Baroque and Rococo

 

Baroque and Rococo Art Map




Gregorio de Ferrari

Stefano Maria Legnani - Legnanino

Lorenzo Tiepolo
 




see collection:


Sebastiano Ricci


Giuseppe Maria Crespi


Gian Battista Piazzetta


Alessandro Magnasco


Pompeo Batoni


Giandomenico Tiepolo


Rosalba Carriera


Nicolas de Largilliere


Anton Raphael Mengs


Jean-Etienne Liotard


Pietro Longhi

 

Italian Painting

The inclination towards the High Baroque style was first visible in Italy in the early 18th century in the gradual departure from sombre colours and adoption of a light, airy palette. The paintings of Luca Giordano (1634-1705) in Naples represent a definite, but not complete, step away from the intense sentimentalism of the Neapolitan school and towards a less explicit and more enjoyable art. In Naples. Giordano decorated the inside of the Treasury dome in the charterhouse of St Martin. He travelled frequently, for work or simply for artistic curiosity, to see the output of other artists in Florence, Venice, and Spain.
Gregorio de Ferrari (1647-1726) in Genoa introduced a new and radiant fluency in his work, reinterpreting old themes and subjects from the preceding century with a fresh and original touch. This is evident in the series of frescos executed for the palaces of the Genoese aristocracy, especially in the allegorical paintings for the Palazzo Rosso. In Lombardy,
Stefano Maria Legnani, known as Legnanino (1660-1715). moved away from the academic style of the Roman artists, towards the High Baroque, investing his paintings with an expressive sentimentalism that echoed the style of Borromini. Besides numerous altarpieces, Legnanino is known for the luminous frescos in the Palazzo Carignano in Turin, and those in the central nave of Monza Cathedral. Another influential painter was Sebastiano Ricci (1659—1734). responsible for the superb ceiling fresco in Palazzo Colonna, Rome. Like de Ferrari, he gave a freer and more varied interpretation of the style of Correggio in order to keep in line with contemporary stylistic trends. Ricci also made use of his profound knowledge of the techniques used by Venetian colourists during the 16th century, and he was one of the early leading figures in the revival of Venetian decorative painting. His work was much in demand in many cities, both for easel and fresco paintings. While in London and Paris. Ricci was instrumental in the dissemination of the new style.
The Venetian school, which included only artists working in the city itself, was slower in embracing the Rococo style. However, a few decades later, following the rise of Ricci. Tiepolo and a group of painters known as redutisti, a new Venetian style came about. This was characterized by unprecedented force of movement and brilliant colour schemes. Other Italian painters tended to retain strong chiaroscuro contrasts with distant echoes of Caravaggio. The Bolognese painter Giuseppe Maria Crespi (1665-1747) was an artist of renowned originality, drawing his inspiration from the great Venetians -Correggio and Baroccio in particular, and also from the early "Caravaggesque" works of Guercino. His works, often derived from genre subjects and mythologies, are invested with an uncanny naturalism, inspiring such newcomers as Gian Battista Piazzetta.
In their varied interpretations, compositional originality and choice of iconography these painters showed how susceptible they were to the new taste in art. Thus, their ingenuity lies in their fresh response and progressive approach to painting. The Genoese painter Alessandro Magnasco (1667-1749) is considered to have been ahead of his time, given his choice of unusual and provocative subjects, his use of quickly applied brushstrokes, and his sharp, angular forms. In Rome, where academicism survived longest, Pompeo Batoni (1708-87) was one of the first to reintroduce the classical style, which heralded the end of Rococo, from the middle of the century onwards. Tiepolo was eager to learn from the great past masters and from those with whom he worked. He had a genius for composition, an appealing theatricality, and an unshakable conviction that the artist should be able to communicate even the most dramatic-subjects in a beautiful, grandiose manner. After his early successes, which led to the commission for the biblical frescos in the Archbishop's Palace in Udine (1724-25), he was always in demand. He employed the assistance of quadraturisti or Irompe I 'oeil specialists when the commission called for architectural perspectives.
From the mid-18th century onwards, his sons Lorenzo and Giandomenico worked alongside him. Commissions were plentiful for Tiepolo's easel paintings, often of religious subjects, and for frescos, mainly in the ceremonial reception rooms of royal and aristocratic palaces. During the period when the Hapsburgs were consolidating their hold on Venice and Lombardy, the nobility in these regions sought to uphold its prestige by building lavish new palaces. Tiepolo went from Milan (where he painted frescos in the palaces of Casati-Dugnani and the Clerici) to Venice to execute the History of Anthony and Cleopatra in the Palazzo Labia with architectural perspectives by the virtuoso Bolognese quadraturista Gerolamo Mengozzi-Colonna. From there Tiepolo moved to the Palace of Wurzburg, then on to Madrid to paint the Glory of Spain fresco on the ceiling in the throne room of the royal palace. Tiepolo's prolific output spans almost the entire course of the century. By the time of his death in Spain in 1770. new trends, such as Neoclassicism together with the first stirrings of Romanticism, had started to push his work out of fashion.
It was at about this time that a young admirer of Tiepolo was establishing himself - Francisco Gova.
 

