Baroque and Rococo
 


     

Baroque and Rococo Art Map

 



Evaristo Baschenis

Andrea Pozzo


see collection:


Annibale Carracci

Agostino Carracci

Ludovico Carracci

Francesco Albani

Domenichino

Guercino

Guido Reni

Jusepe de Ribera

Giovanni Lanfranco

Mattia Preti

Luca Giordano

Pietro da Cortona

Battistello Caracciolo

Massimo Stanzione

Bernardo Cavallino


    

 

Painting in Italy

The foundations of Baroque painting, laid in Rome during the last decade of the 16th century, were based on two fundamentally different approaches: classicism, espoused by Annibale Carracci (1560-1609.), and realism, associated with Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610). Throughout the entire 17th century and beyond, the means of expression and stylistic options of European painters revolved around these two poles as they aimed at a fusion of all the arts, whether through grand illusionistic effects or by capturing the reality of daily life. Annibale Carracci arrived in Rome in 1595. In his decoration of the Palazzo Farnese (1598-1601), he adapted the compositional solutions of Michelangelo's ceiling for the Sistine Chapel and was also influenced by Raphael, especially by his frescos in the Farnesina. In the Farnese cycle, which depicts the loves of the gods, Carracci reinterpreted Correggio's evocative and sensual style through a more detailed exploration of natural reality. It was a more mature sequel to his earlier work in the Accademia degli Incamminati in Bologna, which he had executed with his brother Agostino (1557-1602) and his cousin Ludovico (1555-1619). Carracci's art combined the pursuit of ideal beauty with a close observation of natural reality, and a breadth of vision inspired by classical models both ancient and contemporary; his success drew other artists from northern Italy to Rome: Francesco Albani (1578— 1660); Domenico Zampieri, or Domenichino (1581-1641). who brought a lyrical element to classicism; Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, or Guercino (1591-1666), with his melancholy evocations of antiquity: and Guido Reni, the chief exponent of an elevated style that proved much to the taste of the Academicians and won him many commissions. The young Caravaggio arrived in Rome in 1593 and began producing the first "anti-Academic" pictures, still lifes, and genre paintings blending moral values with naturalistic glimpses that had an extraordinary visual lucidity. Outraged opposition to what came to be known as Camvaggismo (Caravaggism), greeted the artist's paintings in San Luigi dei Francesi (1599-1602) and Santa Maria del Popolo (1600-01). In these, scriptural stories are depicted with brutal reality, heightened by strong chiaroscuro and an apparent lack of any divine element. The paintings express an extremely radical and anti-conformist moral stance, which had its roots in the work of Charles and Frederic Borromeo in Milan. The first phase of Caravaggio's career, when he painted in vivid, glossy colours, was followed by work in which light effects became increasingly dramatic and accurately observed. Caravaggio's pictorial sensitivity, based on the study of reality rather than the observation of academic rules, appeared diametrically opposed to the assimilation by the Carracci brothers of classical and Renaissance models. The unrestrained use of light and shade to evoke atmosphere, imagery, and emotions, excited the admiration of Caravaggio's contemporaries and became a style in itself, "in the manner of Caravaggio" or "Caravaggesque". Caravaggio's influence, although extensive, is difficult to pinpoint as he never had his own workshop or pupils in the formal sense. Those painters who were influenced by his work, the Caravaggisti, attracted by his dark and mesmerizing settings and by his brutal realism, often conveyed no more than a superficial echo of the master's depth and drama. Most of his followers lacked the necessary perception to capture the subtle portrayal of tragedy and human suffering that made Caravaggio's work truly great. In Naples. Battistello Caracciolo (1570-1637) was the most faithful of the Caravaggisti, but Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652), from Valencia in Spain, was more innovative. He aimed for a depiction of reality that confronted the grotesque and deformed, breaking the rules of decorum in order to show harsh reality even in the poorest settings. Between 1630 and 1640, the painters Domenichino, Reni, and Giovanni Lanfranco (1582-1647) were summoned successively to Naples to decorate the sumptuous Cappella San Gennaro in the cathedral. Their classicizing style was embraced by local artists, such as Massimo Stanzione (1585-1656) and Bernardo Cavallino (1616-56), and reached its most fervently Baroque and monumental expression in the work of Mattia Preti (1613-99) and Luca Giordano (1634-1705). In Rome, a third variety of the Baroque style was led by Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669) who executed the magnificent ceiling decoration of the gallery in the Palazzo Barberini (1632-39). Here, a dynastic allegory of the Triumph of Divine Providence occupies the central field and appears to be played out in the open sky, so that the spectator feels that the interior of the palace has been invaded by a cast of supernatural characters both sacred and profane. The illusionism of Giovan Battista Gaulli, who painted the ceiling of the church of the Gesu, and of Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709), in the church of St Ignatius (1691-94), is a synthesis of many genres of art - such as hamhochades (peasant scenes), battle scenes, land and seascapes, and official or "display" portraits - which anticipate the 18th century.

