New Trends in the 19th & 20th Centuries



 




Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map


 





The Modern Style




Art Nouveau




Characterized by decorative, curvilinear designs, an innovative new style
spread rapidly throughout Europe at the end of the 19th century. Following
exotic trends while remaining faithful to regional traditions, this modern style
could be seen in art, design, and architecture. It produced particularly fine
results in the decorative arts, graphic work, and illustration.




 


Otto Eckmann

Hermann Obrist

Henri van de Velde

Victor Horta

 




See Also Artists of Art Nouveau



Aubrey Beardsley (Beardsley's Vision)

Charles Rennie Mackintosh

collection:
Blaine Mahlon 

Blaine Mahlon
"Nova Venus"

Gustav Klimt

Alphonse Mucha "Master of Art Nouveau

Franz von Bayros

Wegener Gerda


Louis Icart 


see also:
Pin-Up Art
 

 

From the end of the 19th century until World War I, the general desire for something new and modern produced innovation in the arts across Europe. Sharing certain formal elements and theoretical bases, the "modern style" was known by different names in each country: Art Nouveau in France, the Liberty style in England, Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, Stile Liberty in Italy, and Modernista or Modernisme in Spain.
A combination of faith in the improvements that industrial society would bring and a rejection of stylistic eclecticism proved to be the impetus for the creation of a new artistic language that took its inspiration directly from nature. Rich in references to animals and plants and characterized by sinuous asymmetrical lines, the work was lively, highly decorative, and exciting.
 

 

 


Beardsley
 The Dancer's Reward


see also:

 
Aubrey Beardsley

Beardsley's Vision:

Salome
Arturian Legend
Lysistrata
True History
 

The New Style

The new artistic language was based on an emphasis on "line-force'', which, according to the Belgian painter and architect Henri van de Velde, held the energy of the person that produced it. Part of its appeal was the desire to fulfil a fundamental theoretical principle of Modernism: the application of the same aesthetic criteria to all aspects of industrial production. From construction to cabinet-making, from ceramics to fashion, and from graphic design to wrought-iron work, the functional was combined with the decorative so that useful items could also be beautiful. The middle classes of modern society, rapidly gaining in economic status, now looked for artistic quality in the industrial products that they purchased. In the field of painting, they favoured organic and naturalistic themes, which were expressed through a new relationship between line and surface. Linear and curvilinear arabesques and cool, transparent colours made up compositions based on undulating rhythms in asymmetrical patterns. The thickness of "whiplash" and "dynamographic" lines was dependent on how much energy they were intended to hold.

Characterized as Art Nouveau, this clearly distinguishable style influenced the many artistic movements emerging from Post-Impressionist art, such as the Nabis and the Symbolists, in the last decade of the century. In central Europe, among the members of the Secession, its influence resulted in works full of emotional expression, not just basic descriptive graphics. Henri van de Velde, English artist Walter Crane, the Germans Otto Eckmann and Hermann Obrist, and, above all, Gustav Klimt and Edvard Munch how decoration in art could have both sociological and existential meanings. Noted architects, painters, and sculptors, who had united in breakaway Secession groups,applied themselves to the design of household objects and furniture in the pursuit of a "global art1'. This would produce an overall harmony, in which there was "a reciprocal assimilation of an interior affinity" among all forms. Horta and van de Velde in Belgium, Guimard in France, Mackintosh in Scotland, Gaudi in Spain, Wagner, Olbrich, and Hoffmann in Austria, and Basile in Italy all used new techniques and materials in a modern, international language. The style was recognizable everywhere, even when it paid respect to local indigenous features, which ranged from Gothic to Rococo, from Celtic art to Moorish art.

 

see also:

 
Gustav Klimt

 


see also:
Alphonse Mucha
"Master of Art Nouveau


Gustav Klimt, Danae, 1907-08.

The image of the maiden loved by Jove is elliptical in construction and composed of a
mosaic of colours and interlaced arabesques. Reminiscent of Byzantine artificiality,
they remove any sense of depth and produce an effect of symbolic abstraction.

 


see also:
Wegener Gerda




 


see also:
Louis Icart 


A SWEET ART

In the first quarter of the 20th century, the influence of the new modern art styles reached even the smallest areas of artistic enterprise, including that of pastry-making. During the Second Empire and then in the belle epoque, pastry-making reached a particularly high level of artistry - the Sachertorte, a miraculous confection invented in Vienna and exclusive to the hotel of the same name, is still enjoyed today. The Modern style, and later Art Deco, had a particular influence on the decoration of pastries, determining its overall style, range of colours, and ornamental details. The art of pastry-making lives on in many European countries, and the finished products are as visually pleasing and appetizing as those that delighted gourmets a century ago. To many devotees, the perfectly-made tart, cake, or pastry is considered more delicate and ephemeral than any piece of pottery, its aesthetic appearance at least as important as its taste.

