Dictionary of Art and Artists  
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Tabard Maurice (French, 1897–1984) At an early age, Maurice Tabard studied fabric design at his father's silk manufacturing plant in France. The family relocated to the United States for his father's work and Tabard studied photography at the New York Institute of Photography. He returned to France in the late 1920s and continued his experimentation with double exposures and solarization techniques, producing surrealist portraits, and still lifes. Tabard worked in the fashion, advertising and portrait photography industries from 1928-1938. Most of his work, including his entire negative archive, was lost during WWII. Tabard retired in 1965 and moved to Nice in 1980.

Tachibana. Shrine in the Horyu-ji temple, Japan. It presents the Buddha Amitabha flanked by two Bodhisattvas on lotus blossoms. The small, high-relief bronze is one of the finest achievements of Japanese Buddhist sculpture.

Tachisme. *Action painting

Taeuber-Arp Sophie (1889—1943). Swiss painter and designer, member of the Zurich *Dada group and the Ccrclc et Carre and * Abstraction-Creation groups; wife of *Arp. Some of her earliest paintings (1916) were geometric abstractions. In 1928 she collaborated with Van Doesburg and Arp on the interior decoration of the Aubette Cafe, Strassburg (since destroyed).

Taine Hippolyte (1828-93). French philosopher of art (e.g. Philosophic de I'art, 1881) and vivid exponent of positivist and scientific experimental method as applied to art and art history.

Takano Aya. Born in 1976 in Saitama, Japan. Lives and works in Japan. Pop Art.

Talashkino. A centre for artists and a school for children, founded for the encouragement of Russian arts and crafts by the Princess Tenisheva on her estate near Smolensk in the 1890s. In many ways it was based on a continuation of Mamontov's *Abramtsevo Colony. Artists such as Vrubel and Roerich, and the theatre designer Alexander Golovin worked there. These centres created the 'Russian style' of interior design and were influential also in theatre design.

Tamayo Rufino (1899—1991). Mexican painter. His style remained distinctively Mexican in character, inspired by folklore and primitive art, despite influences by contemporary Europeans, notably Picasso and Braque. His works include Photogenic Venus (1930), Women in the Night (1962) and numerous important murals for public buildings in Mexico City and the U.S.A. Chief among these are murals for the art gal. and nius. in Mexico City, for the UNESCO building, Paris, and for the Montreal Expo '67.

Tanagra. Town in the province of Boeotia in Greece where a series of 3rd-c. ВС terracotta figurines were excavated. Made from moulds, they are mostly of elegant young women and were decorated in coloured paint over a white slip-like coating. Many forgeries were produced in the 19th с

T'ang. Chinese dynasty (618—906). Artistic development, formative for later Chinese and Japanese art, shows simheation of foreign influences. Up to the persecution of Buddhism in the 840s, Indian Buddhist influence was strong in painting and sculpture. Temple wall paintings, e.g. at Loyang and *Ch'ang-an, the T. capital, and after 845 at such provincial centres as Tun huang, embodied Indian formal ideals. These were fused with the traditional Chinese brush style by such masters as *Wu Tao-tzu. Courtly painting is represented by Yen Li-pen (d. 673) in a handscroll of Thirteen Emperors, a monumental embodiment of Confucian ideals of dignity and order, and by ilourt Ladies in the tomb of Princess Yung t'ai (c. 706), near Ch'ang-an. Masters at the brilliant court of Ming Huang (713—56) included Chou Fang, Chang Hsuan and the great painter of horses, Han Kan. A courtly 'green and blue' style of landscape painting of precise line and decorative colour evolved under such masters as Li Ssu-hsun (651-716) and Li Chao-tao (d. с 735). A scholarly tradition (*wen-jen) of monochrome landscapists, e.g. *Wang Wei, began to emerge. Some later T. painters, inspired perhaps by Ch'an Buddhism, experimented with techniques reminiscent of *Action painting. Such mid-ioth-c. artists as Ku Hung-chung at Nanking revived T. glories. In sculpture, Indian *Gupta-period statues brought back (ad 645) by the famous Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang (Monkey) stimulated the climax of Chinese Buddhist achievement. Majestic T. Buddhist sculptures survive at the caves of Lungmen, e.g. the massive 7th-c. Vairocana Buddha, and in Japan at Nara. In pottery the semi-naturalistic floral motifs from Sassamd Persian metalwork and the shapes of Syrian and Seine-Rhine Roman glassware are evident in some T. pottery. The grey-green T. Yiieh porcelain is a forerunner of Sung dynasty (960-1279) celadons. The famous T. statuettes of horses, court dancers, Middle Eastern merchants, represent the culmination of a Han dynasty (206 BC.-AD 220) tradition.


Tanguy Yves (1900-55). French painter living m the U.S.A. from 1939. He began to paint in 1922 and was influenced at first by De *Chirico's *Metaphysical painting. In 1925 he joined the *Surrealists. In 1930 he contributed to Le Surrealisme аu service de la revolution. The barren landscapes of his paintings shared with Surrealist imagery a hallucinatory stillness; the amorphous organisms which inhabit them echoing similar forms in Miro's paintings. Jours de Lenteur (1937) is a typical example of his work.

Tanning Dorothea (1912— ). U.S. painter and writer associated with *Surrealist circles (she married *Ernst in 1946) whose work is illustrative of female Surrealist painters' psychological exploration of sexuality in contrast to their male counterparts' more explicit representational language. The imagery in Guardian Angels (1946) and Palaestra (1947) demonstrates T.'s fascination with the psychic forces that inform the tangible world.

Tapestry Bayeux. The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. The Tapestry is annotated in Latin. It is presently exhibited in a special museum in Bayeux, Normandy, France, with a Victorian replica in Reading, Berkshire, England.

