The 18th and 19th Centuries


 

 



Neoclassicism and Romanticism

 



(Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map)
 

 
 



Tommaso Minardi

Pietro Tenerani

Fleury-Francois Richard




see collections:


Pierre-Henri Revoil



Paul Delaroche



Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin




 

 


THE ITALIAN PURISTS


In Italy, Purists, in common with the Nazarenes, shared a reaction against academic dogma. Although they were not preoccupied with religious and philosophical matters, they rejected chiaroscuro, plasticity of form, and courtly mannerisms. The objectives of the movement, as written in 1843 by Antonio Bianchini and signed by Tommaso Minardi (1787-1871) and the sculptor Pietro Tenerani (1789-1869), were to rediscover the art of Cimabuek, Fra Angelico, and the early works of Raphael.

 

 

 


Tommaso Minardi
Self Portrait
1807
 

Tommaso Minardi

(b Faenza, 4 Dec 1787; d Rome, 12 Jan 1871).

Italian painter, draughtsman, teacher and theorist. He studied drawing with the engraver Giuseppe Zauli (1763–1822) who imbued Minardi with his enthusiasm for 15th-century Italian art and introduced him to his large collection of engravings after the work of Flemish artists such as Adriaen van Ostade. However, Minardi was strongly influenced by the Neo-classical painter Felice Giani, who ran a large workshop in Faenza, and whose frescoes of mythological scenes (1804–5) at the Palazzo Milzetti he saw being painted. In 1803 he went to Rome on an annual stipend provided by Count Virgilio Cavina of Faenza (1731–1808), and he received (1803–8) additional financial assistance from the Congregazione di S Gregorio. He was given the use of Giani’s studio and through him met Vincenzo Camuccini who, with Canova, dominated the artistic establishment in Rome at that time. Although Minardi learnt the precepts of Neo-classicism from Camuccini, he did not share his interest in heroic art. His first works done in Rome show his interest in the theme of master and acolyte. In Socrates and Alcibiades (1807; Faenza, Pin. Com.), for example, he has included himself among a group of elderly philosophers and young students who are placed on either side of a portrait bust of Zauli. He sent this drawing to his patrons, the Congregazione di S Gregorio, no doubt to reassure them of his aptitude and moral correctness. Supper at Emmaus (c. 1807; Faenza, Pin. Com.) was another painting destined for the same patrons. The confined pictorial space, with a single source of light entering through a small window, and the casual poses of the figures are reminiscent of Flemish art and of the works of the northern Caravaggisti, familiar to the artist through engravings. From 1808 to 1813 he had an alunnato from the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna and sent back the painting Diogenes (1813; Bologna, Pin. N.), which is unusual both in its bold design and large size.

 

 


Tommaso Minardi
The Virginof the Rosary
1840
 

 


Tommaso Minardi
Omero cieco in casa del pastore Glauco
 

 


Tommaso Minardi

La Missione degli Apostoli

 

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Pietro Tenerani

(b Torano, Massa e Carrara, 11 Nov 1789; d Rome, 14 Dec 1869).

Italian sculptor. From 1803 he trained under Lorenzo Bartolini at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Carrara, where he was also influenced by his uncle, Pietro Marchetti ( fl 1789–1850), the professor of sculpture, and by the French painter Jean-Baptiste Frédéric Desmarais (1756–1813). In 1813 he won a scholarship to study in Rome and moved there in 1814. He visited art exhibitions and museums, took lessons in painting the nude at the Académie de France and attended the studio of Gaspare Landi. As a fundamental test for all aspiring sculptors, he copied one of The Dioscuri, colossal Roman statues of Castor and Pollux located on Monte Cavallo (now Piazza del Quirinale), though he destroyed his copy. In 1816 he received significant recognition by winning the Premio dell’Anonimo, instituted by Canova, for his much-acclaimed Risen Redeemer (untraced). Towards the end of 1815 he came into contact with Bertel Thorvaldsen and worked with him in his studio in the Piazza Barberini.
 

 

Pietro Tenerani
Flora
1840


 

 

Pietro Tenerani
Psyche in a Faint


 

 

Pietro Tenerani
Portrait Bust of Tatyana Stroganova


 

 

Pietro Tenerani
Sculptural Portrait of Prince Mikhail Vorontsov

 

 


Pietro Tenerani
Bust of a Girl
1837

 

 


Pietro Tenerani
History

 

 


Pietro Tenerani
Monument to Maria Colonna Lante

 


Pietro Tenerani
Monument to Mary Bold, Princess Sapieha

 


Pietro Tenerani
Tomb of Eugene de Beauharnais
 

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THE FRENCH PRIMITIVES


Two students of David, Pierre-Henri Revoil (1776-1842), an author of medieval romances, and Fleury-Francois Richard (1777-1852), heralded what was to become the troubadour style by reviving the subjects and style or the medieval age in their paintings. A vision of chivalry was the subject of Revoil's The Tourney, exhibited at the Salon of 1812. His research into the costumes and architecture was conducted with the scrupulous love and care becoming to the illumination of a medieval codex, and he achieved a superb vision of the period. By contrast, Paul Delaroche (1776-1856) interpreted historical, religious, and literary subjects with factual accuracy and a particularly theatrical tone. Another medievalist. Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin (1809-64), imitated the style and iconography of the Italian artists, drawing upon the Byzantine and Giotto-inspired repertories for his frescos in the church of Saint-Germain-des-Pres in Paris (1846).


 

 

Pierre-Henri Revoil

(b Lyon, 12 June 1776; d Lyon, 19 March 1842).

French painter and collector. He entered the Ecole de Dessin in Lyon around 1791 as a pupil of Alexis Grognard (1752–1840). He then became a designer in a wallpaper factory. In 1795 he began working in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, where, with Fleury Richard, Comte Auguste de Forbin, François-Marius Granet and Louis Ducis, he belonged to what David’s pupils called the ‘parti aristocratique’. In 1800 he published with Forbin, who remained a friend, a comedy that was performed at the Théâtre du Vaudeville, Sterne à Paris, ou le voyageur sentimental. In 1802, on the occasion of the laying of the first stone of the Place Bellecoeur in Lyon by the First Consul, Révoil executed a large and elaborately allegorical drawing, Bonaparte Rebuilding the Town of Lyon (preparatory drawings, Paris, Louvre, and Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), which was the basis for a painting exhibited in the Salon of 1804 (destr. by the artist, 1816). During the same period he composed a number of religious paintings, for example In Honour of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Christ on the Cross (both Lyon, St Nizier). In 1807 Révoil was appointed a teacher in the recently founded Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. His teaching was marked by considerable erudition and contributed to the birth of the ‘Lyon school’, which came to the fore in the 1820s.
 


Pierre-Henri Revoil
The Tourney
1812

 

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Fleury-Francois Richard
Francois I Presented to Louis XII
 

Fleury-Francois Richard

(b Lyon, 25 Feb 1777; d Ecully, Rhône, 14 March 1852).

French painter. After being taught by Alexis Grognard (1752–1840) at the Ecole de Dessin in Lyon, he entered Jacques-Louis David’s studio in 1796, where he was part of the group that included Pierre Révoil, Comte Auguste de Forbin and François-Marius Granet. His earliest works, such as Death of Constantine (untraced), were in a banal Neo-classical style. However, he exhibited a painting in the Salon of 1800 that was novel in both subject and atmosphere: St Blandine (untraced; known from a drawing by A. M. Monsaldy, Paris, Bib. N.). It honoured a medieval saint, a heroine who was French, Christian and from Lyon; the scene was set in a crypt painted from life (St Irénée in Lyon) and exploited a strong chiaroscuro. Henceforth Richard took his inspiration from French history. At the Salon of 1802 he exhibited Valentina of Milan Weeping over the Death of her Husband (untraced; known from an engraving by Auguste Fauchery), which proved to be a huge success. The painting was hailed as an innovation and can be considered the first picture in the TROUBADOUR STYLE. Richard combined the genre scene and anecdote from national history, using a technique inherited from 17th-century Dutch painters. Wishing, as he wrote, to ‘ennoble the humble bambocciata tradition’, he introduced a moral example of the widow faithful to her husband’s memory. The picture owed its success to the fact that Richard had both displayed a certain exoticism by placing the figure in a medieval oratory and transposed the severe, classical exemplum virtutis into a simpler and more moving genre.
 

 


Fleury-Francois Richard
Valentine of Milan Mourning her Husband, the Duke of Orleans

1802
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
 

 


Fleury-Francois Richard
Death of the Prince de Talmont

1823

 


Fleury-Francois Richard
Little Red Riding Hood

 

see collections:

Pierre-Henri Revoil

Paul Delaroche

Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin

 

 

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