Modern Art
painting, sculpture, architecture, and graphic arts characteristic of the 20thcentury and of the later part of the 19th century. Modern art embraces a wide variety of movements, theories, and attitudes whose modernism resides particularly in a tendency to reject traditional, historical, or academic forms and conventions in an effort to create an art more in keeping with changed social, economic, and intellectual conditions.

The beginnings of modern painting cannot be clearly demarcated, but there is general agreement that it started in 19th-century France. The paintings of Gustave Courbet, Edouard Manet, and the Impressionists represent a deepening rejection of the prevailing academic tradition and a quest for a more naturalistic representation of the visual world. These painters' Postimpressionist successors can be viewed as more clearly modern in their repudiation of traditional techniques and subject matter and their expression of a more subjective personal vision. From about the 1890s on, a succession of varied movements and styles arose that are the core of modern art and that represent one of the high
points of Western visual culture. These modern movements include Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Suprematism, Constructivism, Metaphysical painting, De Stijl, Dada, Surrealism, Social Realism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop art, Op art, Minimal art, and Neo-Expressionism. Despite the enormous variety seen in these movements, most of them are characteristically modern in their investigation of the potentials inherent within the painting medium itself for expressing a spiritual response to the changed conditions of life in the 20th century. These conditions include acceleratedtechnological change, the expansion of scientific knowledge and understanding, the seeming irrelevance of some traditional sources of value and belief, and an expanding awareness of non-Western cultures.

An important trend throughout the 20th century has been that of abstract, or nonobjective, art—i.e., art in which little or no attempt is made to objectively reproduce or depict the appearances or forms of objects in the realm of nature or the existing physical world. It should also be noted that the development of photography and of allied photomechanical techniques of reproduction has had an obscure but certainly important influence on the development of modern art, because these mechanical techniques freed (or deprived) manually executed drawing and painting of their hitherto crucial role as the only means of accurately depicting the visible world.

Modern architecture arose out of the rejection of revivals, classicism, eclecticism, and indeed all adaptations of past styles to the building types of industrializing late 19th- and 20th-century society. It also arose out of efforts to create architectural forms and styles that would utilize and reflect the newly available building technologies of structural iron and steel, reinforced concrete, and glass. Until the spread of Postmodernism, modern architecture also implied the rejection of the applied ornament and decoration characteristic of premodern Western buildings. The thrust of modern architecture has been a rigorous concentration on buildings whose rhythmical arrangement of masses and shapes states a geometric theme in light and shade. This development has been closely tied to the new building types demanded by an industrialized society, such as office buildings housing corporate management or government administration. Among the most important trends and movements of modern architecture are the Chicago School, Functionalism, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, De Stijl, the Bauhaus, the International Style, the New Brutalism, and Postmodernism.
(Encyclopaedia Britannica)
  

Art Deco
also called Style Moderne, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. Its name was derived from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in 1925, where the style was first exhibited. Art Deco design represented modernism turned into fashion. Its products included both individually crafted luxury items and mass-produced wares, but, in either case, the intention was to create a sleek and antitraditional elegance that symbolized wealth and sophistication.

The distinguishing features of the style are simple, clean shapes, often with a “streamlined” look; ornament that is geometric or stylized from representational forms; and unusually varied, often expensive materials, which frequently include man-made substances (plastics, especially bakelite; vita-glass; and ferroconcrete) in addition to natural ones (jade, silver, ivory, obsidian, chrome, and rock crystal). Though Art Deco objects were rarely mass-produced, the characteristic features of the style reflected admiration for the modernity of the machine and for the inherent design qualities of machine-made objects (e.g., relative simplicity, planarity, symmetry, and unvaried repetition of elements).
(Encyclopaedia Britannica)


see also:
Pin-Up Art

 

 
 

_______________________
________________
 

Otto Eckmann

(b Hamburg, 19 Nov 1865; d Badenweiler, 11 June 1902).
German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Jugend and Pan. In 1899–1900 he collaborated with Karl Klingspor at Rudhardsche Schriftgiesserei, Offenbach, to develop a new typeface named Eckmann.