 

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Gregorio de Ferrari

(1647-1726)
 

 


Gregorio de Ferrari
Hercules and Antaeus

1690s
Oil on canvas, 217 x 147,5 cm
Palazzo Cattaneo, Genoa

 


Gregorio de Ferrari
Summer

1680s
Fresco
Palazzo Brignole-Sale (Rosso), Genoa

 

 


Gregorio de Ferrari
Autumn

 


Gregorio de Ferrari
Junon et Argus
 

 

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Stefano Maria Legnani, known as Legnanino

(1660-1715)
 
 


Legnanino
La Maddalena

 

 

Legnanino
Penitent saint praying

 

 

Legnanino

Apparizione miracolosa ad Agostino della Sacra Fascia

 


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Gian Battista Piazzetta

GIAN BATTISTA PIAZZETTA

A former pupil of the Bolognese painter Crespi, Gian Battista Piazzetta (1683-1754) set up his own very successful workshop in Venice in 1711. A respected teacher, he later founded a school that formed the basis of the Accademia. His religious paintings, although under-pinned by the virtuoso technique of the Romano-Emilian Baroque schools, have a warmth of gesture and chromatic elegance that give them a distinctive immediacy of feeling and sculptural form. In his oil paintings of half-length portraits, figures, and genre scenes, Piazzetta creates a world that seems to evolve spontaneously, full of grace and sensuality, charm and lively elegance. The artist is also known for his illustrations of popular books.
 

 


Gian Battista Piazzetta
The Fortune Teller
1704

 


Gian Battista Piazzetta
Rebecca at the Well

c. 1740
Oil on canvas, 102 x 137 cm
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
 

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Lorenzo Tiepolo

(b Venice, 8 Aug 1736; d Madrid, Aug 1776).

 Son of Giambattista Tiepolo. In 1750, aged 14, he travelled to Würzburg with his father and brother, where he worked alongside them on the decorative fresco cycle in the Kaisersaal of the Residenz at Würzburg. Knox (1980) has attributed to him a number of drawings (Würzburg, Wagner-Mus.) from these apprentice years. In 1753 the family returned to Venice.
 


Lorenzo Tiepolo
An Elegant Couple from Madrid
1770


Lorenzo Tiepolo
The Lemonade Seller  

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Jean-Etienne Liotard
La Belle Chocolatiere
1745
 





SOCIETY PORTRAITURE

Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757), a hugely successful interpreter of Venetian Rococo, displayed an unequalled ability to capture the delicacy of her era. The exquisite refinement of her portraiture epitomized the ideals of fashionable society, and her spontaneity and grace earned her countless commissions from members of the European elite. Camera's predilection for pastels was shared by La Tour, Largilliere, Nattier, and, later, by Mengs and the Swiss painter Liotard, all of whom successfully exploited the "splendour, fragility, and transparency" that breathed new life into portraiture. According to the Encyclopedie (the French encyclopedia published under the direction of Diderot), this was unique to the medium. In portrait paintings, sitters no longer adopted solemn and ceremonial poses; instead, they sought to convey a certain cultural distinction, a personal.
Pietro Longhi (1702-85) painted some lively and somewhat superficially light-hearted compositions, along the line of the Dutch genre, depicting Venetian domesticity and the often comic activities of high society. His good-humoured pictures are known for their luminosity, the use of delicate hues, and the thin and well-blended application of paint. Although reminiscent of Carriera's work, the paintings share certain features with contemporary English pieces.






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Jean-Etienne Liotard

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Alessandro Magnasco

THE STRANGE WORLD OF ALESSANDRO MAGNASCO

Despite recent re-evaluation and research. Alessandro Magnasco (1667—1749) remains a largely enigmatic figure. Seeking to appeal to a market that was highly cultured and sophisticated, he combined a very expressive and bold narrative style, using violent, rapid brushstrokes revealing flecks of white paint, to illustrate nonconformist themes that can be linked to the literature of the time. Magnasco was born in Genoa but moved to Milan when young, where he was swayed by the strong moralistic inclinations of the late 17th-century Lombard school and its leanings towards Realism. As a result, he rejected superficial subjects that delighted rather than instructed and in keeping with the philosophy of Realism, abandoned the "grand manner" of painting. He preferred to paint "minor" subjects, featuring characters castigated by society, such as paupers, gypsies, rogues, and vagabonds. His use of sharp, angular lines is known to have influenced later painters. Some of the most unusual subjects depicted in Magnasco's paintings are the poor and humble figures of the Trappist orders and Capuchin friars: stranger still are his scenes of witchcraft. He completed many versions of paintings of Quaker meetings, and of Jewish worshippers in synagogues. These themes reflect the artist's long-standing interest in spiritualism, and his participation in lively, albeit clandestine, debates about the nature of religion that were popular among free thinkers at the beginning of the Age of Enlightenment.
 


Alessandro Magnasco
Refectory of Franciscan Friary
c.1740
Museo Biblioteca e Archivio Civico, Bassano del Grappa, Italy
 


see collection:



Sebastiano Ricci

Giuseppe Maria Crespi

Gian Battista Piazzetta

Alessandro Magnasco

Pompeo Batoni

Giandomenico Tiepolo

Rosalba Carriera

Nicolas de Largilliere

Anton Raphael Mengs

Jean-Etienne Liotard

Pietro Longhi

 

 

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