Baroque and Rococo
 


     

Baroque and Rococo Art Map


 


Jacques Bellange

Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Bartolomeo Manfredi



see collection:


Simon Vouet


Valentin de Boulogne


Eustache Le Sueur



 


Painting in France in the 17th Century


Painters working in Paris and the rest of France followed divergent paths during the early 17th century. Ambroise Dubois (1534—I614) and Martin Freminet (1567-1619), members of the so-called Second School of Fontaine-bleau, produced outstanding works in the Mannerist style, while the small but splendid court of the Duke of Lorraine was captivated by the elegant, whimsical paintings of Jacques Bellange (active in Nancy from 1602 to 1616). Many artists rejected Mannerism, however, including Frans Pourbus II the Younger (1569-1622). After nine years in the service of the Duke of Mantua, he became court painter in Paris in 1609, and specialized in portraits and religious pictures such as The Last Supper (I618).
Despite Marie de Medicis' commission of Rubens for the sumptuous cycle of historical and allegorical paintings for the gallery of the Palais du Luxembourg (now in the Louvre), there was little change in prevailing tastes. Young French painters continued to perfect their technique in Italy, and from 1610 onwards, many became followers of Caravaggio, including Simon Vouet (1590-1649), Vignon, Regnier, Tournier, and, above all, Valentin de Boulogne (1591-1632). On the whole Valentin reworked themes introduced by Bartolomeo Manfredi (1580-1620), but his "cabinet" pictures - paintings of a suitable size and subject to adorn the walls of bougeois homes - have a remarkable psychological depth. Vouet's knowledge of 16th-century Venetian painting is reflected in his high colouration and subtle palette in paintings such as Time Subjugated by Hope, Love and Beauty (1612). As France's economic and political strength grew — from 1624 onwards Cardinal Richelieu was Louis XIII's chief minister - many artists were encouraged to return to Paris. As chief court painter, Vouet set the fashion for "lyrical" painting, which satisfied the demand for a brilliant and decorative style. A more Caravaggist way of painting found favour in the south of France and Lorraine, where Georges de La Tour (1593-1652) was active. During the Regency (1643-61), a reaction in favour of greater elegance of drawing and form, inspired by classical models, was further stimulated by the movement towards classicism in Rome and by the example of Nicolas Poussin, who pursued his career in the papal city from 1624 onwards. Poussin's classicism was inspired by Raphael and Titian and was to remain a point of reference for French art, thanks to its formal perfection and refined intellectualism. This was also true of the work of Claude Gellee, known as Claude Lorrain (1600-82), who worked mainly in Rome and was influenced by Flemish painters in the city. Lorrain's idealized style of landscape painting was famous for its formal perfection and timeless quality. The founding of the Academie Royale de la Peinture in Paris (1648) was a turning point for French painting. One of the founder members, Philippe de Champaigne (1602-74), was born in Brussels but worked in Paris from 1621 onwards; his historical subjects and portraits combined psychological insight with an almost photographic accuracy. Among the most influential figures of the time was Eustache Le Sueur (1616-1655), who painted in a restrained manner inspired by classical antiquity, as is shown in his Apparition of the Virgin to Saint Martin, (1654). Charles Le Brun followed Poussin's example and travelled to Italy, staying there for four years. This multi-talented artist painted religious subjects and was an extremely skilled decorative painter. From 1656 onwards, he supervised the interior decoration of Vaux-le-Vicomte, the chateau of Louis XIV's chief minister, Colbert, who supported Le Brun's appointment as director of the French Academy and its school, and. from 1661. of the Gobelins tapestry factory. Le Brun established the grand style of Louis XIV's reign and in his paintings for Versailles he was able to display his classicism in sumptuous mythological, allegorical, and historical compositions celebrating the king's power. His last works, such as his two Nativities, reminiscent of Poussin, were more intimate and emotional.
Another 17th-century French master, Jacques Callot (1592-1635), also came from Lorraine; he worked in Rome and Florence until 1621, when he returned to France. His etchings, with their meticulously defined figures, and the originality and scope of his themes and compositions made a lasting contribution to Baroque art.
Les Caprices, Les Bohemiens, and Les GrandesMiseres de la Gueire express his sympathy for all that was strange, sad, and unusual about contemporary life and inspired many later artists, including Goya.

 
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Jacques Bellange

(b ?Bassigny, c. 1575; d Nancy, 1616).