Tapies Antoni  (1923— ). Catalan painter; he took up painting with no formal training after studying law. Co-founder of the group and review 'Dan al set' in Barcelona. Influenced by *Miro and *Dubuffet, he has developed a profoundly dramatic style with austere imagery and earthy colour and texture. Characteristic are canvases with thickly impastoed, scratched or scraped paint, reminiscent of arid Spanish landscapes.

Tatlin Vladimir  (1885-1953). Soviet painter, born in Kharkov. T. studied at the Penza School of Art (1902-9) and the College of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture at Moscow (1909-11). He became the pupil and protege of *Larionov and *Goncharova. In 1911 his 1st designs for the theatre were used in a production in Moscow. He visited Paris (1913) where he was much impressed by Picasso's work; he produced his 1st semi-abstract 'Relief Construction' in Moscow in the winter of 191?—14. He continued to make reliefs from such materials as glass, iron, wood, now entirely abstract; by 191 5 these had developed into free-hanging 'Corner Constructions'. In 1917 T. was invited by Georgy Yakulov to help him to decorate the Cafe Pittoresque in Moscow with constructions — their first practical application and generally regarded as the beginning of *Constructivism. After the Bolshevik Revolution T. emerged as an important figure in the artistic reorganization of the country undertaken by the former *Futunst, now 'leftist' artists; he was appointed head of the Moscow Department of Fine Arts. His growing group of followers gradually became known as Constructivists. He lived in Petrograd (1920—5), building his Monument to the Third International and working on practical projects, designing stoves, workers' clothes, etc. with economy and sensitivity to the nature of the materials used. T. called this system of design 'culture of materials'. He directed the ceramic faculty m the reorganized Moscow Art School, Vkhutcin, continuing to develop 'culture of materials'. He also became known as a glider designer. Between T933 and 1952 he worked as theatrical designer, continuing to paint, mostly still-life subjects and nudes, using icon preparation on wooden panels.

Taut Bruno (1880 – 1938)

Tchelitchew Pavel (1898-1957). Russian Neo-romantic painter and stage designer; he worked in Berlin and Paris before settling in the U.S.A. He made use of perspective distortion and multiple images in the late 1920s, and at that time he also began to develop his interest in metamorphic forms; the Surrealist practice of *Automatism played a significant part in his metamorphic compositions, of which the most famous is Hide and Seek (1942).

Teague Walter Dorwin. Art Deco.

Tempera. Painting technique in which powder colour is mixed with a binder, normally the yolk of an egg or both white and yolk together, thinned with water and applied to a *gesso ground. It is opaque, permanent and fast drying, though the colours dry lighter than they appear when wet. Modelling is achieved by *hatching. T. was the usual technique for panel painting until the 15th с From the early 14th с and lasting into the 16th с a mixed technique was also common, i.e. an oil glaze applied over t. From this the technique of oil painting developed and superseded t. because of its greater range of possibilities, particularly *impasto. T. has been considerably revived in the 20th с

Ten, The. Group of U.S. artists who studied in Pans (Academic Julian) and whose work (1 895) showed influence of Impressionism. They included F. W. Benson (1862-1951), T. W. Dening (1851-1938), Childe Hassam (1859-1935) and J. H. Twachtman (1853—1902).

Tenebrist (pl. Tenebristi) (It. lenebroso: dark). Name given to 17th-c. painters in Naples, the Netherlands and Spain who painted in a low key and emphasized light-shade contrasts in imitation of *Caravaggio.

Tenerani Pietro (b Torano, Massa e Carrara, 11 Nov 1789; d Rome, 14 Dec 1869). Italian sculptor. From 1803 he trained under Lorenzo Bartolini at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Carrara, where he was also influenced by his uncle, Pietro Marchetti ( fl 1789–1850), the professor of sculpture, and by the French painter Jean-Baptiste Frédéric Desmarais (1756–1813). In 1813 he won a scholarship to study in Rome and moved there in 1814. He visited art exhibitions and museums, took lessons in painting the nude at the Académie de France and attended the studio of Gaspare Landi. As a fundamental test for all aspiring sculptors, he copied one of The Dioscuri, colossal Roman statues of Castor and Pollux located on Monte Cavallo (now Piazza del Quirinale), though he destroyed his copy. In 1816 he received significant recognition by winning the Premio dell’Anonimo, instituted by Canova, for his much-acclaimed Risen Redeemer (untraced). Towards the end of 1815 he came into contact with Bertel Thorvaldsen and worked with him in his studio in the Piazza Barberini.

Teniers the Younger, David (1610-90). Flemish painter, chiefly of peasant genre scenes. He was taught by his father (the above) but in the development of his style owed more to Brouwer. He became court painter to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in Brussels and keeper of his art coll., which included works by Titian, Giorgione and Veronese. T.'s copies of these pictures (engraved Theatrum Pictorium, 1660) and his paintings of the interior of the gal. provide valuable evidence for art historians. His peasant scenes were immensely popular and gamed T. his fashionable reputation.

Tenneson Joyce, born May 29, 1945, is an American photographer known for her distinctive style of photography, which often involved nude or semi-nude women.
She has had her work displayed in over 100 exhibitions around the world.

Tenniel John (1820-1914). British artist and draughtsman; best remembered for his political cartoons for Punch (1850—1901) and his ills for Lewis Carroll's Alice books (1866 and 1870).

Teotihuacan. Ancient city of Mexico, r. 30 miles (48 km) N.E. of Mexico City. The site, some 7 square miles (11.2 sq. km), comprises: pyramids, notably the Pyramid of the Sun; temples, e.g. the so-called Temple of Quetzalcoatl; and extensive residential complexes. The site was occupied by 1000 ВС and the city was perhaps the major Mexican cultural centre for с iooo years from c. 300 fit:. The art and culture of T. show strong links with those of the Maya, Mixtec, Olmec, Toltec and Zapotec. *Pre-Columbian art.

