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Spilliaert Leon (1881—1946). Belgian painter. His works include gouaches, watercolours and ink drawings of his native Ostende and also ills for poetry by his friend M. Maeterlinck. These combine Symbolist and Expressionist elements with Surrealist-like dream motifs.

Spitzweg Carl (1808-85). German painter of delicate Romantic landscapes and anecdotal pictures of eccentric small-town characters such as The Poor Poet (1839).

Spoerri Daniel (1930— ). Swiss artist, one of the members of the *Nouveau realisme movement which was founded in 1960. He makes assemblages of objects from everyday life, reflecting the Dada and Surrealist obsession with the fantasy of the commonplace object. In 1959 he founded Multiplication d'Art Transformable (M.A.T.). *decollage, *Rotella, *Villeglc, *Hains and *Vostell.

Spranger Bartholomaeus (1546—с 1611). Flemish painter of religious and allegorical subjects who worked in Rome, Vienna and Prague. He followed the rhetorical style of late Italian *Mannerism derived from Correggio and Parmigianino.

Spraycan art. Comic-strip style murals rooted in, and expressive of, inner-city life, which originated in the *graffiti art of the N.Y. subways in the '70s and '80s and which has spread throughout the cities of the Western world. In the U.S.A., S. a. is commonly employed in the creation of memorials to victims of city life.

Squarcione Francesco (1397—1468). Italian painter, teacher and antiquarian, founder of the school of *Padua. He travelled in Greece and Italy coll. antique works. These influenced his own work and that of his pupils who included *Mantegna, *Tura and *Crivelli.

Staffage. French term used in English for the figures, human and animal, in a landscape. Often landscape painters, particularly Dutch 17th- and 1 Sth-c. masters, employed a second painter to add the S.

Stained Glass. Pieces of glass stained with metal oxides are joined together with leading, and details can be painted on. Unique among the visual arts, s. g. is illuminated by diaphanous rather than reflected light. It probably originated in the Near East with coloured glass set in a plaster framework; in Europe it was vised for representational art. The finest examples are in the churches of France, Britain and Germany. The successful use of s. g. depends not only on the manipulation of the richly coloured glass pieces but also on the use of the heavy leads to create a satisfactory pattern. From the 17th c. onwards a facile technique of enamel painting on clear glass was gradually substituted for grisaille painting on s. g. In the 20th с s. g. has been used by Expressionist artists and a new technique has been developed in Denmark, involving thick glass pieces joined by reinforced concrete. In recent years the medieval techniques have been revived in Britain, notably for the cathedral at Coventry.

Stained Glass. The art of stained glass was an integral part of Gothic culture. At the beginning of the 13th century. Western master masons came together from far and wide to work on the construction site of Chartres Cathedral. This remains one of the few cathedral interiors that retains the original stained glass. Work in glass is an art of many disciplines. As well as its technical evolution, well documented by Theosophus and others, this medium carried rich symbolism and iconography, much of the meaning and impact of which is lost to us today. Organic forms fit well with the compartmentalized sections. For the Tree of Jesse", a popular subject first used by Abbot Suger in the Saint-Denis window, curving sections were used to contain within the branches the Kings, the Virgin, and the hierarchy of heaven. Medallions and lozenge shapes were commonly used to divide the events of the great stories of the Bible, the life of Christ, and. most enduring of all, images glorifying the Virgin, the locus of devotion, especially during the 13th century. Most striking of all was the glorious colour that streamed into places of worship all across Europe, bringing light and meaning to the promise of eternal enlightenment from heaven.

Stanhope John Roddam Spencer b Cannon Hall, Yorks, 20 Jan 1829; d Bellosguardo, nr Florence, 2 Aug 1908). English painter. The second son of Yorkshire landed gentry, he was educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1850 he studied in London with G. F. Watts, through whom he entered the artistic circle at Little Holland House, where he met D. G. Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones. In 1857 Rossetti invited him to paint at the Oxford Union (Sir Gawaine and the Damsels at the Fountain), and in 1858 Stanhope occupied a studio next to Rossetti’s at Chatham Place, Blackfriars (London), where he painted Thoughts of the Past (London, Tate); a modern-life subject indebted to Rossetti, it shows a prostitute recalling her former life. Stanhope’s close friendship with Burne-Jones proved a more decisive influence on his work that, in the 1860s, consisted of dreamlike poetic and mythological subjects often set in quaint, enclosed spaces, as in I Have Trod the Winepress Alone (c. 1864; London, Tate).

Stanzione Massimo (b ?Orta di Atella, nr Caserta, ?1585; d ?Naples, ?1656). Italian painter. Primarily a painter of altarpieces and frescoes, his large production and vast following of students and imitators made him perhaps the leading Neapolitan painter in the first half of the 17th century. He was known as the great rival of Jusepe de Ribera, and for most of the 1630s and 1640s he and Ribera dominated painting in Naples. Stanzione’s rich colour and idealized naturalism, for which he was called ‘il Guido Reni napoletano’, definitively influenced numerous local artists and remained discernible in the earliest works (1670s) of Francesco Solimena. Only a few portraits and mythological paintings by Stanzione are known, although inventories drawn up in the 17th and 18th centuries of collections in Naples show that they were once very numerous.

