Gothic Art








 

 

 Gothic Art Map
 
 Gothic Art
 
 Introduction Benedetto Antelami Taddeo Gaddi Vitale da Bologna
 Architecture in France Giovanni di Balduccio Giotto di Bondone Guariento d'Arpo
 Architecture in Germany Jacobello Dalle Masegne Pietro Lorenzetti Giusto de' Menabuoi
 Architecture in Italy Corenzo Maitani Ambrogio Lorenzetti Barnaba da Modena
 Architecture in England Andrea da Firenze Giovanni da Milano Melchior Broederlam
 Stained Glass Filippo Rusiti Gentile da Fabriano Nicolas de Bataille
 Arnolfo di Cambio Ferrer Bassa Pucelle Jean Bayeux Tapestry
 Nicola Pisano Pietro Cavallini Altichiera da Zevio Matthew Paris
 Giovanni Pisano Cimabue Tomasso da Modena Master Boucicaut
 Tino di Camaino Duccio di Buonisegna Traini Francesco Illuminated Manuscripts
 Andrea Pisano Simone Martini Giovannino de' Grassi Master Hohenfurt
 Claus Sluter Maso di Banco Roberto Oderisi Henri Belechose
 
 Exploration: Revelations (Art of the Apocalypse)
 
 Exploration: Gothic Era  (Gothic and Early Renaissance)
 

 

 


PAINTING
 

 


Giovanni da Milano

 

 

  Other Italian Schools

What emerged most clearly in the second half of the 14th century was the vitality of areas outside Tuscany, which had already been affected by Giotto and his followers, and by the progressive economic and cultural exchanges with Europe north of the Alps. Such was the case with the strongly dramatic 14th-century Bolognese art. or that of Rimini, which was more courtly and emotive. Padua and Verona, touched by the influence of Giotto and by the emergence of strong personalities and active studios, were more inclined to Gothic linearism than to Tuscan plasticity. However, they were subject to Bvzantine influences, still pre-eminent in the unique case of Venice. Lombardy. which from the end of the 13th century tended towards realistic detail and immediacy of expression, created one of the highest periods of International Gothic. This style was characterized by a refined, exquisite sense of grace and elegance. Working in Florence by 1350. was the great innovator Giovanni da Milano (active 1346-69). whose major surviving work is the decoration of the Rinuccini chapel in Santa Croce. The great exponent of the international Gothic style was Gentile di Fabriano (c. 1370-1427) from central Italy. He became master of the typically exquisite style that swept through Europe. The circulation of illuminated books, which had spread artistic innovations in the early Middle Ages, had now been reinforced by the more direct and radical migration of artists themselves. In Italian commercial and religious centres, the ascendancy of Giottesque painting reversed the flow. Filippo Rusuti was invited by the king of France to paint at Poitiers and at Saint-Denis in the first decades of the 14th century: a little after 1320. the great Parisian miniaturist Jean Pucelle arrived in Tuscany, where he was able to acquire a sounder mastery of the use of space to pass on to his French colleagues: and Matteo Giovannetti of Viterbo was involved in the decoration of the Papal See at Avignon, allowing Italian advances in plasticity to penetrate the linear style of Burgundy. Artists, perhaps from Naples, painted frescos in the castle of Esztergom in Hungary: Charles VI commissioned works from Tommaso da Modena for Prague and Karlstein; more than once, painters from the Venetian school took what they had learnt from Giotto and Altichiero (active 1369-84) to Austria, as in the Abbey of San Floriano and the Stefansdom in Vienna. During the 14th century, the number of medieval pilgrim trails increased and led to new destinations comparable with the established holy routes to Santiago. Rome, and Jerusalem. The construction sites of cathedrals and palaces were also meeting places where architects and builders from all over Europe could
exchange ideas. In order to work in these centres, where architecture, painting, and sculpture interacted to meet the rapidly changing requirements of the buildings and their patrons, artists required a grounding in all artistic forms. Of all the arts, drawing became the unifying factor and. at the same time, an instrument of visual emancipation, by virtue of its capacity to re-explore constantly the ideal forms of real objects. Albums of drawings were compiled, few of which survive today. However, those that do survive testify to the growing need for common principles, as in the Livre de Portraiture of Villard d'Honnecourt (13th century), and to the demand for models and studies, as in the Taccuino of Giovanni De' Grassi.
Alongside the artist, the figure of the commissioning patron also became more visible. Inscriptions, or tituli, placed within paintings, recorded their names, often beside those of the artists. A later innovation, however, was the inclusion actually within the painting of the donor's image, almost always shown in an attitude of devotion, and sometimes positioned to balance the composition, as in San Ludovico di Tolosa by Simone Martini, where the donor, Robert of Anjou, appears in the painting. This was one of the ways in which the artistic convention of portraiture became established.
 

 
   


 


Giovanni da Milano

( fl c. 1346–69).

Italian painter. He is first recorded on 17 October 1346, listed as Johannes Jacobi de Commo among the foreign painters living in Florence. There follows a gap of at least 12 undocumented years until his inscription as Johannes Jacobi Guidonis de Mediolano with the Arte dei Medici e Speziali between 1358 and 1363. A tax return dated 26 December 1363 declares his ownership of land in Ripoli, Tizzana (nr Prato) and a house in the parish of S Pier Maggiore, Florence.
              


The Birth of the Virgin
1365
Fresco
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence
 

 
 

Scenes from the Life of the Virgin
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence


Scenes from the Life of the Virgin
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Scenes from the Life of the Virgin
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Scenes from the Life of the Virgin
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Scenes from the Life of Magdalene
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence


Scenes from the Life of Magdalene
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Scenes from the Life of Magdalene
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Scenes from the Life of Magdalene
1365
Rinuccini Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence

   

Polyptych with Madonna and Saints
1355
Civic Museum, Prato

 

Polyptych with Madonna and Saints
1355
Civic Museum, Prato


 
 

Polyptych with Madonna and Saints
1355
Civic Museum, Prato

 
 

Polyptych with Madonna and Saints
1355
Civic Museum, Prato

   


Three Pinnacles from an Altarpiece
about 1364-6

   


St Francis of Assisi
c. 1360
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Pieta
1365
Galleria del'Accademia, Florence

 

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