Ter Borch (Terborch, Terburg) Gerard (1617—8 1). Dutch genre and portrait painter. He travelled widely as a young man, making his reputation with the group portrait Signing of the Peace of Minister, May 15, 164S (1648). His early paintings were guardroom scenes similar to those of *Codde and *Duyster but he later specialized in a distinctive type of interior genre, elegant and serene. Examples include The Letter, Singing Lesson and Woman Writing.

Terbrugghen Hendrick (1588—1629). Dutch painter of religious and genre subjects, a leading member of the Utrecht school. After studying under Bloemaert he went to Italy (1604—14), then settled in Utrecht. He was a follower of Caravaggio and Manfredi; the influence of the latter in particular is apparent in his half-lengths of figures playing musical instruments, singing, drinking, etc. In his later works, e.g. Jacob, Labati and Leah (1627), T. came closer to Vermeer.

Terracotta (It. baked earth). A hard baked clay used for statuary or decoratively in architecture.

Terribilita (It. terribleness). The effect or expression of awesome grandeur in art, used by contemporaries of the work of *Michelangelo.

Theodoric Master. I4th-c. Bohemian painter whose naturalistic style influenced later German painting. He worked at the court of the Emperor Charles IV and executed religious paintings in the royal chapel at Burg Karlstein.

Theophanes the Greek (b c. 1335 - d c. 1410). Byzantine painter, active in Russia. Only those works he produced on Russian soil have survived and he is therefore included in the history of Russian as well as Byzantine art. He is one of the few 14th-century artists in Russia about whom there is reliable documentary evidence. According to the chronicle sources he painted the church of the Transfiguration (Spaso-Preobrazheniye) at Novgorod in 1378 and three churches in the Moscow Kremlin: the Nativity of the Virgin (Rozhdestvo Bogoroditsy; 1395), the cathedral of the Archangel Michael (Arkhangel’sky; 1399) and, with ANDREY RUBLYOV and Prokhor from Gorodets, the cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveshchensky; 1405); none of the paintings in these Moscow churches survives. The richest source of biographical material is a 17th-century copy of excerpts from a letter (c. 1415) from the monk and hagiographer Epiphanius the Wise (Premudry; d c. 1420) to Kirill, abbot of the monastery of the Saviour (Spassky) in Tver’. He describes the activities and working methods of Theophanes while in Moscow, thus confirming the authenticity of the chronicles’ information. He writes that Theophanes was of Greek origin and, before coming to Moscow, had worked in Constantinople (now Istanbul), Chalcedon, Galatia, Kaffa (now Feodosiya) in the Crimea, Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod, and who painted over 40 stone churches. The letter relates that in addition to the three churches in the Moscow Kremlin, Theophanes painted the state treasury of Prince Vladimir Andreyevich Serpukhovsky (reg 1353–1410), in which he included an image of Moscow, and the terem, or small chambers, of Grand Prince Vasily I (1389–1425), also in the Kremlin. At the request of Epiphanius, Theophanes produced a miniature for a Gospels manuscript showing a view of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and the statue of Justinian I to the south of the cathedral. He describes Theophanes as a "renowned wise man, an expert philosopher ... a famous book artist and the best artist among all the icon painters".

Thiebaud Wayne (1920- ). U.S. painter, working in California, of works of great complexity and distinction, which appear deceptively simple in terms of subject matter and in their presentation. In fact, T. is part of the grand tradition of representational art from *Chardin and *Manet to the American Realist masters such as *Eakins and *Hopper. Simple, ordinary subjects — cigar boxes, iced cakes and other food — often depicted repetitively, giving an overall abstract impression, are treated as elementary shapes — cubes, cylinders and circles — rather than because of their vernacular character. They are richly rendered in oils, sometimes in combination with acrylic. T.'s use of shadows and modelling results in surprising illusions of volume and depth, e.g. Pies, Pies, Pies, Five Hot Dogs (both 1961), Bakery Counter (1961—2) and Salads, Sandwiches and Deserts (1962). His urban landscapes, e.g. San Francisco Landscape (1976) and Study for Apartment (1980), related to those of *Diebenkorn in their simplification and flatness, as well as to his figurative compositions, may be perceived as tending towards abstraction. Diebenkorn, however, challenges any opposition between representation and abstraction. T. has said that it is characteristic of the Realist idiom that 'You take away by simplification, by leaving out detail. But you also put in selective bits of other experience, or perceptual nuances that enforce it, giving it more of a multi-dimension than if it were done directly as a visual recording.'

Thompson T.N. Pin -Up Art

Thoren Esaias (1901-1981). Surrealism.

Thornhill Jamess (1675—1734). British painter of portraits and, more notably, the 1st British fresco painter in the Baroque manner. Master of the Painters' Co. (1720), he was also a fellow of the Royal Society (1723), M.P. (1722—34) and history painter to George I and George П. Т. decorated the dome of St Paul's cathedral (1716—19) and the Painted Hall at Greenwich (1708—27). He also worked on ceilings at Hampton Court, Blenheim Palace and Chatsworth. Apart from portraits of notable people such as Steele and Newton, he painted altarpieces for several Oxford colleges.

Thorn-Prikker Johan  (b The Hague, 6 June 1868; d Cologne, 5 March 1932). Dutch painter, printmaker, mosaicist and stained-glass artist. He attended the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1881–8). During this period he painted mainly landscapes in the style of The Hague school. Until c. 1896 he produced Symbolist works, in which the emphatic line flow and the subtle colour shading are especially noticeable, for example The Bride (1893; Otterlo, Krцller-Muller). From 1892 until 1897 he corresponded with Henri Borel, partly about his Symbolist work, often drawing in the letters. During this time he came into close contact with Belgian artists, in particular with Henry Van de Velde through whom he was able to exhibit with Les XX in Brussels. In summer he regularly stayed in Visй, where he produced pastel drawings in a rhythmic pointillism, a style with which he could achieve a form of abstraction.

