] who keep ward upon life. I have done that which is right and fair, and I have brought an offering and have pacified the two holy Fighters. I have cut off the (9) hairy scalp of their adversaries, and I have made aft end of the (10) woes which befel [their] children; (11) I have done away all the evil which came against their souls; I have gotten dominion over it, (12) 1 have knowledge thereof. I have sailed forth on the waters [of the lake] (13) that I may come unto the cities thereof. I have power (14) over my mouth, being furnished [with] charms; let not. [the fiends] get the mastery over me, (16) let them not have dominion over me. May I be equipped in thy Fields of Peace. What thou wishest that shalt thou do, [saith the god]."

Vignette: The Sekhet-hetepet or "Fields of Peace," surrounded and intersected with streams. They contain the following:

(a.) Thoth, the scribe of the gods, holding pen and palette, introduces Ani, who is making an offering, and his ka to three gods who have the heads of a hare, serpent, and bull respectively, and are entitled pauti, " the company of the gods." Ani and a table of offerings in a boat. Ani addressing a hawk standing

[1. Reading, with the Nebseni papyrus, ma Akeru.

2. Adding from the Nebseni papyrus: as kua xenen-a uaa pen aa em Se-Hetep.

3. Adding from the Nebseni papyrus: renp-th renp-th xen-na em se-s er sper-a er nut-s xent-a er Hetep-sen entet.

4. I.e., Horus and Set.]

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on a pylon-shaped pedestal, before which are an altar and a god. Three ovals.[1] The legend reads un em hetep sexet nifu er fent, "Being at peace in the Field [of Peace], and having air for the nostrils."

(b.) Ani reaping wheat, with the words asex Ausar, "Osiris reaps"; guiding the oxen treading out the corn; standing with hands and holding the kherp sceptre, and kneeling before two vessels of red barley and wheat. The hieroglyphics seem to mean, "the food of the shining ones." Three ovals.[2]

(c.) Ani ploughing[3] with oxen in a part of the Fields of Peace called "Sekhet-aanre"; with the word sekau, to plough. The two lines of hieroglyphics read:--

re en hete'et atru 1000 em au-f an t'et usex-f an un remu neb am-f an hefau nebt am-f.

Chapter of the River-horse. The river is one thousand [cubits] in its length. Not can be told its width. Not exist fishes any in it, not [exist] serpents any in it.

[1. In the Nebseni papyrus they are called Qetqetmu, Hetepmu, and Urmu.

2. Instead of three, the Nebseni papyrus has four ovals, which are called Hetep, An (?), Uakhakha, and Neb-taui.

3 In the Turin papyrus, published by Lepsius, the ploughing, sowing, reaping and treading out the corn are all shown in one division, and the deceased stands in adoration before "Hapi, the father of the gods."

In the papyrus of Nebseni the deceased adores the company of the gods who live in the Field of Hetep, saying: "Hail to you, O ye lords of kas, I have come in peace into your fields to receive tchefau food. Grant ye that I may come to the great god daily, and that I may have sepulchral meals, and that my ka may be supplied with the meat and drink offered to the dead. May Osiris and the company of the gods, who dwell in the Field of Hetep, give a royal oblation, may they {footnote p. 365} grant meat and drink and all good things, and bandages and incense every day. And may I sit down at the table [of the god] daily to receive bread of his bread, and cakes, and wine, and milk, and tchefau food; and may I follow in the train of the god when he maketh his appearance in his festivals in Res-tau." (For the text see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 123.)]

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(d.) A boat bearing a flight of steps and floating on a stream;[1] above is the legend tehefau,[2] (?)~ A boat of eight oars, each end shaped like a serpent's head, bearing a flight of steps; at the stern is written and at the bows meter am Un-nefer, "the god therein is Un-nefer." The stream which flows on the convex side of the small island is called ashet pet, "flood (?) of [heaven]." On the other island is placed a flight of steps, by the side of which is written The space to the left represents the abode of the blessed dead, and is described as:--

duset xu au-sen meh sexef at meh xemt an saku aqeru asexet-sen

The seat of the shining ones. Their length is cubits seven the wheat cubits three the blessed dead who are perfected they reap [it].