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Annibale Carracci

born Nov. 3, 1560, Bologna, Papal States [Italy]
died July 15, 1609, Rome

Italian painter who was influential in recovering the classicizing tradition of the HighRenaissance from the affectations of Mannerism. He was the most talented of the three painters of the Carracci family.
The sons of a tailor, Annibale and his older brother Agostino were at first guided by their older cousin Lodovico, a painter who persuaded them to follow him in his profession. Annibale's precocious talents developed in a tour of northern Italy in the 1580s, his visit to Venice being of special significance. He is said to have lodged in that city with the painter Jacopo Bassano, whose style of painting influenced him for a time. Annibale may be credited with the rediscovery of the early 16th-century painter Correggio, who had been effectively forgotten outside Parma for a generation; Annibale's “Baptism of Christ” (1585) for the Church of San Gregorio in Bologna is a brilliant tribute to this Parmese master.
Back in Bologna, Annibale joined Agostino and Lodovico in founding a school for artists called the Accademia degli Incamminati. The “Enthroned Madonna with St. Matthew” (1588) Annibale painted for the Church of San Prospero, Reggio, displays two of the most persistent characteristics of his art: a noble classicizing strain combined with a genial and bucolic tone. By the time Annibale collaborated with the other two Carracci on frescoes in the Palazzo Magnani (now the Palazzo Salem; 1588–90) and two other noble houses in Bologna, he had become the leading master among them. His orderly and airy landscapes in these palaces helped initiate that genre as a principal subject in Italian fresco painting.
In 1595 Annibale went to Rome to work for the rich young cardinal Odoardo Farnese, who wanted to decorate with frescoes the principal floor of his palace, which was one of the most splendid in Rome. In that city Annibale turned eagerly to the study of Michelangelo, Raphael, and ancient Greek and Roman art in order to adapt the style he had formed in the artistic centres of northern Italy to his new surroundings. Having decorated the Camerino (study) in the Palazzo Farnese, he was joined (1597) by Agostino in the chief enterprise of his career—painting the frescoes of the coved ceiling of the Galleria (1597–1603/04) with love fables from Ovid. These decorations, which interweave various illusions of reality in a way that was more complex even than Raphael's famous paintings in the Vatican loggia, were a triumph of classicism tempered with humanity. The powerfully modeled figures in these frescoes are set in a highly complex composition whose illusionistic devices represent an imaginative response to Michelangelo's frescoes on the Sistine Ceiling. Despite their elaborate organization, the frescoes are capable of direct appeal owing to their rich colours and the vigour and dynamism of their entire approach. The Galleria Farnese soon became and remained a virtually indispensable study for young painters until well into the 18th century and was an especially rich feeding ground for the Baroque imaginations of Peter Paul Rubens and Gianlorenzo Bernini, among others.
Annibale's long and intense labours in the Palazzo Farnese had been dismally underpaid by Cardinal Farnese, and the painter never fully recovered from the ingratitude of his patron. He quit work altogether on the Palazzo Farnese in 1605 but subsequently produced some of his finest religious paintings, notably “Domine, Quo Vadis?” (c. 1601; National Gallery, London) and the “Pieta” (c. 1607; Louvre Museum, Paris). These works feature weighty, powerful figures in dramatically simple compositions. The lunette-shaped landscapes that Annibale painted for the Palazzo Aldobrandini, especially the “Flight into Egypt” and the “Entombment” (both c. 1604; Doria Pamphili Gallery, Rome),proved important in the subsequent evolution of the heroic landscape as painted in Rome by Domenichino and Nicolas Poussin.
Annibale died in Rome after several years of melancholic sickness and intermittent production.
     


Annibale Carracci
Flight into Egyot
c. 1604
Doria Pamphili Gallery, Home.
Carraccl's work foreshadows the landscapes of Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain.

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Agostino Carracci
A Satyr Approaching a Sleeping Nymph


 

                 

Agostino Carracci

(baptized Aug. 16, 1557, Bologna, Papal States [Italy]—d. Feb. 23, 1602, Parma), Italian painter and printmaker.

Agostino was the older brother of the painter Annibale Carracci, with whom he traveled in northern Italy, visiting Venice and Parma. Agostino's “Adoration of the Shepherds” (1584) demonstrates the influence of the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese. He subsequently followed the lead of his brother Annibale, whom he helped decorate the Galleria of the Palazzo Farnese in Rome from 1597 to 1599. In the latter year Agostino left Annibale to serve as court painter for Ranuccio Farnese in Parma; he died there without completing his own major endeavour in fresco, the decoration of a room in the Palazzo del Giardino. Agostino's painterly style was drier and less proficient than that of his brother. Engraving formed a major part of his output from 1580, however. His prints after paintings by Federico Barocci, Tintoretto, and Titian circulated widely throughout Europe and were appreciated by Rembrandt, among other artists.


Agostino Carracci
Ecce Homo

               

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Ludovico Carracci
Susannah and the Elders

Ludovico Carracci
 

baptized April 21, 1555, Bologna, Papal States [Italy]
died Nov. 13?, 1619, Bologna

Italian painter and printmaker noted for his religious compositions and for the art academy he helped found in Bologna about 1585, which helped renew Italian art in the wake of Mannerism.
The son of a butcher, Lodovico was the older cousin of the painters Annibale and Agostino Carracci. After working under the painter Prospero Fontana in Bologna, Lodovico visited Florence, Parma, and Venice before returning to his native Bologna. There, about 1585, he and his cousins founded the Accademia degli Incamminati, an art school that became the most progressive and influential institution of its kind in Italy. Lodovico led this school for the next 20 years, during which time he and his cousins trained some of the leading Italian artists of the younger generation, notably Guido Reni and Domenichino. The teaching techniques of the Carraccis' academy were based on frequent observation of nature, the study and revision of poses from life, and boldness of scale in drawing figures with chalk.
In his own paintings of religious subjects, Lodovico gave his figures strong gestures amid flickering plays of light in order to communicate a sense of mystery and passionate spiritual emotion. The “Madonna and Child with St. Francis, St. Joseph, and Donors” (1591; Municipal Art Gallery, Cento) is typical of his early work. Lodovico's imaginative approach to religious sentiment and his emphasis on mood would influence various Italian Baroque painters. Lodovico collaborated with his cousins on various fresco commissions, and, after the death of Annibale in 1609, he remained active in Bologna, where he painted a succession of altarpieces in an increasingly grandiose and heavily mannered style until his own death in 1619.

            
                     
           
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Andrea Pozzo
The Apotheose of S. Ignazio

1688-90
Fresco
Sant'Ignazio, Rome

The illusionistic perspectives created in this fresco are highly convincing.

Andrea Pozzo

(b Trento, 30 Nov 1642; d Vienna, 31 Aug 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).
                      

                   

Andrea Pozzo
The Apotheose of S. Ignazio,
detail: The Continents
1688-90
Fresco
Sant'Ignazio, Rome

 

 


Andrea Pozzo
The Apotheose of S. Ignazio
(detail)
1688-90
Fresco
Sant'Ignazio, Rome

 


Andrea Pozzo
The Apotheose of S. Ignazio
(detail)
1688-90
Fresco
Sant'Ignazio, Rome

 


Andrea Pozzo
S. Ignazio Cures Victims of the Plague

1688-90
Fresco
Sant'Ignazio, Rome

 

 


Andrea Pozzo
Altar of St Ignatius Loyola

1695-99
Marble, bronze
Il Gesu, Rome

 

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GUIDO RENI

The Bolognese painter Guido Reni (1575-1642), influenced by Mannerism and the Carracci brothers, was considered a great master in his day, rivalling even Raphael. A thoughtful painter who balanced widely differing influences, he created his own, classicist version of the Caravaggist style in the Crucifixion of St Peter (1604-05). His extensive frescos in Rome culminated in his Aurora (1612-14) for the Casino Rospigliosi, and his re-interpretation of the Renaissance reached its high point with his Massacre of the Innocents (1611-12), Atalanta and Hippomenes, and the Labours of Hercules for the Gonzagas. A disturbing undercurrent in his images of the Magdalene can also be found in his masterly, bravura treatment of David with the Head of Goliath (1604-05). This echoes Caravaggio's gruesome treatment of the subject.
 


Guido Reni
Atalanta and Hippomenes

1618-19
Museo del Prado, Madrid

This large painting is constructed with intersecting diagonal lines, interruptions, and re-adjustments of the rhythm. The Mannerist elements are tempered by Reni's graceful classicism.

 

Guido Reni

born Nov. 4, 1575, Bologna, Papal States [Italy]
died Aug. 18, 1642, Bologna
Early Italian Baroque painter noted for the classical idealism of his renderings of mythological and religious subjects.
First apprenticed to the Flemish painter Denis Calvaert at the age of 10, Reni was later influenced by the novel naturalism of the Carracci, a Bolognese family of painters. In 1599 he was received into the guild of painters, and after 1601 he divided his time between his studios in Bologna and Rome. Upon gaining prominence Reni surrounded himself with helpers—such as Giovanni Lanfranco, Francesco Albani, and Antonio Carracci—who were fascinated by his noble if somewhat tyrannical personality.
In his early career Reni executed important commissions for Pope Paul V and Scipione Cardinal Borghese, painting numerous frescoes in chapels for these and other patrons. Among these works is the celebrated fresco “Aurora” (1613–14). In his religious and mythological paintings, Reni evolved a style that tempered Baroque exuberance and complexity with classical restraint. Such compositions as “Atalanta and Hippomenes” (1625) show his preference for gracefully posed figures that mirror antique ideals. In the later part of his career, Reni employed lighter tones, softer colours, and extremely free brushwork.
Except for the work of the Carracci family, the frescoes of Raphael and ancient Greek sculptures were the main inspiration for Reni's art. He strove toward a classical harmony in which reality is presented in idealized proportions. The mood of his paintings is calm and serene, as are the studied softness of colour and form. His religious compositions made him one of the most famous painters of his day in Europe, and a model for other Italian Baroque artists.


(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

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STILL LIFE
             

Fede Galizia
(1578-1630)
Still Life
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
The particular tranquillity of Lombard realism is revealed in this skilful composition of pears and flowers.

One of the most popular genres of 17th-century painting takes its name from the Dutch still leven, used to describe paintings of inanimate objects. Still lifes enjoyed great success all over Europe, including Spain, France, Flanders, and Germany. In Italy. the genre was reinvigorated by Caravaggio and his followers, who saw still lifes as an opportunity to express the ideal values of painting. They depicted rarefied, almost abstract, compositions, which touched on the moralizing theme of vanitas — the contemplation of death, the passage of time and the transitory nature of life, and the fading of the senses. This can be seen in the celebrated still lifes of musical instruments by Evaristo Baschenis (1607-77).

 

 

 


Caravaggio
Basket of Fruit, 1596. Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
 
Against a dazzling yellow background, the artist depicts 8 wicker basket of freshly picked fruit in vibrant colours. The seemingly haphazard arrangement of fresh and drooping leaves symbolizes the fullness of life on the brink of decomposition.

   
 

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Evaristo Baschenis

(b Bergamo, 7 Dec 1617; d Bergamo, 16 March 1677).

Italian painter. He came from a family of painters originally from Averara, Lombardy, but with different branches active in the provinces of Bergamo and Trentino, mostly specializing in fresco decoration of churches. He probably started working within the same regional tradition but soon came to specialize in still-lifes and moved beyond his family’s limited and provincial style to create a richer and more complex art.

 

 


Evaristo Baschenis
Still-life with Musical Instruments

c. 1650, Accademia Carrara, Bergamo

The trompe-l'oeil effect of Baschenis' still lifes has tended to overshadow his talent for composition. In this late work, each voluptuously rendered object is like a still life in its own right.

 

 


Evaristo Baschenis
Still-Life with Musical Instruments

c. 1650
Oil on canvas, 97 x 147 cm
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

 

 


Evaristo Baschenis
Musical Instruments

Oil on canvas, 98,5 x 147 cm
Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

 

 


Evaristo Baschenis
Still-Life with Musical Instruments and a Small Classical Statue

c. 1645
Oil on canvas
Accademia Carrara, Bergamo

    
see collection:


Annibale Carracci

Agostino Carracci

Ludovico Carracci

Francesco Albani

Domenichino

Guercino

Guido Reni

Jusepe de Ribera

Giovanni Lanfranco

Mattia Preti

Luca Giordano

Pietro da Cortona

Battistello Caracciolo

Massimo Stanzione

Bernardo Cavallino
       

 

 

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