Thorvaldsen Bertel (1768-1844). Danish Neoclassical sculptor who worked much in Italy. He was greatly admired by his contemporaries and became the most influential sculptor of his time, second only to *Canova. He established his fame with the frieze Alexander the Great Entering Babylon (1812). There is a Thorwaldsen Mus. in Copenhagen including one version of The Three Graces (1817—19).

Tibaldi Pellegrino (1527-96). Italian painter and architect. From 1547 to 1550 he lived in Rome, coming mainly under the influence of Michelangelo and Daniele da Volterra. He later worked at Bologna (his home town), Milan, Ferrara and in Spain (for Philip II). His style is
typically Mannerist — characterized in his painting by violent gestures, strained poses and sharp contrast of light and shade (e.g. Adoration of the Shepherds), and in his architecture by arbitrarily combined classical motifs, multiplication of planes and awkward proportions (e.g. facade of S. Fedele, Milan). He is an important figure in the spread of *Mannerism outside Rome.

Tiepolo Giandomenico (b Venice, 30 Aug 1727; d Venice, 3 March 1804). Son of Giambattista Tiepolo. Giambattista’s eldest surviving son, he entered his father’s studio in the early 1740s, where he learnt his art by copying his father’s drawings and etchings. In 1747, aged 20, Giandomenico painted a cycle of 14 paintings, the Via Crucis (Stations of the Cross) for the oratory of the Crucifix in S Polo, Venice (in situ). He avoided any hint of Giambattista’s grandiloquence and created tender scenes that portray the suffering of Christ, the grief of his followers and the cold objectivity of the bystanders in a straightforward manner. From 1750 to 1770 Giandomenico was both his father’s assistant and associate as well as an independent artist, although at times the roles merged. From 1750 to 1753 they were preparing and executing the fresco decorations in the Würzburg Residenz, but Giandomenico was also producing a large number of his own works, such as the Institution of the Eucharist (1753; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst). This is painted in the simple and direct manner that is typical of his art both as regards subject-matter—for example the Minuet (c. 1755; Barcelona, Mus. A. Catalunya), where the pleasure of a country dance is conveyed—and composition—for example the Four Camaldolese Saints (c. 1756; Verona, Castelvecchio), in which the figures are very simply grouped together.

Tiepolo Giovanni Battista (Giambattista Chiepoletto) (1692—1770). Venetian mural, genre and historical painter, draughtsman and etcher. An artist of immense industry and invention, he travelled to many parts of Europe to carry out his numerous commissions. His sons Domenico and Lorenzo worked as his assistants on many of his mural decorations. In 1737 he was active near Vienna, 3 years later in Milan, and from 1750 to 1753 he painted his most important works in the palace of the archbishop at Wurzburg. He was called by Charles III to Madrid in 1761 to decorate the new royal palace and died whilst working on this monumental commission.
A typical example of T.'s work earned out for the merchant princes of Venice are the frescoes on the ceilings of Ca' Rezzonico Palace. These decorations convey a feeling of luxury and splendour transporting the spectator into a world of heightened energy. T. was a draughtsman of genius and he introduced into his drawings and etchings a light touch which foreshadowed the achievements of the Impressionists.T. liberated Venetian art from the academic-Baroque style into which it had degenerated. He was strongly influenced by Paolo Veronese, but his colours were more brilliant, the foreshortening bolder, the compositions more dramatic yet ordered with tonal clarity and the effect of atmosphere. Life is portrayed with humour, sympathy and heroic exaggeration and his influence on 18th- and 19th-c. painters was inevitable and decisive.

Tiepolo Lorenzo (b Venice, 8 Aug 1736; d Madrid, Aug 1776). Son of Giambattista Tiepolo. In 1750, aged 14, he travelled to Wurzburg with his father and brother, where he worked alongside them on the decorative fresco cycle in the Kaisersaal of the Residenz at Würzburg. Knox (1980) has attributed to him a number of drawings (Würzburg, Wagner-Mus.) from these apprentice years. In 1753 the family returned to Venice.

Tiffany Louis Comfort born Feb. 18, 1848, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Jan. 17, 1933, New York, N.Y. American painter, craftsman, philanthropist, decorator, and designer, internationally recognized as one of the greatest forces of the Art Nouveau style, who made significant contributions to the art of glassmaking.
The son of the famous jeweler Charles Lewis Tiffany, Louis studied under the American painters George Inness and Samuel Colman and also trained as a painter of narrative subjects in Paris. That he was also influenced by a visit to Morocco is evident in some of his major works. Returning to the United States, he became a recognized painter and an associate of the National Academy of Design, New York City; later he reacted against the Academy's conservatism by organizing, in 1877, with such artists as John La Farge and Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the Society of American Artists. Tiffany's experiments with stained glass, begun in 1875, led to the establishment, three years later, of his own glassmaking factory at Corona in Queens, New York City. By the 1890s he was a leading glass producer, experimenting with unique means of colouring. He became internationally famous for the glass that he named “Favrile,” a neologism from the Latin faber (“craftsman”). Favrile glass, iridescent and freely shaped, was sometimes combined with bronzelikealloys and other metals; such examples, some signed “L.C. Tiffany” or “L.C.T.,” enjoyed widespread popularity from 1890 to 1915 and were revived again in the 1960s. His Favrile glass was admired abroad, especially in central Europe, where it created a new fashion.
Having established a decorating firm known as Tiffany Glassand Decorating Company, which served wealthy New Yorkers, Tiffany was commissioned by President Chester A. Arthur to redecorate the reception rooms at the White House, Washington, D.C., for which he created the great stained-glass screen in the entrance hall. He designed the chapel for the World's Columbian Exposition (1893) in Chicago and the high altar in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York City.
Overwhelmed by the glass display of the brilliant French Art Nouveau designer Émile Gallé at the Paris Exhibition of 1889, Tiffany became interested in blown glass. From 1896 to 1900 he produced a vast amount of exquisite Favrile glass, many pieces achieving mysterious and impressionistic effects; his innovations made him a leader of the Art Nouveau movement.
Tiffany's firm was reorganized as Tiffany Studios in 1900, after which he ventured into lamps, jewelry, pottery, and bibelots. In 1911 he created one of his major achievements—a gargantuan glass curtain for the Palacio deBellas Artes, Mexico City. Like his father, Louis was a chevalier of the Legion of Honour; he also became an honorary member of the National Society of Fine Arts (Paris)and of the Imperial Society of Fine Arts (Tokyo). In 1919 he established the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation for Art Students at his luxurious and celebrated Long Island estate (which he had designed in total), which in 1946 was sold to provide scholarship funds.