 


Otto Eckmann
The Coming of Spring
, tapestry, 1896

 


_______________________
________________
 

Hermann Obrist

(b Kilchberg, Switzerland, 23 May 1862; d Munich, 26 Feb 1927).
Swiss artist, craftsman and teacher. After studying science and medicine at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (1885–7), he travelled in England and Scotland in 1887. There the Arts and Crafts Movement influenced his decision to turn his attentions to the applied arts. Following brief studies at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Karlsruhe and an apprenticeship as a potter, his ceramics and furniture won gold medals at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. In 1890 he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, before visiting Berlin and Florence, where he experimented in marble sculpture and established an embroidery studio in which his own designs could be carried out; he moved his studio to Munich in 1894.

 


Hermann Obrist
Design for a Memorial
1895

Hermann Obrist
A Study of Moving
1895

 


_______________________
________________
 


see also:
Blaine Mahlon

*
Blaine Mahlon
"Nova Venus"


 


see also:
Norman Lindsay
"Love on Earth"


 


see also:
Franz von Bayros


Art Nouveau

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

ornamental style of art that flourished between about 1890and 1910 throughout Europe and the United States. Art Nouveau is characterized by its use of a long, sinuous, organic line and was employed most often in architecture, interior design, jewelry and glass design, posters, and illustration. It was a deliberate attempt to create a new style, free of the imitative historicism that dominated much of 19th-century art and design. Art Nouveau developed first in England and soon spread to the European continent, where it was called Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, Stile Floreale (or Stile Liberty) in Italy, and Modernismo (or Modernista) in Spain. The term Art Nouveau was coined by a gallery in Paris that exhibited much of this work.

In England the style's immediate precursors were the Aestheticism of the illustrator
Aubrey Beardsley, who depended heavily on the expressive quality of organic line, and the Arts and Crafts Movement of William Morris, who established the importance of a vital style in the applied arts. On the European continent, Art Nouveau was also influenced by experiments with expressive line by the painters Paul Gauguin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The movement was also partly inspired by a vogue for the linear patterns of Japanese prints (ukiyo-e).

The distinguishing ornamental characteristic of Art Nouveau is its undulating, asymmetrical line, often taking the form of flower stalks and buds, vine tendrils, insect wings, and other delicate and sinuous natural objects; the line may be elegant and graceful or infused with a powerfully rhythmic and whiplike force. In the graphic arts the line subordinates all other pictorial elements—form, texture, space, and colour—to its own decorative effect. In architecture and the other plastic arts, the whole of the three-dimensional form becomes engulfed in the organic, linear rhythm, creating a fusion between structure and ornament. Architecture particularly shows this synthesis of ornament and structure; a liberal combination of materials—ironwork, glass, ceramic, and brickwork—was employed, for example, in the creation of unified interiors in which columns and beams became thick vines with spreading tendrils and windows became both openings for light and air and membranous outgrowths of the organic whole. This approach was directly opposed to the traditional architectural values of reason and clarity of structure.

There were a great number of artists and designers who worked in the Art Nouveau style. Some of the more prominent were the Scottish architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who specialized in a predominantly geometric line and particularly influenced the Austrian Sezessionstil; the Belgian architects Henry van de Velde and Victor Horta, whose extremely sinuous and delicate structures influenced the French architect Hector Guimard, another important figure; the American glassmaker Louis Comfort Tiffany; the French furniture and ironwork designer Louis Majorelle; the Czechoslovakian graphic designer-artist Alphonse Mucha; the French glass and jewelry designer René Lalique; the American architect Louis Henry Sullivan, who used plantlike Art Nouveau ironwork to decorate his traditionally structured buildings; and the Spanish architect and sculptor Antonio Gaudí, perhaps the most original artist of the movement, who went beyond dependence on line to transform buildings into curving, bulbous, brightly coloured, organic constructions.

After 1910 Art Nouveau appeared old-fashioned and limited and was generally abandoned as a distinct decorative style. It was important, however, in moving toward the 20th-century aesthetic of unity of design.
 

 


_______________________
________________
 











Henri van de Velde
Poster for a Tropon food product, 1898





 

Henri van de Velde

The work of Henri van de Velde (1863-1957), Belgian painter, architect, theorist, and designer of furniture and objets d'art, bore the same marks of dynamism and abstraction found in compatriot Victor Horta's final works. He was the chief continental advocate of the ideas of William Morris, sharing the search for a clear style with rational structures and similar concerns for the role of the artist in society. Van de Velde strongly supported the need to match art with industry, but his emphasis on the aesthetic value of this marriage meant that he did not believe in mass production. His contributions to the decorative arts - from door handles to complete interior plans for houses - mainly featured ribbonlike, sinuous lines bordering voids. The technique was dominated by a nervous charge that produced a synthetic and dynamic interpretation of the "whiplash" effect.

