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Zach Bruno. Art Deco

Zademack Siegfried (born Germany, 1952). Surrealism/

Zadkine Ossip (1890—1967). Sculptor born in Smolensk, studied in Sunderland, London and in 1909 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In Paris he formed a deep admiration tor Rodin, but the most immediate impact upon him was that of *Cubism. For a few years he experimented — like *Lipchitz, *Laurens and *Archipenko — with a disciplined analysis of the figure into an austere geometric arrangement of solids. In the 1920s his forms took on an essentially expressive significance, e.g. Prometheus, a fusion of figure and flame, and the torso of Orpheus (1949) and The Destroyed City (1951—3).

Zak Eugeniusz (1884-1926). Eugeniusz Żak was born to a family of assimilated Polish Jews. As a boy he moved to Warsaw, where he graduated from a non-classical secondary school. In 1902, he left for Paris to undertake studies, first at the École des Beaux-Arts in the studio of the aged master of academism Jean-Léon Gerôme, and then at Académie Colarossi in the studio of Albert Besnard. In 1903, he traveled to Italy and toward the end of the year to Munich, where he entered a private school run by the Slovenian Anton Ažbé. His fame grew rapidly. The French government purchased of one of his paintings for the Luxembourg Museum (1910), he organized a one-man show at Galerie Druet (1911), and he was connected with important personalities of Parisian cultural life, including the critics Adolf Basler and André Salmon. In 1912 he became a professor at the Académie La Palette. In 1913 he married a beginning painter Jadwiga Kon, who managed the well-known Galerie Zak after his death. Between 1914 and 1916 he stayed in southern France (Nice, St Paul-de-Vence, and Vence), and also visited Lausanne in Switzerland. In 1916 he returned with his family to Poland, settling in his wife’s hometown of Częstochowa. He associated with the Formists. Upon his frequent visits to Warsaw, he collaborated with the future members of Rhythm, a group he co-founded in 1921. In 1922 he left Poland for good. First, he went to Germany, where he had already been known and esteemed before the World War I. He visited Berlin and later Bonn, where he carried out a commission to decorate the interior of the villa of the architect Fritz August Breuhaus with paintings. He co-operated with the periodical Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, publishing articles on certain artists who were close to him. In 1923 he settled once again in Paris, where he joined his friends Zygmunt Menkes and Marc Chagall. His growing artistic fame and financial successes ended suddenly when he died of a heart attack. He did not live to take over the faculty of painting, which had been offered to him by the Academy of Fine Arts, Cologne, Germany.

Zander Carl. Art Deco

Zandomeneghi Federico (b Venice, 2 June 1841; d Paris, 30 Dec 1917). Italian painter. His father Pietro and grandfather Luigi tried to interest him in the plastic arts, but from a very early age he showed a stronger inclination for painting. Zandomeneghi soon rebelled against their teachings, and by 1856 he was attending the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under the painters Michelangelo Grigoletti (1801–70) and Pompeo Molmenti (1819–94). As a Venetian he was born an Austrian subject, and, to escape conscription, he fled his city in 1859 and went to Pavia, where he enrolled at the university. In the following year he followed Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand; afterwards, having been convicted of desertion and therefore unable to return to Venice, he went to Florence, where he remained from 1862 to 1866. This period was essential for his artistic development. In Tuscany he frequented the Florentine painters known as the Macchiaioli, with some of whom he took part in the Third Italian War of Independence (1866). Zandomeneghi formed a strong friendship with Telemaco Signorini and Diego Martelli, with whom he corresponded frequently for the rest of his life. In this period he painted the Palazzo Pretorio of Florence (1865; Venice, Ca’ Pesaro), in which the building, represented in the historical–romantic tradition, is redeemed by a remarkable sense of air and light, elements derived from the Macchiaioli.

Zapotec. Mexican pre-Columbian culture with its ceremonial centre at Monte Alban, near Oaxaca. The Z. fl. с. AD 300—900 and were succeeded apparently by the Mixtec. Among the most outstanding examples of their art are pottery urns in the shape of human figures wearing elaborate ornaments and fantastic headdresses.

Zenale Bernardo (d. 1526). Italian painter and architect, pupil of Foppa in Milan. He was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci and to some extent influenced by him. He frequently collaborated with *Butinone.