Tinguely Jean (1925—91). French-born Swiss sculptor working in Paris from 1952 with *Kinetic 'metamecanique' sculpture, e.g. Homage to New York (1960) which auto-destructed during a happening. T.'s spastically operating, amateur machines are Dadaist and Surrealist in character: humorous and ironic mechanical constructions which satirize the technological world.

Tino di Camaino (r. 1285—1337). Sienese sculptor, pupil of Giovanni Pisano. He worked m Pisa cathedral, then in Siena and Florence. In 1323 he settled in Naples, where he executed the series of tombs (for the Angevin rulers) for which he is chiefly remembered.

Tintoretto Jacopo Robusti (1518-94). Venetian painter. Though accounts of his life and "work were written in his lifetime, little is known of the man. His origins and training are obscure; the Tst document (1539) refers to T. as a master. He married in 1550 and had a daughter, Marietta, and 2 sons, Domenico and Marco; all 3 were active as painters. After T.'s death Domenico carried on in charge of the workshop. In 1565 I. became a member of the charitable Brotherhood of St Rochus and
eventually its official painter. He seems to have led the life of a prosperous Venetian, outwardly unadventurous but of tremendous industry and an iron will to succeed. This is clear from contemporary evidence. In his relations with his patrons he used any means to secure a commission; for example, during a competition for one of the ceiling decorations of the Scuola di S. Rocco (1564) he broke the rules by finishing the painting and displaying it on the ceiling. These practices made him unpopular with many of his contemporaries.
T.'s creative development was more complex than his alleged statement about his own work, 'Michelangelo's drawing, the colour of Titian', implies. In his youth he seems to have worked briefly with *Titian, for whom he professed a life-long admiration, though Titian never concealed his aversion to T. Not only did he assimilate the gigantic forms of Michelangelo, but his starting-point could have been Paris *Bordone, and all his life he remained sensitive to outside influences to enrich his art. T. had a highly organized workshop capable of dealing with the most varied commissions, from cassoni panels to portraits, monumental compositions on canvas for official commissions and private patrons. He kept the best work for his native Venice, whilst studio productions found their way abroad. To keep up with the demand he developed a method of work which was swift, energetic and sure, based on study, observation and analysis.

He often worked from models of his own, so as to be able to experiment with eftects of light, then returned to the human figure for detailed action studies. The final, full-scale painting was made on the site when and it its relationship with the prevailing architecture and light was satisfactory. Thus he achieved a seeming spontaneity and blended the subject with its environment with much labour. A number of his action studies, drawn with a nervous, summary line, have been preserved. From one of the earliest signed and dated paintings, The Last Supper (1547) to The Last Supper of 1592-4 his work constantly gained greater depth of feeling, mastery of form and, above all, effective use of light. His influence is most apparent in El Greco's work.
T.'s gift for dramatic story-telling is brought to its height in his vast painting cycle at the Scuola di S. Rocco. Here, unhampered by the exigencies of patrons, he composed a series of deeply tragic visual meditations on the life of Christ. The Crucifixion is perhaps the most powerful and moving composition. Painted with bold brush-strokes in a low tonal scale, it has the freedom and pathos of an elemental statement of faith. His Last Supper (1592) transformed an earthly scene into a superhuman vision.

Tissot James (1836-1902). French painter and ill. While working in London he painted delightful genre scenes from fashionable life, e.g. The Picnic'And The Ball on Shipboard, influenced by Manet and A. Stevens. Later he concentrated on biblical subjects, staying for a time in Palestine.

Titian (Tiziano Vecelh) (c 1487-1576). Venetian painter, the most important of the 16th с. Не was born in the region of the Dolomites and brought with him to Venice,
where he was apprenticed to Giovanni and Gentile *Bellmi, the elemental vitality and the toughness of his childhood. For some years he worked with *Giorgione, a few years his senior. In 1510 he worked in Padua and returned to Venice in 1512. He became the painter of the wealthy Venetian intellectual circles and the close friend of Pietro Aretino, the writer and publicist, who did much towards establishing T.'s fame during his lifetime. The kings and princes of Europe competed for his services and his stature was as great as Michelangelo's. In 1516, after Bellini's death, he was appointed painter to the Venetian Republic. In the same year he was commissioned to paint a series of mythological subjects, the Bacchanals, for the duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d'Este, and in 1 523 painted the portraits of the Gonzagas at Mantua. His wife died in 1523, an event which affected T. deeply. At this time Charles V commanded him to paint his portrait and in 1533 he ennobled T. as Count Palatine. In 1543 he painted the portrait of Pope Paul in and 2 years after was called to the Vatican and received with great splendour. In Rome he met Michelangelo. After 1553 he began his paintings for Philip II of Spam. T. died at the age of 99 during a plague epidemic in Venice.
T.'s creative development was as meteoric as his life. From the poetic style of Giorgione he developed an unparalleled expressiveness. The feelings of the courtier, the cosmic powers of the universe, the mystery of life and death, the joys of sacred and profane love, were themes which occupied him during his long creative life. He had developed a technique which became more complex and free with maturity and foreshadowed in his last years the achievements of the Impressionists. Over an under-painting, often on coarse-textured canvas, he applied a great many glazes and brilliant colours. T.'s use of colour was an achievement both of an emotional and intellectual nature; he influenced generations of painters of all schools.
T.'s vast work is often discussed from the point of view of his subject matter: religious paintings, mythological and historical subjects and portraits. In each field his contribution was original and decisive for the future development of art. The portraits temper a searching realism with lyricism and compassion, and they range from the famous men of his time to the beauties of Venice. The portrait of Charles V (1548) is typical in showing the tragedy of a lonely man beneath the trappings of power, the Flora (c. 1515) the ideal beauty of a satiated society.
His mythological paintings, e.g. the Bacchanal (1518) and the later Venus paintings, are in praise of the ideal, celebrating the beauty and richness of life. T.'s religious paintings vary from the sensuality of the Mary Magdalene (c. 1530) to the horror and tragedy of the unfinished Pieta.

