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Masolino da Panicale

 
 

 

 

Masolino da Panicale
 

(b Panicale, Umbria, 1383; d after 1435).

Italian painter, florentine school. He is one of the pivotal figures of Florentine painting. Not only does his career span the two decades during which the basis of Renaissance painting was forged, but for a time he collaborated with its protagonist, MASACCIO, most notably in a cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in S Maria del Carmine, Florence, a landmark in the history of European art. Paradoxically, his collaboration with Masaccio has obscured his own achievement. Vasari originated the idea that Masolino was the teacher of Masaccio, and he also attributed a number of Masolino’s works to an early phase of Masaccio’s. Not until the 20th century was the work of the two artists convincingly distinguished. Masolino’s most extensive independent fresco cycle in the Lombard town of Castiglione Olona (a work unknown to Vasari) was recovered in 1843, and a century later the fresco fragments and the sinopie of another, documented cycle were discovered in the church of S Stefano, Empoli. These have thrown further light on a career that remains enigmatic and subject to a variety of interpretations.


 
 

   

 

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Masolino da Panicale


born 1383, Panicale, near Perugia, Romagna
died , probably 1440–47, Florence


original name Tommaso Di Cristoforo Fini painter who achieved a compromise between the International Gothic manner and the advanced early Renaissance style of his own day and who owes his prominence in the history of Florentine art not to his innovations but to his lyrical style and his unfailing artistry.

Masolino came from the same district of Tuscany as his younger contemporary Masaccio (q.v.), with whom his career was closely linked. Trained in a Florentine studio, possibly that of Gherardo Starnina, he appears before 1407 to have been a member of the workshop of Lorenzo Ghiberti. His earliest works include the “Madonna of Humility” (Alte Pinakothek, Munich), probably painted c. 1424, and a “Virgin and Child” (Kunsthalle, Bremen), dated 1423. In 1424 he received payment for frescoes in S. Stefano at Empoli (in large part destroyed).

The first known work to display the fundamental antithesis between the decorative late Gothic style of Masolino and themore progressive early Renaissance style of Masaccio is a “Virgin and Child with St. Anne” (c. 1420; Uffizi, Florence). It is thought that this work may be the result of a collaboration of the two artists.

The influence on Masolino of the stronger and more decisive personality of Masaccio reached its climax in the frescoes of scenes from the life of St. Peter in the Brancacci Chapel in the Church of the Carmine in Florence. There have been many opinions about the respective shares of the two artistsin this important cycle. It is likely that the frescoes were commissioned from Masolino about 1425 and that at this time he painted some lost scenes in the upper register of thechapel walls. Thereafter he worked in Hungary, from which he returned in 1427 to undertake, jointly with Masaccio, theremaining frescoes in the chapel. By this time the balance of emphasis within the studio had shifted toward Masaccio, and Masolino was responsible for only one fresco, that of “St.Peter Preaching,” on the altar wall, and three scenes on the right wall, the “Fall of Adam and Eve,” the “Healing of the Lame Man,” and the “Raising of Tabitha,” where the perspective scheme seems to have been worked out and in part realized by Masaccio.

Work on the Brancacci frescoes was abandoned in 1428, and probably at this time Masolino received the commission for afresco cycle in the Chapel of St. Catherine in S. Clemente in Rome and possibly executed his double-sided triptych for Sta. Maria Maggiore in Rome. The two central panels of this altarpiece, representing the foundation of Sta. Maria Maggiore and the Assumption of the Virgin (Museo e GallerieNazionali di Capodimonte, Naples), are among Masolino's most distinguished panel paintings. The death of Masaccio in Rome in the autumn of 1428 marks a turning point in Masolino's career, and the story of his later development is that of a progressive return to the International Gothic idiom of his youth. This is evident initially in the S. Clemente frescoes (where the space construction is once more decorative and systematized) and subsequently in a frescoed “Virgin and Child” in S. Fortunato at Todi (1432) andin fresco cycles in the Baptistery (completed 1435) and Collegiata at Castiglione Olona. The extensive panoramas inthe backgrounds of the “Crucifixion” on the altar wall in S. Clemente and the “Baptism of Christ” at Castiglione Olona are milestones in the history of landscape painting. With their light tonality and elegant, rhythmical figures, the scenes by Masolino in the Baptistery and Collegiata form two of the most fascinating fresco cycles of the 15th century.

 

 


The Annunciation
1425-30
National Gallery of Art, Washington

 


 


Madonna with the Child
Alte Pinakothek, Munich


 
 


Crucifixion
1428-30
Fresco
San Clemente, Rome


 


The Philosophers of Alexandria
1428-30
Fresco
San Clemente, Rome


 


The Martyrdom of St Catherine
1428-30
Fresco
San Clemente, Rome

 

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