Zeshin Shibata (1807-1891) Japan Artist

Zeuxis (fl. late 5th c. BC). Greek painter, pupil of Apollodoros and particularly renowned for a painting of Helen for the city ot Crotona in which he combined the best features of several young girls. He was reputed to have painted a bunch of grapes with such naturalism that the birds flew to peck at it.

Zoppo Marco (c 1432—с 1478). Italian painter, pupil of Squarcione at Padua but more strongly influenced by Cosimo Tura. He worked mainly in Venice.


Zucchi Antonio (1726—95). Venetian decorative painter who worked m Britain for R. Adam. In 1781 he married *Kauffmann and settled with her in Rome.

Zucchi Jacopo (b Florence, c. 1540; d Rome, before 3 April 1596). Italian painter and draughtsman. He was trained in the studio of Vasari, whom he assisted in the decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, as early as 1557. He accompanied Vasari to Pisa in 1561, from when dates his earliest known drawing, Aesculapius (London, BM). Between 1563 and 1565 he was again in Florence and is documented working with Vasari, Joannes Stradanus and Giovan Battista Naldini on the ceiling of the Sala Grande (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio; a drawing of an Allegory of Pistoia (Florence, Uffizi) is related to the ceiling allegories of Tuscan cities. In 1564 Zucchi entered the Accademia del Disegno and contributed to the decorations erected for the funeral of Michelangelo. He travelled to Rome with Vasari and was his chief assistant on decorations in the Vatican in 1567 and 1572, where he executed frescoes of scenes from the Life of St Peter Martyr in the chaptel of S Pio V.

Zuloaga (y Zabaleta) Ignacio (1870—1945). Spanish portrait and genre painter.

Zurbaran Francisco (baptized November 7, 1598, Fuente de Cantos, Spain died August 27, 1664, Madrid). Major painter of the Spanish Baroque, especially noted for religious subjects.His work is characterized by Caravaggesque naturalism and tenebrism, the latter a style in which most forms are depicted in shadow but a few are dramatically lighted. Zurbarán was apprenticed 1614–16 to Pedro Díaz de Villanueva in Sevilla (Seville), where he spent the greater part of his life. No works by his master have survived, but Zurbarán's earliest known painting, an Immaculate Conception dated 1616, suggests that he was schooled in the same naturalistic style as his contemporary Diego Velázquez. From 1617 to 1628 he was living in Llerena, near his birthplace; then he returned to Sevilla, where he settled at the invitation of the city corporation. In 1634 he visited Madrid and painted a series of Labours of Hercules and two scenes of the Defense of Cádiz, which formed part of the decoration of the Salón de Reinos in the Buen Retiro palace. The Adoration of the Kings, from a series painted for the Carthusian monastery at Jerez, is signed with the title “Painter to the King” and dated 1638, the year in which Zurbarán decorated a ceremonial ship presented to the king by the city of Sevilla. The paintings for the Buen Retiro are the only royal commissions and the only mythological or historical subjects by Zurbarán that are known. His contact with the court had little effect on his artistic evolution; he remained throughout his life a provincial artist and was par excellence a painter of religious life. In 1658 Zurbarán moved to Madrid. Zurbarán's personal style was already formed in Sevilla by 1629, and its development was probably stimulated by the early works of Velázquez and by the works of José de Ribera. It was a style that lent itself well to portraiture and still life, but it found its most characteristic expression in his religioussubjects. Indeed Zurbarán uses naturalism more convincingly than other exponents for the expression of intense religious devotion. His apostles, saints, and monks are painted with almost sculptural modeling and with an emphasis on the minutiae of their dress that gives verisimilitude to their miracles, visions, and ecstasies. This distinctive combination of realism and religious sensibility conforms to the Counter-Reformation guidelines for artists outlined by the Council of Trent (1545–63). Zurbarán's art was popular with monastic orders in Sevilla and the neighbouring provinces, and he received commissions for many large cycles. Of these, only the legends of St. Jerome and of the Hieronymite monks (1638–39) that decorate the chapel and sacristy of the Hieronymite monastery at Guadalupe have remained in situ. Little is known of his production in the 1640s apart from an altarpiece at Zafra (1643–44) and records of a large number of paintings destined for Lima, Peru (1647). By 1658 both the style and the content of Zurbarán's paintings had undergone a change that can be attributed to the influence of Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. In his late devotional pictures, such as Holy Family and Immaculate Conception (1659 and 1661, respectively), the figures have become more idealized and less solid in form, and their expression ofreligious emotion is marred by sentimentality. Zurbarán had several followers whose works have been confused with his.

 


 

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