Tiunine Eli. Surrealism.

Tobey Mark (1890-1976). U.S. painter; in i960 he settled in Switzerland. The mam formative influence upon his painting was his visit (1934-5). with the British potter Bernard Leach, to China and Japan, where he spent some time in a Zen monastery. His technique in the 1940s (sometimes called 'white writing') bore a formal resemblance to oriental calligraphy, but more important was his intention to create, like *Rothko, abstract images for meditation. One of the most subtle of U.S. abstractionists, T. compounded a delicate style out of Klee's discoveries and Chinese calligraphy.

Togan Unkoku (1547-1616) Japan Artist

Tokugawa. *Edo

Toledo Juan Bautista de, died May 19, 1567) was a well-known Spanish sculptor and architect from Madrid. Nothing is known of his birth or childhood, but in 1547, Toledo went to Rome and studied under Michelangelo Buonarroti. He went next to Naples, where he had been summoned by the Viceroy, Don Pietro de Toledo, to work as an architect for Charles V. He designed many buildings there, including: the Strada di Toledo (since 1870 called Strada di Roma), the church of St. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli; the square bastions to the Castello Nuovo; a large palazzo at Posillipo, and a number of fountains. In 1559, he was summoned back to Madrid by Philip II and appointed Architect-in-Chief of the royal works in Spain. His yearly salary as architect to the Crown was at first no more than 220 ducats, because Philip's policy, with his Spanish artists at least, was to give them moderate allowances until he had tested their abilities. In Madrid, he designed the Casa de la Misericordia and the façade of the church de las Descalzas Reales. He also created works at Aceca; at the palace of Aranjuez; at Martininos de las Posadas, the palace of Cardinal Espinosa, and a villa at Esteban de Ambran for the secretary D. de Vargas. Toledo's final work was the Escorial, which he supervised until his death.

Tomasso da Modena (14th—15th c).
Italian painter, son of the painter Barisino dei Barisini (d. 1343). His paintings include 40 figures of monks of the Dominican order for the Chapter-House, S. Nicolo, Treviso, painted in a flat linear style with interesting individual characterization, and an altarpiece, Madonna with SS Wenceslaus and Dalmasius and panels in Burg Karlstem, Bohemia, where he worked with Theodoric of Prague. He had many followers among minor Bohemian painters.

Tomlin Bradley Walker (1899-1953). U.S. painter, for a long time of Cubist still-hfes and, in the last few years of his life, of Abstract Expressionist canvases filled with symbols (geometrical forms, letters, etc.).

Tooker George was born Brooklyn, New York in 1920. He lives and works in Vermont.

Toorop Jan (1858-1928). Dutch *Symbolist and * Art Nouveau painter, ill. and graphic designer. He exhibited at the Groupe des Artistes Independants in Pans in 1884 and also with Les XX (Les *Vingt) in Brussels, and its successor La Libre Esthetique whose shows became increasingly dominated by the Neo-hnpressionists and the *Nabis. The 2 phases of his work are illustrated by After the Strike (1887) and the later decorative linear art which was influenced by oriental art, e.g. The Three Brides (1893).

Torrens Bernardo (Spanish Contemporary Realist Painter, born in 1957)

Torriti Jacopo ( fl c. 1270–1300). Italian painter and mosaicist. Two mosaics in Rome are signed by him: one, on the apse of S Giovanni in Laterano, that once bore the date 1291 (or, according to some sources, 1290 or 1292); and another on the apse and triumphal arch of S Maria Maggiore, now replaced by a 19th-century restoration but at one time dated 1295 or 1296. Torriti is also known to have executed a mosaic for Arnolfo di Cambio’s tomb of Pope Boniface VIII (1296) in Old St Peter’s, Rome. Torriti was active during the same period as Cimabue and Giotto, Pietro Cavallini and Arnolfo di Cambio, but his fame has been obscured by theirs, no doubt because of his closer links with Byzantine art. He was nevertheless one of the most important artists working in Rome during the papacy of Nicholas IV (1288–92) and was entrusted with some of the most prestigious commissions of the day. 

Torso. The trunk of the human body and hence a statue which by accident or design is without head, arms and legs. Modern sculptors often used this depersonalized human form to express abstract concepts of line and pose.

Tosa. Family of Japanese artists of the *Edo period. Rivals of the *Kano family, the T. tended to more traditional, small-scale style and subject matter, e.g. ills of the literary classics.

Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de (1864-1901). French painter born at Albi into an aristocratic family. Physically frail, he broke both legs in accidents of 1878—9, after which he remained crippled. He studied in Paris (1882-5) under Bonnat and Cormon, was a student with Bernard and met Van Gogh in 18S6. He was aware of Impressionism, but his 1st important work Le Cirque Fernando (1888) is formally closer to Manet, Degas and the poster artist Jules Cheret. In studying the same aspects of contemporary life as Degas - racecourses, music- and dance-halls, cabarets, etc. — T.-L. foreshadowed Seurat and the Nabis in his flat treatment of forms enlivened by curvilinear contours. This interest in exotic silhouettes predominates in his studies of the Moulin Rouge and the Cabaret Aristide Bruant of the late 1880s and early 1890s. Jane April Entering the Moulin Rouge (1 892) is typical in its strident colour, theatrical lighting and strong contours. A personal friend of the singers and dancers, T.-L. was a central figure of the society he depicted and the intimacy of a painting such as Les Deux Amies (1894) is characteristic. Like Degas he worked in a wide range of media often freely mixed: his reputation as a graphic artist was established with his earliest posters and lithographs (1 891-2). His prolific output shrank with his deteriorating health (c. 1896) and his last painting, the Examination Board (1901), an uncomfortable attempt to reorientate his art, betrays his spiritual and physical exhaustion. His work inspired Rouault, Seurat, Van Gogh and others and his brief career was an important manifestation of the fin de siede intensity and exoticism (he admired Wilde enormously) which swept Europe and which can be seen for example in the early work of Picasso.

Toyen (Marie Cerminova) (b Prague, 21 Sept 1902; d Paris, 9 Nov 1980). Bohemian painter, draughtsman and illustrator. She attended the School of Fine Arts in Prague (1919–20). In 1922 she met the painter Jindrich Styrsky with whom she collaborated until his death in 1942. In 1923 the couple joined the avant-garde Devetsil group in Prague. The group numbered artists, photographers, writers and architects among its members. During a three-year stay in Paris from 1925 to 1928 Toyen abandoned the Cubist syntax of her early work and began a series of impastoed semi-abstract paintings. Fjord (1928; Prague, N.G., Sternberk Pal.), along with other works of those years, attempted to realize visually the doctrines of poetic Artificialism in which impressions, feelings and images leave their imprint in abstract traces and vibrating colour sensations. Work of this type was given its label by Toyen and Styrsky to differentiate it from their earlier work and from other abstract forms of contemporary art. They exhibited their first Artificialist compositions in Paris at the Galerie de l’Art Contemporain in 1926.

Toyoharu Utagawa (1735-1814) Japan Artist

Toyokuni Utagawa (1769-1825) Japan Artist

Toyo Sesshu (1420-1506) Japan Artist

Traini Francesco IJ1. early 14th c). Italian painter, follower of the *Lorenzetti brothers and the Sienese school and known principally for his fresco Triumph of Death (c. 1350; destroyed in World War II) for the Campo Santo, Pisa.

Trans-avantgarde. Name coined in Italy for the Expressionist revival of the late 1970s and the 1980s, involving German, Italian and U.S. artists. Among those associated with the movement are *Baselitz, *Chia, *Clemente, *Kiefer, Lupertz, Penck and *Schnabel. *Neo-Expressionism.

Tretchikoff Vladimir  (born 13 December 1913 in Petropavlovsk, Russia, now in Kazakhstan; died 26 August 2006 in Cape Town, South Africa) was one of the most commercially successful artists of all time - his painting Chinese Girl (popularly known as "The Green Lady") is one of the best selling art prints ever. Tretchikoff was a self-taught artist who painted realistic figures, portraits, still life and animals, with subjects often inspired by his early life in China and Malaysia, and later life in South Africa. Tretchikoff's work was immensely popular with the general public, but is often seen by art critics as the epitome of kitsch (indeed, he was nicknamed the "King of Kitsch"). He worked in oil, watercolour, ink, charcoal and pencil but is best known for his reproduction prints which sold worldwide in huge numbers. The reproductions were so popular that it was said Tretchikoff was second only to Picasso in his popularity.

Trezzini Domenico (ca. 1670-1734) was a Swiss architect who elaborated the Petrine Baroque style of Russian architecture. Domenico was born in Astano, near Lugano, in the Italian speaking Ticino (at that time administered by the German speaking cantons). He probably studied in Rome. Subsequently, as he was working in Denmark, he was offered by Peter I of Russia, among other architects, to design buildings in the new Russian capital city, St. Petersburg. Since 1703, when the city was founded, he substantially contributed to its most representative buildings. The Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral, the Twelve Collegia Building (now the headquarters of Saint Petersburg University) as well as Peter's Summer House count among his many achievements. He also helped found and design Kronstadt and the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. Domenico Trezzini was very important for another aspect of Russian architectural history: in founding a school based on the European model, he laid the foundations for the development of the Petrine Baroque.

Triptych. 3 painted panels, usually of wood, hinged together; the 2 outer wings can be closed over the central panel and may be decorated on the reverse side. Altarpieces were frequently m the form of a t., the central panel showing the Virgin and Child, the Crucifixion or some similar subject, the outer panels showing figures of Saints or the donor of the painting, etc.

Triumphal arch. Roman monument erected in honour of victorious emperors, normally with either 1 large opening, or 1 large plus 2 smaller ones, 1 on each side; it carried reliefs and inscriptions of the emperor's campaigns. The best known are those of Constantine (AD 312), which contains sculpture from a variety of earlier monuments; of Titus (AD 82), with reliefs of the taking of Jerusalem; and of Septimius Severus (AD 203); all are at Rome.

