PREHISTORIC & ANCIENT ART
The Ancient World
3000bc: tablets from Uruk in Sumer attest to the
invention of cuneiform writing.
c.3000bc: Narmer unites
Egypt under a single pharaoh.
2500bc: oldest civilization in
the Indus valley flourishes in northern India; in Egypt, papyrus and ink
are used for writing.
2400bc: literature in the local
Semitic language develops at Ebla in Syria.
affirms her supremacy in the Aegean Sea.
c.1894bc: Babylon ("Gate of Gods") is
founded on the banks of the Euphrates.
use in Crete of the still undeciphered linear A script.
1600bc:earliest urban civilization established in China under
the Shang Dynasty.
c.1350bc: early example of alphabetical
writing, with 30 characters, appears at Ugarit, in Syria.
1402bc: under Amenophis III, Egypt attains its utmost splendour.
1347bc: Tutankhamun abolishes the cult of Aten (the Sun),
introduced by Akhnaton and his wife Nefertiti, and restores
the traditional worship of Amun.
1200BC: the Veda, the most important
collection of Sanskrit religious texts, is completed in
India; first migrations of the Dorian people into Greece
occur, heralding the end of Mycenaean civilization.
1100bc: the practice of
horseriding and use of the saddle spreads through the Near
667bc: Assyrian kingdom achieves its maximum expansion under Assurbanipal.
c.770bc: Chinese empire splits into
numerous small kingdom.
55Obc: Cyrus the Great of Persia deter the Medes, conquering
Asia Minor, Babylonia, Syria, and
1050-900bc: production begins of proto-Geometric style
pottery decorated with patterns and motifs.
c.900-800bc: with the continued penetration of the Doric
peoples into Greece, Sparta
evolves from the settlement of Lacedaemon.
776bc: the first Olympic Games are held.
c.730-700bc: the first Greek colonies in southern
Italy are founded.
624bc: Thales, the father of Hellenic philosophy, is
born in Miletus.
c.600bc: knowledge of the Iliad and Odyssey spreads
through the Hellenic world.
510-507bc: Clisthenes gives Athens a democratic
472bc:Aeschylus composes his tradegy, The Persians.
460-429bc: Athens begins its period of greatest
democracy under Perikles.
c.447-438bc: The architect Ictinus builds the
431bc: the Peloponnesian War breaks out, lasting 30
years and leading to the collapse of Athenian power.
399bc: Socrates is tried and condemned to death.
387bc: Plato's Academy is founded in Athens.
351bc: Demosthenes composes the first Phillipic, an
appeal to the Greek states for solidarity against the
338bc: battle of Cheronea: the Macedonian hegemony
over Greece begins.
336bc: Alexander the Great becomes King of Macedonia.
290bc: the Library at Alexandria is created, the
first in the ancient world.
168bc: with the defeat of Pidna, Macedonia becomes a
c.150bc: Venus is sculpted, attributed to Milo.
86bc: Athens is occupied and sacked by the Roman army
led by Scilla.
27bc: the province of Achaea is created.
1000—800bc: various local geometric styles in pottery and
bronzework develop in the Early Iron Age.
c.850bc: Sardinian Nuragic civilization reaches its greatest splendour.
753bc:according to legend, Romulus founds a village called Rome
on the Palatine Hill.
c.600bc: parts of Italy participate in
Greek art styles.
540bc: after a period of dispute, the
Etruscans are victorious over the Greeks in a sea battle off Corsica.
509bc: the last king of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, is ejected
from Rome and the republican period begins.
474bc: after the
battle of Cuma, the Greeks become dominant in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
450-400bc: large quantities of Greek Attic pottery are
imported into Etruria; large-scale votive bronzes are
produced in Etruria.
c.400bc: the Lucanians take Posidonia (Paestum).
396bc: Veio is destroyed by Marcus Furius Camillus; thus
begins the Roman subjugation of the Etruscan world.
the Appian Way is laid out.
290bc: the third Samnite war ends in
212bc: Syracuse is conquered by the Romans.
133bc: laia of Cyzicus comes to Italy, where she gains fame
for her portrait paintings.
106bc: birth of Marcus Tullius
Cicero, orator, politician, and philosopher.
sculptor Pasiteles, originally from Magna Graecia and the
creator of a five-volume catalogue devoted to the most beautiful
statues ever made, is granted Roman citizenship.
44bc : fear of
the sovereign power of Julius Caesar prompts his