[1. In the Turin papyrus this boat is called uda en Ra-Heru-xuti xeft t'a-f er Sexet Aanre: the boat of Ra-Harmachis when he goeth forth into the Field of Aanre.

2 In the Turin papyrus the words t'efu uru are written between the boats, the ends of which are shaped like serpents' heads.

3 In ancient papyri qeqsu is written, and in the Turin papyrus ###. In the Nebseni papyrus four gods dwell on this island, and the accompanying text says that they are "the great company of the gods in Sekhet-hetep; but in the Turin papyrus three gods only, whose names are Shu, Tefnut, and Seb respectively, are depicted.

4 A small division called the "birthplace of the gods" is not marked in the Ani papyrus, although it is found in that of Nebseni (see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. i., Bl. 123).]

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PLATES XXXV. AND XXXVI.

 

Vignette: A hall, within which, on the left, Ani stands before two tables of offerings bearing libation water and lotus-flowers, with hands raised, adoring Ra, hawk-headed.[1] Next are ranged seven cows, each one couchant before a table of offerings, and each having a menat attached to the neck;[2] and a bull standing before a table of offerings. Behind them are four rudders; and on the extreme right are four triads of gods, each triad having a table of offerings bearing a libation vase and a lotus-flower (?).

Text: [CHAPTER CXLVIII.]. (i) Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "Homage to thee, (2) O thou lord, thou lord of right and truth, the One, the lord of eternity and creator (3) of everlastingness, I have come unto thee, O my lord Ra. I have made (4) meat offerings unto the seven kine and unto their bull. O ye who give (5) cakes and ale to the shining ones, grant ye to my soul to be with

[1. In the Turin papyrus, published by Lepsius, the god wears the triple or atef crown instead of a disk and serpent, and the text describes him as "Osiris the lord of eternity, the prince, the lord of everlastingness, the great god, the governor of Akertet." Behind the god stands a female figure wearing upon her head, emblematic of "the beautiful Amenta," with both her hands "extended to receive" the deceased. The address to Osiris and Amenta by the deceased reads: "Homage to thee, O thou Bull of Amentet, Prince, lord of everlastingness, the great god, the governor of Akertet, receive thou the Osiris into the beautiful Amentet in peace, and may it stretch forth its hands to receive me."

2 In other papyri the names of these animals are given as follows:

het kau nebt tcher, "the dwelling of the has of the lord of the universe"; (2) sentet utheset, "orbit, the raising of the god"; (3) amenit xentet auset-s, "the hidden one dwelling in her place"; (4) hatet sahet, "the divine noble one of the north (?)"; (5) urt meru tesert, "the greatly beloved, red of hair"; (6) xnemt anxit, "the consort of life"; (7) sexem ren-s em abet-s, "her name prevaileth in her dwelling"; (8) ka t'ai kauit, "Bull, making the kine to be fruitful."]

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you. (6) May Osiris Ani, triumphant, be born upon your thighs; may he be like unto one (7) Of you for ever and for ever; and may he become a glorious being (8) in the beautiful Amenta."

[Address to the Rudders]: "(1) Hail, thou beautiful Power,[1] thou beautiful it rudder of the northern heaven."

"(2) Hail, thou who goest round about heaven, thou pilot of the world, thou beautiful rudder of the western heaven."

"(3) Hail, thou shining one, who livest[2] in the temple wherein are the gods in visible forms, thou beautiful rudder of the eastern heaven."

"(4) Hail, thou who dwellest in the temple of the bright-faced ones,[3] thou it beautiful rudder[4] of the southern heaven."

