Art, C o m m e r c e , & In d u s t r y



Europe, 1815



The 18th & 19th Centuries

Art Styles in the Industrial 19th Century



1761-65: Scottish poet James Macpherson publishes the poems of Ossian, which are immensely successful in Romantic Europe.

1764: German archaeologist Winckelmann completes his History of Ancient Art, signalling the dawn of modern art history, dealing with the history of art as a language, instead of the individual in the manner of Vasari.

1765: Maria Theresa of Austria appoints her son Joseph II as co-ruler, and institutes a broad policy of reforms.

1773: a papal bull suppresses the Society of Jesus.

1776: America declares independence.

1781: the first edition of Critique of Pure Reason is published, an important work by German philosopher Immanuel Kant.

1787: Spanish architect Juan de Villanueva commences building of the Museo del Prado,
in a sober Neoclassical style.

1789: outbreak of French Revolution.

1795-1815: German composer Ludwig van Beethoven composes his most famous works.

1800-01: Goya paints The Family of Charles IV, an unflattering portrait of the Spanish royal family.

1804: Napoleon crowned emperor at Notre-Dame, Paris.

1804: an imperial decree by Napoleon insists upon burial of the dead in places outside built-up areas;
this results in a new cemetery architecture.

1812: architects Percier and Fontaine encourage the spread of the Empire style with the reissue of their compendium of ornament Recueil des decorations interieures.

1814-19: the principles of royal succession and legitimacy are the basis of a new vision of Europe, as sanctioned by the Congress of Vienna.

1816: during a visit to Rome, Gericault studies Michelangelo's art.

1816—26: Caffe Pedrocchi in Padua, built by Giuseppe Japelli, exemplifies the eclectic tendencies of contemporary architecture.

1820: technique of lithography, introduced at end of 18th century, becomes widespread;
death of the English architect Latrobe, the greatest exponent of Greek Revival in the US.

1825: death of Swiss painter Henry Fuseli, celebrated for his visionary works.

1830: Eugene Delacroix, leader of the French Romantic school, paints Liberty Leading the People.
1830: after the July Revolution, Louis Philippe of Orleans becomes king of France;
Barbizon School established in the forest of Fontainebleau, near Paris.

1837: birth of the Dutch painter and engraver Jacob Maris, exponent of the Realist branch of the Hague School.

1837: Queen Victoria accedes to the British throne and a new era of national prosperity begins.

1839: French photographer Daguerre invents daguerreotype process.

1845: coinciding with the Paris Salon, Charles Baudelaire writes his first essay of aesthetic criticism.
1848: manifesto of the Communist Party, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is published in London.

1848: foundation of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in London.

1848: violent popular uprisings in Europe.

1851: Joseph Paxton builds the celebrated Crystal Paiace for London's Great Exhibition.

1851: Courbet exhibits A Burial at Ornans at the Pavilion du Realisme;
The Caffe Michelangelo in Florence is headquarters for the group of artists later known as Macchiaioli.

1852: Louis-Napoleon crowns himself Emperor Napoleon III of France.
1854: Giuseppe Palizzi returns from Paris, bringing to Napies the most up-to-date information on the works of French painters.

1854: Haussmann begins the architectural modernization of Paris.

1859: town plan of Barcelona is drawn up by Cerda.

1861: Unification of Italy.

1862: Gaier builds the Paris Opera, an expression of the Haussmann begins the architectural modernization of Paris.

1859: town plan of Barcelona is drawn up by Cerda.

1861: Unification of Italy.

1862: Gamier builds the Paris Opera, an expression of the architectural exuberance of the Second Empire.

1863: Le Dejeuner sur I'berbe by Edouard Manet, exhibited at the Salon des Refuses, creates a huge scandal.

1867: Diego Martelli and Telemaco Signorini found the Gazettino delle arti e del disegno,
the first Italian art magazine to deal with the latest developments in Europe.

1865—68: architect Mengoni designs Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, a model for other Italian cities.

1871: King Wilhelm I of Prussia becomes emperor of Germany; the brief revolution of the Paris Commune is suppressed by the army.

1872: South Kensington Museum opens in London, later named the Victoria and Albert Museum.

1874: the first exhibition of the Impressionist group is held in Paris.

1875: during a trip to Italy, Auguste Rodin discovers the work of Michelangelo; Liberty's store opens in London.

1876: Third Republic established in France.

1878: Dostoevsky publishes The Brothers Karamazov.

1879: discovery of the caves of Altamira in Spain, revealing wonders of Paleolithic art.
1882: Workers' Party founded in Milan; Richard Wagner completes his composition of Parsifal; Vincent van Gogh moves to Aries, in Provence;French composer Eric Satie gains recognition with his Trois Gymnopedies.

1883: Brooklyn Bridge, designed by the engineer Roebling, opens in New York.

1884: publication of A Rebours, a novel of cultural decadence, by Huysmans.

1885: Emile Zola's novel Germinal, dealing with harsh working conditions in the coalmines, is published.
1886: last art show by the Impressionists is held in Paris; Seurat's Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La
Grande Jatte, a visual manifesto of Neo-Impressionsim, is exhibited; a Symbolist Manifesto, by the poet Jean Moreas, appears in Le Figaro.

1886: the art dealer Durand-Ruel presents some of the works of the Impressionists in New York with resounding success.

1889: Medardo Rosso moves permanently to Paris.

1890: van Gogh kills himself after a long depression.

1891: first Brera Triennial Exhibition, including works by the Italian Divisionists, is held in Milan.

1892: Gauguin's first journey to Tahiti.

1893: Norwegian artist Munch paints his most famous work, The Scream.

1895: first Biennial of International Art in Vienna.

1897: Scottish architect Mackintosh draws up detailed plans for the Glasgow School of Art.

1900: Guimard builds stations and entrance halls of Paris Metro in Art Nouveau style.

1902: Italian Liberty movement affirmed at Turin Exhibition of Decorative Art

: Japan wins war against Russia.


Europe, Revolutions of 1830 and 1848



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