 


Henri van de Velde
Garden in Kalmhout

 

 


Van De Velde


(born April 3, 1863, Antwerp, Belg. - died Oct. 25, 1957, Zürich, Switz.)
In full Henry Clemens Van De Velde Belgian architect and teacher who ranks with his compatriot Victor Horta as an originator of the Art Nouveau style, characterized by longsinuous lines derived from naturalisticforms.
By designing furniture and interiors for the Paris art galleries of Samuel Bing in 1896, van de Velde was responsible for bringing the Art Nouveau style to Paris. Buthe was interested not so much in the style as in the philosophy of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement in England. Van de Velde's most vital contributions to modern design were made as a teacher in Germany, where his name became known through the exhibition of furnished interiors at Dresden in 1897.
In 1902 he went to Weimar as artistic adviser to the grand duke of Saxe-Weimar. There he reorganized the Kunstgewerbeschule (arts-and-crafts school) and the academy of fine art and thus laid the foundations for Walter Gropius' amalgamation of the two bodies into the Bauhaus in1919. Like the progressive German designers at the time, van de Velde was connected with the Deutscher Werkbund, and he designed the theatre for the Werkbund Exposition in Cologne in 1914.
Despite official appointments in Belgium, van de Velde after 1918 made no further contributions to architecture or design.A valuable extract from his Memoirs (1891–1901) was published in the Architectural Review, 112:143–148 (September 1952).
 

 
     
 


Henry van de Velde
Weimar Academy of Fine Arts
1907

     
 


Henri van de Velde
Chaise


Henri van de Velde
Banquette

 

 

 
 

Henri van de Velde
Candelabra


Henri van de Velde
Ecritoire et fauteuil

   
 

 

 


Henri van de Velde
Hotel "Otlet", 1894

 

 


 

VAN DE VELDE AND THE "SPEAKING LINE"

Of all the Modernist architects, Henri van de Velde was the one who best translated and put into practice the theories of Einfuhlung to give meaning to his work. He based his designs on the principle that every part must satisfy an aspect of the mind: one element would induce tranquility, another excitement, another surprise, and another relaxation. In a series of essays written between 1902 and 1903, van de Velde discussed the concept of the "speaking line", which he claimed to be a feature distinguishing every historical period and every civilization. He maintained that the slightest of movements, the subtlest change in rhythm, and the smallest variation in the timing or distance of emphasis were
all responses to specific moods or states of mind. He defined the modern line as the malleable and elastic product flowing from a primitive current of energy. This was such a tangible and impatient force that it would not allow anything to get in between its points of departure and its final objective.
 

 


Interior of the Paris shop La Maison Moderne, designed for Julius Meier Graefe, 1898

 


_______________________
________________
 

Victor Horta
Hotel van Etvelde, Brussels
 


Victor Horta

born Jan. 6, 1861, Ghent - died Sept. 8, 1947, Brussels
an outstanding architect of the Art Nouveau style, who ranks with Henry van de Velde and Paul Hankar as a pioneer of modern Belgian architecture.
Trained at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, 1876–81, Horta became a pupil of the Neoclassical architect Alphonse Balat. His first independent building, the four-storied Hotel Tassel in Brussels (1892–93), was among the first continental examples of Art Nouveau, although it incorporated Neo-Gothic and Neo-Rococo stylistic elements. An important feature was its octagonal hall with a staircase leading to various levels. The curved line, characteristic of the Art Nouveau style, was used on the facade and also in the interior. Other buildings in Brussels in his rich, elegant style are Hotel Solvay (1895–1900), notable for the plastic treatment of its facade, and Hotel Winssingers (1895–96), as well as his own house on the rue Americaine (1898). His chiefwork is the Maison du Peuple, Brussels (1896–99), which was the first structure in Belgium to have a largely iron and glass facade. In its auditorium the iron roof beams are both structural and decorative.
After 1900 Horta simplified his style, using decoration more sparingly and eliminating exposed iron. In 1912 he became the director of the academy and designed the Palais des Beaux-Arts (1922–28) in a simple and severe classical style; his last major undertaking was the central railway station in Brussels, begun just before World War II.

 

 

 


Victor Horta
Tassel House, Brussels

 

 


Victor Horta
Staircase of the Tassel House


Victor Horta
Tassel House, Brussels

 

 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy