The 18th and 19th Centuries


 

 



Neoclassicism and Romanticism

 



(Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map)

 

 



Nazarenes


 


 



Ludwig Vogel

Johann Anton Ramboux


Josef Fuhrich

Carl Philipp Fohr

Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow




 

 
Nazarenes



(Encyclopaedia Britannica)


member of Lucas Brotherhood , or Brotherhood of Saint Luke , German Nazarener , or Lukasbund one of an association formed by a number of young German painters in 1809 to return to the medieval spirit in art. Reacting particularly against 18th-century Neoclassicism, the brotherhood was the first effective anti academic movement in European painting. The Nazarenes believed that all art should serve a moral or religious purpose; they admired painters of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance and rejected most subsequent painting (promulgated by the European academies), believing that it abandoned religious ideals in favour of artistic virtuosity. They also thought that the mechanical routine of the academy system could be avoided by a return to the more intimate teaching situation of the medieval workshop. For this reason, they worked and lived together in a semimonastic existence.

The brotherhood's original members were six Vienna Academy students. Four of them, Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel, and Johann Konrad Hottinger, moved in 1810 to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of Sant'Isidoro. There they were joined by Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm von Schadow, and others who at various times were associated with the movement. They soon acquired the originally derisive nickname Nazarenes because of their affectation of biblical style of hair and dress. The major project of the Nazarenes was to revive the medieval art of fresco painting. They were fortunate in receiving two important commissions, the fresco decoration of the Casa Bartholdy (1816–17) and the Casino Massimo (1817–29) in Rome, which brought their work to international attention. By the time of the completion of the Casino Massimo frescoes, all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had dissolved.

The art of the Nazarenes, consisting largely of religious subjects executed in a conventional naturalistic style, was, for the most part, unimpressive, characterized by overcrowded compositions, over attention to detail, and lack of colouristic or formal vitality. Nevertheless, their aim of honest expression of deeply felt ideals had an important influence on subsequent movements, particularly the English Pre-Raphaelites of the mid-19th century.
 

 

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Ludwig Vogel

(b Zurich, 10 July 1788; d Zurich, 20 Aug 1879).

Swiss painter. He served an apprenticeship as a pastry-cook, simultaneously training as an artist under Samuel Scheurmann (1770–1844) and Johann Pfenninger (1765–1825) in Aarau (1802–3) and from 1804 with Henry Fuseli and Konrad Gessner in Zurich. In 1807 he set out on a study tour in Switzerland, visiting the Bernese Oberland, the Valais and Ticino: the subsequent exhibition was so successful that he was able to give up baking and devote himself entirely to painting. In 1808 he went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where he studied under Lorenz Schönberger (1768–1847). With his friends Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr he was a founder-member of the Lukasbund, a student group whose formation was precipitated by the temporary closure of the Akademie early in 1809. The group looked back to early German and Italian Renaissance painting in its search for artistic sincerity, and when in 1810 Vogel travelled to Rome with Overbeck and Pforr, he turned his back definitively on academicism. As well as his work within the Lukasbund circle, the main influences on him in Rome were Bertel Thorvaldsen, Joseph Anton Koch and Peter Cornelius. In 1813 he returned to Zurich for good after a second visit to Italy. Occasional painting trips took him to the Black Forest (1820), Paris (1822), Stuttgart (1824) and Munich, where he also took part in exhibitions (1830 and 1832). Most of his pictures treat historical subjects from Swiss history (Battle of Grandson 1476, 1836; Berne, Kstmus.); very popular in his lifetime, they were often reproduced and widely disseminated.

 


Ludwig Vogel
Die Eidgenossen bei der Leiche Winkelrieds
1841
 


Ludwig Vogel
Fisherfolk by the shore
 

Ludwig Vogel
Johann Friedrich Overbeck Studying a Print by Durer
1814

 

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Johann Anton Ramboux

(b Trier, 5 Oct 1790; d Cologne, 2 Oct 1866).

German painter, draughtsman and museum curator. He was taught drawing by Jean-Henri Gilson (1741–1809), before he went to Paris for further training in the studio of Jacques-Louis David. In 1812 he returned to Trier, painting portraits until 1815, when he spent a year at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. In 1816 he went to Rome, where he was part of the Nazarene circle without becoming a member of the Lukasbrüder. Close association with these artists, notably Peter Cornelius, Carl Philipp Fohr and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, had a more lasting influence on Ramboux’s artistic development than his earlier studies with David, whose classical concepts he gradually abandoned.
 

 


Johann Ramboux
Double Portrait of the Brothers Konrad and Franz Eberhard, Painter and Sculptor in Munich

 


Johann Ramboux
Adam and Eve after Expulsion from Eden
1818

 

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Joseph von Fuhrich

(b Kratzau, N. Bohemia, 9 Feb 1800; d Vienna, 13 March 1876).
Bohemian painter, printmaker and teacher. Until he was 18 he was trained by his father, Wenzel Führich, a painter and mason. In 1819, at the academy exhibition in Prague, he made his début with two history paintings. Their success enabled him to study in Prague. Dürer was the first powerful influence on his style; on a visit to Vienna in 1822, medieval and Renaissance art made a similar impression. His illustrations for Ludwig Tieck’s Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1824–5) attracted the interest of Prince Metternich, who helped him obtain a scholarship to study in Italy. On his arrival in Rome in 1827, Führich made contact with Friedrich Overbeck and other German artists there. He met Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) and was commissioned to complete the Tasso room (1827–9) in the Casino Massimo. In Rome he was impressed by Italian Renaissance works, particularly Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. On the return journey to Vienna, he admired Fra Angelico’s paintings and the frescoes in the Camposanto in Pisa. After a period in Prague, Führich obtained a teaching post in Vienna in 1834, becoming professor of historical composition at the Kunstschule in 1840. Such works as Jacob and Rachel at the Well (1836; Vienna, Belvedere) and the Legend of St Isidore (1839; Mannheim, Städt. Ksthalle) made him the leading representative of Nazarene-style painting in Austria. In 1844–6 he produced a monumental cycle of the Stations of the Cross for the church of Johann-Nepomuk and in 1850 completed the cartoons for the frescoes in the Altlerchen Church, Vienna. His late work consists largely of prints and drawings with a religious content, which brought him great popularity.

 


Joseph von Fuhrich
The Passage of Mary through the Mountains
1841
 


Joseph von Fuhrich
Jacob Encountering Rachel with her Father's Herds
1836

 
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Carl Philipp Fohr

(b Heidelberg, 26 Nov 1775; d Rome, 29 June 1818).

German painter and draughtsman. His first drawing lessons, from the age of 13, were from Friedrich Rottmann (1768–1816), the father of the painter Carl Rottmann. In 1810 the Darmstadt Court Councillor, Georg Wilhelm Issel, discovered Fohr sketching at Stift Neuberg near Heidelberg and, the following year, invited him to Darmstadt and provided encouragement and financial support. From 1813 Fohr carried out commissions for Grand Duchess Wilhelmina of Hesse, for whom he produced a Sketchbook of the Neckar Region, a collection of views and historical subjects (30 watercolours; 1813–14) and also a Baden Sketchbook (30 watercolours, 1814–15; both Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.). These far surpassed the usual level attained in this genre in their sharpness of detail, delicacy of colour and pictorial inventiveness. The Crown Princess granted him an annual pension of 500 guilders. From July 1815 to May 1816, Fohr was a student of landscape painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, and it was here that his breakthrough into an independent and ingenious drawing style came about.

 


Carl Philipp Fohr
Knights at the Charcoal Burner's Hut
1816
 


Carl Philipp Fohr
Ideal Landscape near Rocca Canterana
1818
 

 


Carl Philipp Fohr
Das Heidelberger Schlof

 

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Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow

(b Berlin, 6 Sept 1788; d Düsseldorf, 19 March 1862).

Painter, teacher and writer, son of Johann Gottfried Schadow. He studied at the Berlin Akademie from 1805 and in 1806 showed paintings at the annual Akademie exhibition. Under his teacher, Friedrich Georg Weitsch, he quickly became a skilled portrait painter, and by 1810 he was commissioned to paint portraits of members of the Prussian royal family and of the Empress of Austria. Influenced by the English artist John Flaxman, Schadow developed an emphasis on outline. In 1810 Schadow went with his brother Ridolfo Schadow to Rome, where in 1813 he became a member of the Lukasbrüder and, in 1814, a Catholic. In 1815–17 he took part, with Peter von Cornelius, Friedrich Overbeck and Philipp Veit, in the commission for frescoes of the Story of Joseph for a room in the Casa Bartholdy (now Berlin, Alte N.G.). In his continuing interest in portraits, Schadow differed from his colleagues. Following the example of Gottlieb Schick and similarly inspired by Raphael, Schadow developed a poetic style of portraiture. In 1819 he returned to Berlin in order to help Karl Friedrich Schinkel with the decoration of the Schauspielhaus. He took over the running of a studio and won a high degree of respect as a painter and teacher. Schadow’s decorative painting was often combined with an idealistic and intellectual element, as in Poetry (1825; Potsdam, Neues Pal.), a winged figure standing on clouds over a coastal landscape writing the names of poets on a tablet while gazing upwards.
 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Josephs Traumdeutung im Gefangnis

 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Die Klage Jakobs um Joseph

 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Angelina Magatti
1818

 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Die Heilige Familie unter dem Portikus
1818

 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Pietas and Vanitas
1841

 

 


Wilhelm von Schadow
Saint Barbara
1844

 

 

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