[Address to the four Triads[5]]: "(5) Hail, ye gods who are above the earth, ye pilots of the underworld."

"(6) Hail, ye mother-gods who are above the earth, who are in the underworld, and who are in the House of Osiris."

"(7) Hail, ye gods, ye pilots of Tasert, ye who are above the earth, ye pilots of the underworld."

"(8) Hail, ye followers of Ra, who are in the train of Osiris."

Vignette: Ani standing before a table of offerings, with both hands raised in adoration. Behind him is his wife, wearing a lotus-flower and a cone upon her head, and holding a sistrum. and lotus-flower in her left hand.

Text: [CHAPTER CLXXXV. (?)] (I) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO OSIRIS THE DWELLER IN AMENTET, UN-NEFER WITHIN ABTU, Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: Hail, O my lord, who dost traverse (2) eternity, and whose existence endureth for ever. Hail, Lord of Lords, King of Kings, Prince, the God of gods who (3) live with Thee, I have come unto Thee Make thou for me a seat with those who are in the underworld, and who adore (4) the images of thy ka (5) and who are among those who [endure] for (6) millions of millions of years

[1. Variant ka-f nefer "his beautiful ka."

2. Reading xenti her ab.

3. Reading her abu het teser.

4. In the Turin and the older papyri each rudder is accompanied by an utchat.

5. In the Turin papyrus the four children of Horus take the place of these triads.]

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. . . . . . . . [1] (10) May no delay arise for me in Ta-mera. Grant thou (11) that they all may come unto me, great (12) as well as small. Mayest thou grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani [the power] to go into and to come forth (13) from the underworld; and suffer him not to be driven back at the gates of the Tuat."


 

 
 




PLATE XXXVII.

 

Vignette: A shrine wherein stands Sekeri-Ausar neb setait neter aa neb Neter-xert Seker-Osiris, lord of the hidden place, the great god, the lord of the underworld.

He wears the white crown with feathers, and holds in his hands the sceptre, flail, and crook.

The goddess Hathor, in the form of a hippopotamus, wearing upon her head a disk and horns; in her right hand she holds an unidentified object, and in her

[1. The text of all this passage is corrupt, and the version here given is little more than a suggestion.

2. The version of the CLXXXVth Chapter given by Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 211) reads:--

anet'-hra-k neter pen seps aa menx ser er neheh, xenti auset-f em sektet aa xaau em atetet tata nef hennu em pet em ta seqai pat rexi aa sefsefet-f em abu en reth xu mu ertat baiu-f Tettet sefsefet-f em Suten-henen ertai axemu-f em Annu aa xeperu-f em abti i-nek ab-a xer maa hati-a an ker ta-k un-a emma anxiu xet-a xent-a am sesiu-k.

Homage to thee god this sacred great, beneficent, prince of eternity, dweller in his seat in the Sektet boat great, diademed in the atet boat, are given to him praises in heaven and in earth, exalted by the ancients and by mankind, the greatness of his might is in the hearts of men, shining spirits, and the dead, placing his souls in Tattu, his might in Suten-henen, and placing the visible emblems of himself in Annu, and the might of his forms in the place of purification. I have come to thee, my heart is right, my breast is without deceit, grant thou that I may be among the living, that I may sail down and that I may sail up among thy followers.]

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left the emblem of life. Before her are tables of meat and drink offerings and flowers. Behind the hippopotamus, the divine cow, Meh-urit, symbolizing the same goddess, looks out from the funeral mountain, wearing the menat on her neck. At the foot of the mountain is the tomb; and in the foreground grows a group of flowering plants.

Text: [CHAPTER CLXXXVI.] Hathor, lady of Amentet, dweller in the land of Urt, lady of Ta-sert, the Eye of Ra, the dweller in his brow, the beautiful Face in the Boat of Millions of Years.[1]. . . . . . . .

[1. The few remaining words are corrupt.]

 

 
 
 
 
 

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