The Triumph of the City

 










The High Renaissance
 
&

Mannerism
 
 

 

     

 


(Renaissance  Art Map)







 


Baldassare Peruzzi

Fra Giocondo

Perino del Vaga

 

 
 
The Rome of the Medici

Agostino Chigi's elegant Villa Farnesina (1508-1511) was designed by the Sienese architect and painter Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-15.36) in the classical style of ancient Roman villas. The interior was lavishly decorated by some of the finest artists in Rome, including Peruzzi himself, who painted the false perspective views of the Salone delle Prospettive, and Raphael, who painted his famous Galatea fresco (1511-12). The classical style also interested Raphael, who followed extracts from Pliny for his plan for the Villa Madama, which was never finished. In 1514. the year Bramante died, Raphael's architectural work was finally recognized. He was summoned to Rome to continue the rebuilding of St Peter's by Leo X, a Medici pope who favoured artistic links between Florence and Rome (Julius II had died in February 1513). Raphael was joined by Giuliano da Sangallo, head of the leading Florentine family of architects, and Fra Giocondo (1433-1515)- a Veronese humanist friar. Fra Giocondo was an expert on classical architecture and editor of an important illustrated edition of Vitruvius - the first-century Roman architect - which was published in Venice in 1511. Giuliano da Sangallo also had a vast knowledge of Roman antiquity and, in the latter part of his life, resided in Rome. However, his best-known buildings were in Tuscany and in 1516, the war he died, he provided designs for the facade of the Medici church of San Lorenzo in the thriving Tuscan capital, Florence. Andrea del Sarto painted his Birth of the Virgin in the atrium of Santissima Annunziata, Florence, in 1514. The painting reflects the architectural ideals of Giuliano da Sangallo and clearly shows the influence of Durer in the movements and expressions of the figures. In Rome, Raphael's work also showed an increased awareness of movement, colour, and light, typified in his Fire in the Borgo, in the passionate luminosity of the Expulsion of Heliodonts, in the intense colour of the Mass of Bolsena, and in the wonderful night scene of the Liberation of St Peter from Prison. The wealth of commissions received by Raphael and his natural sociability encouraged the formation of a group of students and collaborators that included Perino del Vaga (1500 01—47), Giulio Romano (c.1499-1546), and Giovanni da Udine. Raphael's architectural tastes centred around the classical style - evident in Palazzo Branconio and Villa Madama - and the master and his followers employed ancient styles of decoration for the loggias of the Vatican. Before long, Raphael had reached heights of power and influence unknown to any previous artist. As the result of a rather mysterious agreement between the pope, Baldassare Castiglione, and the artist himself, he undertook to reassert the historical image of the city of Rome as the capital of the Christian world with a vast, ambitious, archeological and construction project. In 1512, after returning to Milan for a short time, Leonardo da Vinci also made the essential trip to Rome, by then a mecca for any painter in Italy and northern Europe: Raphael himself had come in 1508 to decorate the Vatican apartments of Julius II. Leonardo's young friend Agostino Busti, also known as Bambaja (1447-1522), was also there, enthusiastically gathering suggestions for future Milanese funerary monuments, but although Leonardo's interest in classicism was important, it was also limited. After a brief stay in Rome, he accepted an invitation from the French king Francis I, calling him to Amboise, where he remained until his death. Here, he put forward important suggestions for the royal residence of Romorantin, which were later abandoned in favour of the chateau of Chambord, where echoes of Leonardo embellish the rooms. Homage to his style is evident in early 16th-century French architecture, which turned away from the defensive structure of castles, preferring instead the elegant construction of court palaces such as those at Gaillon, Chenonceaux, and Blois.

     
 
       
Baldassare
Peruzzi

(b Ancaiano, nr Siena, 15 Jan 1481; d Rome, 6 Jan 1536).

Italian architect, painter and draughtsman. Although his mature career lay wholly within the 16th century and on his death he was honoured by burial in the Pantheon in Rome next to Raphael, he was a transitional figure between the early Renaissance and the High Renaissance in Italy. Yet certain of his works had a strong influence on later architects in the 16th century, and his architectural theories can be said to have been extremely forward-looking. It is the balance between traditional and advanced thinking that characterizes Peruzzi’s life and career.

 


Baltassare Peruzzi
Courtyard, Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne

1527

 
   
 


Baltassare Peruzzi
Tomb of Pope Hadrian VI

1524-29
Marble
Santa Maria dell'Anima, Rome
 

 

 

 

Baltassare Peruzzi
Androcles and the Lion

1530

 

 

 


Baltassare Peruzzi
Odysseus and the Daughters of Lycomedes
 

 

 

 


Baltassare Peruzzi
The Holy Family
 

 

 


Baltassare Peruzzi
Musee, Pan, Amphion et Marsyas
 

 

 

Fra Giocondo

born c. 1433, , Verona, Republic of Venice
died July 1, 1515, Rome

original name Giovanni da Verona , also called Giocondo da Verona Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance.
A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important collection of classical inscriptions and was noted by his contemporaries for his extraordinary knowledge of architectural engineering. In 1489 Alfonso, duke of Calabria, summoned Fra Giocondo to Naples, where he conducted archaeological studies, advised on fortification and road building, and may have helped design the gardens of Giuliano's palazzo, Poggio Reale.
In 1495 Fra Giocondo went to France, where he may have helped design several chateaus and laid the foundations andsupervised construction of the bridge of Notre-Dame over the Seine in Paris (1500–04). He helped introduce Italian Renaissance styles into France through his designs.
After returning to Italy, Fra Giocondo worked on fortifications and civic-engineering projects in Venice, Treviso, and Padua before being called to Rome in 1513 by Pope Leo X to aid Giuliano da Sangallo and Raphael on the building of St. Peter's. He was evidently needed for his expertise on statics, as the foundation piers of the structure were shifting and had begun to crack.
Among his written works, an annotated and illustrated edition (1511) of the Roman architect Vitruvius' treatise De architectura proved highly influential.


Fra Giovanni Giocondo
The Upper Storey of the Loggia del Consiglio,
Verona

1493

 

 

 

       

 

Perino del Vaga

(b Florence, 1501; d Rome, 20 Oct 1547).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He trained in Florence, first with Andrea de’ Ceri and from the age of 11 with Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. According to Vasari, he practised drawing by copying Michelangelo’s cartoon for the Battle of Cascina (destr.). For Pope Leo X’s entry into Florence in November 1515 he painted an allegorical figure on one of the twelve triumphal arches. Soon after, an obscure Florentine painter called Vaga took Perino to Rome, where he became known as del Vaga. There he continued his drawing studies, copying from works of antiquity and Michelangelo’s ceiling in the Sistine Chapel. On the recommendation of Giulio Romano and Giovanni Francesco Penni, he joined Raphael’s workshop, where he learnt stuccowork and how to design grotesques, through assisting Giovanni da Udine in the Vatican Logge. Soon he was painting scenes from Raphael‘s designs, and five or six ceiling frescoes in the Logge, including the Story of Joshua and the Story of David, are generally accepted as his. Vasari drew particular attention to scenes under the windows that are painted to look like bronze reliefs (badly damaged). Pictures of this kind became a speciality of Perino’s. Before the death of Leo X in 1521, he worked with Giovanni da Udine again, on the ceiling frescoes in the Sala dei Pontefici at the Vatican.

          

 

Perino del Vaga
The Holy Family
c. 1545-46
 

   
 


Perino del Vaga

The Nativity
1534
 

 

 

 


Perino del Vaga
Madonna with Child

1535

 
 
 


Perino del Vaga
The Holy Family
c. 1540

 

 

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