French painter, etcher and draughtsman. His known artistic activity dates only from 1602 to 1616 and he is now familiar chiefly for his etchings and drawings, all his decorative works and most of his paintings having perished. His highly idiosyncratic style was inspired by such Italian artists as Parmigianino, by the School of Fontainebleau and by northern artists including Albrecht Dürer and Bartholomeus Spranger. His work would seem to express a private and nervous religious sensibility through a style of the greatest refinement. It is among the latest and most extreme expressions of Mannerism. He was influential on other Lorraine artists: Claude Déruet was his pupil, as, perhaps, was Georges de La Tour.
 

Jacques Bellange
The Lamentatio

1617

 


Jacques Bellange
The Three Maries at the Tomb

1620s
Copper engraving, 43 x 28 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 
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Frans Pourbus II the Younger
M
arie de Medicis


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

(b Antwerp, autumn 1569; d Paris, bur 19 Feb 1622).

Painter, son of Frans Pourbus . It is likely that he trained in his grandfather’s studio in Bruges. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1591. Frans the younger followed the family tradition and executed portraits, portrait groups and, occasionally, religious subjects. From c. 1594 he was in Brussels and c. 1599 spent a year working at the court of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella. His early work, for instance the portrait of Petrus Ricardus (1592; Bruges, Groeningemus.), was close to the smooth and brilliant style of his grandfather but was also influenced by the realism of Adriaen Key. One work that can be related to his work for the Brussels court is a gouache copy of a portrait of Archduchess Isabella, inscribed AUTOGRAPH. APUD PICTOREM CELEBREM F. PORBUS, AD VIVUM DEPICT (Paris, Bib. N.). In September 1599 Vincenzo Gonzaga I, 4th Duke of Mantua, was in Brussels and appointed Frans the younger his chief portrait painter. Frans left for Mantua in 1600 (where Rubens was also working); he is recorded as having executed a number of portraits of the ducal family, but this did not preclude his working for other important patrons: Emperor Rudolf II was considering marriage and Pourbus travelled to Innsbruck (1603) and Graz (1604) to paint portraits of prospective brides (e.g. Archduchess Eleonore, 1604; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). Vincenzo Gonzaga’s son Francesco despatched Pourbus to Turin on the same errand, and Pourbus painted the daughters of Charles-Emanuel I, 11th Duke of Savoy (in 1608 Francesco married Margaret of Savoy). In 1606 Pourbus travelled to Paris to record the French royal family on the occasion of the Dauphin’s baptism for his aunt and godmother, Duchess Eleonora Gonzaga. The following year Pourbus was in Naples, whence he advised the Duke of Mantua to purchase Caravaggio’s Judith Beheading Holofernes (Rome, Barberini) and the Madonna of the Rosary (1606/7; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.).

   


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Archdukes Albert and Isabella


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Archdukes Albert and Isabella

 

 


Frans Pourbus II the Younger
Henry IV of France

 
Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria

 

 


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Louis XIII as a Child


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Maria Magdalena of Austria

 

 


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Portrait of a Frenchman

 

 


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Portrait of Catherine van Damme
Wife of Francois de Groote


Frans Pourbus II the Younger

Portrait of Petrus Ricardus

         

 


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Bartolomeo Manfredi

(b Ostiano, nr Mantua, bapt 25 Aug 1582; d 12 Dec 1622).

Italian painter. In the 17th century he was known throughout Italy and beyond as Caravaggio’s closest follower and his works were highly prized and widely collected. More than simply aping Caravaggio’s style, Manfredi reinterpreted his subjects and rendered new ones, drawing upon Caravaggio’s naturalism and dramatic use of chiaroscuro. His paintings were often praised by his contemporaries as equal to Caravaggio’s and he was subsequently emulated and imitated by other Roman Caravaggisti during the 1610s and 1620s. Yet by the 18th century his works were forgotten or confused with those of Caravaggio himself, and he is today among the most enigmatic Italian Baroque painters.

 

   
 

Bartolomeo Manfredi
Kain and Abel

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
Le Tribut a Cesar

 
 
 

Bartolomeo Manfredi
"Carita romana"

 

 

 

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
Allegory of the Four Seasons
c. 1610
Oil on canvas, 134 x 91,5 cm
Dayton Art Institute, Dayton
 

 

 

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
Lute Playing Young
Oil on canvas, 105 x 77 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
 

 

 

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
Bacchus and a Drinker
1510
Oil on canvas, 132 x 96 cm
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome
 

 

 

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
Cupid Chastised

1605
Oil on canvas
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
 

 

 


Bartolomeo Manfredi
The Guard Room
Oil on canvas, 169 x 239 cm
Gemaldegalerie, Dresden

 

see collection:


Simon Vouet

Valentin de Boulogne

Eustache Le Sueur
 

 
 

 

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