Trouille Clovis , was born on 24 October 1889, in La Fčre, France. He worked as Sunday painter and a restorer and decorator of department store mannequins, and trained at the École des Beaux-Arts of Amiens from 1905 to 1910. He died on 24 September 1975 in Paris.
His service in World War I gave him a lifelong hatred of the military, expressed in his first major painting Remembrance (1931). The painting depicts a pair of wraith-like soldiers clutching white rabbits, an airborne female contortionist throwing a handful of medals, and the whole scene being blessed by a cross-dressing cardinal.
This contempt for the church as a corrupt institution provided Trouille with the inspiration for decades of pictorial blasphemies including
Dialogue at the Carmel shows a skull wearing a crown of thorns being used as an ornament.
The Mummy shows a mummified woman coming to life as a result of a shaft of light falling on a large bust of André Breton.
The Magician (1944) has a self-portrait satisfying a group of swooning women with a wave of his magician's wand.
My Tomb (1947) shows Trouille's tomb as a focal point of corruption and depravity in a graveyard.
Trouille's other common subjects were sex, as shown in Lust (1959), a portrait of the Marquis de Sade sitting in the foreground of a landscape decorated with a tableau of various perversions, and a "madly egoistic bravado" employed as self-satirism.
His portrait of a reclining nude shown from behind entitled Oh! Calcutta, Calcutta! - a pun in French - was chosen as the title for the 1969 musical revue. (The French phrase "oh quel cul t'as" translates roughly as "oh what a lovely backside you have".)
After his work was seen by Louis Aragon and Salvador Dalí, Trouille was declared a Surrealist by André Breton - a label Trouille accepted only as a way of gaining exposure, not having any real sympathy with the Surrealism movement.The simple style and lurid colouring of Trouille's paintings echo the lithographic posters used in advertising in the first half of the 20th Century.

Troyon Constant (1810-65). French landscape and animal painter, at first associated with the *Barbizon school but later influenced by A. Cuyp and P. Potter. His mature work consists chiefly of very large paintings of cattle. His attempt to treat animals in the grand manner was developed in later 19th-c. animal painting.

Tumpel Wolfgang. The Bauhaus school

Tunhuang caves. The *Six Dynasties

Tura Cosme (c. 1430-95). Court painter to the d'Fste family at Ferrara and founder of the Ferrarese school; he was eventually eclipsed by Ercole Roberti. He is best known for his series of wall paintings commissioned by Duke Borso d'Este for the Palazzo Schifanoia at Ferrara to record the splendour of court life. A more dramatic aspect of his talent is revealed in St Jerome where the influence of Mantegna is apparent in the sculpturesque treatment of the figure.

Turkish art. *Islamic art

Turner Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851). British painter in oils and watercolour, mainly of landscape, historical and seascape subjects; he was born in London, the son of a barber. He was taught by Thomas Malton but his precocious talent took him to the R.A. Schools (1789) and he exhibited at the R.A. for the first time in 1790; he became a full Academician in [802. Contact with Dr Monro's circle led him to be influenced by J. T. *Cozens, Richard *Wilson and *Girtin, and his work gained greatly in imagination and technical expertise. The death of Girtin (1802) left T. master of the architectural and topographical field, but already his interests had broadened. In 1802 he made studies m the Louvre and was showing the influence of the Dutch marine artists and the Venetian painters. A journey to Switzerland, via Lyon, returning through Schaffhauscn and Strassburg, resulted in 400 sketches, many later worked up into pictures. This was a culmination of earlier sketching tours to North Wales, Yorkshire and Scotland. After 1802 T. produced a large number of historical works such as Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812). Influence of Claude Lorraine is seen in several idyllic landscapes, including Dido Building Carthage (1815). Between t8io and 1835, the 'middle period', T. produced many large-scale works for rich or aristocratic patrons. He also did engravings for a number of books, including the Liber Studiorum (1807—19), a series of landscapes and intended to rival *Claude's liber veritatis. After a visit to Italy (1819), Italian and especially Venetian scenes formed the subject matter of many hundreds of works. T.'s late period, beginning in the early 1 830s, was concerned with the painting of light, to which the ostensible subject matter was almost secondary. Forms and details were suggested and painted on previously prepared broad areas of yellows, whites, pinks and reds, or cool greys and blues. Petworth, the home of T.'s friend and patron Lord Egremont, figured in many of these works. Among major late paintings were The Fighting Temeraire, A Fire at Sea, Interior at Petworth, and Rain, Steam and Speed, and Rockets and Blue Lights. Although T. had become successful as a painter by 1801, the case also for many of his formal Academy paintings, the advocacy of *Ruskin in Modem Painters (vol. 1, 1843) helped greatly in the public appreciation of his later works. His painting of light influenced the *Impressionists, especially Monet and Pissarro, who saw his work in London in 1870. After the T. exhibition at the Venice Biennale (1948) there was a second wave of influence, on non-figurative painters. There was a major retrospective at the R.A., London, 1977.

Tutankhamun (d. c. 1350 BC). A young Pharaoh whose tomb, with its original magnificent contents astonishingly almost intact, was discovered in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes by Howard Carter, in an expedition financed by the Earl of Carnarvon, 1922. Carnarvon gave the treasures to the Cairo mus. The sensational find inspired nco-Egyptian design styles in art deco.

Tworkov Jack (1900-82). Polish-born U.S. painter and teacher. Cezanne influenced his early figures, landscapes and still-lifes. After 1950, T.'s paintings lost specific figurative references and his style moved closer to *Abstract Expressionism. His abstraction developed suggestive and atmospheric action of brushstroke and vigorous colour, e.g. Watergame (1955). T. used verticals recurrently, sometimes in a more linear style and in an allover pattern. In the T960S he experimented with pure colours in grid-like compositions, as in West 2jrd, 1963. He was chairman, Art Department, Yale School of Art and Architecture, 1963—9.

Tzara Tristan (1896-1963). Rumanian poet who founded the *Dada group in Zurich (1916) and ed. the periodical Dada. He later became leader of the Paris group. In addition to numerous writings on the Dada movement, his own Dada works include Vingt-Cinq poemes (1918) and the play La Caeur a Caz (1923).


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