Starnina (Gherardo di Jacopo) (b Florence, ?c. 1360; d Florence, before Oct 1413). Italian painter, Florentine school. A pupil of Antonio Veneziano, he is first mentioned in 1387 in the records of the Compagnia di S Luca in Florence. Starnina was in Toledo in 1393, possibly with his former master, and in Valencia in 1395, 1398, 1399 and 1401. Documents indicate that he executed numerous commissions for frescoes and panel paintings in both towns, but no surviving works can be connected with certainty to these records.

State. Used as a technical term to describe the various stages through which an *engraving or etching may pass. The 1st s. is the 1st proof pulled from the plate. The artist may decide on some improvement and alter lines on the plate; the proof from the altered plate is the 2nd s. This process may be repeated a number of times until the artist is fully satisfied with the work.

Steel engraving. Copper, the metal generally used in *engraving, was too soft to allow a large number of reprints. In the 19th с some workers began to engrave on steel, which was durable but also hard to work; a further refinement was steel facing in which a fine steel film was laid on the copper plate by electrolysis.

Stefano da Zevio (or Stefano da Verona) (c. 1375— 1451). Veronese painter in the International Gothic style. Antonio Pisanello was probably his pupil.

Steinlen Theophile Alexandre (1859-1923). Swiss-born French painter and graphic artist, a vigorous impassioned critic of social misery and human exploitation. His poster designs of the 1890s were executed in the bold, flat style, influenced by the Japanese print, which is best exemplified in the work of Toulouse-Lautrec.

Stella Frank (1936- ). U.S. painter of great prominence among the artists of his generation. Nurtured on the *Abstract Expressionism of *Kelly and *Newman, S., struck by *Johns's use of repetition and flat colour, moved, by i960, to what he called 'non-relational' painting and what was to be labelled *'Post-painterly abstraction' and *Hard-edge flat painting (1964) and ♦'Systemic painting' (1966). In i960 S. attracted controversy and recognition for his black paintings included in the M.O.M.A. exhibition, 'Sixteen Americans' (e.g. Die Falwc Hoch!, /959). These were large, vertical rectangles with a symmetrical pattern of balanced bands of black paint separated by thin stripes of bare canvas, forming regular, spaced rectangles radiating inward from the canvas edge to a cruciform centre. Later, using copper or aluminium paint (e.g. Creede, 1961), S. explored different shapes for the canvas, suggested by the rectilinear repeated pattern. This developed into U- and L-shaped canvases using heavy framing edges. From 1967 S. turned to brilliantly coloured shaped works interrelating semi-circles with rectangular or diamond shapes (e.g. Lac La Rouge II, 1968). These led to the 'exotic Birds' series, begun in 1975: colourful and expressive paintings which are freer, shaped structures and which play on the dichotomy between real space and the 2-dimensional picture plane. A late work is S at Bhdi (1978).

Stella Joseph (1877-1946). Italian-born U.S. painter. Closely associated with the contemporary artistic developments of Europe, his Futurist paintings of 1910 to 1923, notably Battle of Lights, Coney Island, and Brooklyn Bridge, show his sense of excitement and urgency that he was to find and paint in the U.S.A. and are the finest of his career; they were of seminal importance to U.S. modernists. During the 1920s S. exhibited with *Duchamp and *Man Ray in the Societe Anonyme; later works include Still Life (1944)-

Stencil (Fr. pochoir). Method of duplicating designs by cutting required shapes out of card or thin metal which are then sprayed or brushed with ink or paint, reproducing the shapes on the paper beneath. S.s have been traditionally used for reproducing simple fabric designs and have
also been used to great effect in book ill. *silk-screen printing.

Stencil wallpaper. Late 18th—icjth-c. U.S. domestic folk art. Travelling painters toured remote country districts, equipped with paints and simple stencil patterns. With these they decorated the plain-papered walls, lodging with the family until the job was complete.

Sterpini Ugo b.1927

Stezaker John Born 1949 Worcester, England. Lives and works in London

Stieglitz Alfred (1864-1946). U.S. photographer who has been called the father of modern photography. In 190s he established the 1st of his N.Y. galleries known as the Photo-Secession or '29 Г which showed not only the pioneering work of photographers but became an influential centre of avant-garde painting and sculpture. He showed *Rodin for the 1st time in the U.S.A. and among others, *Matisse; the 1st exhibition of *Toulouse-Lautrec's lithographs; H. *Rousseau; *Cezanne; *Picasso; *Picabia; *Brancusi, and the U.S. artists *Dove, *Mann, A. Maurer, *Hartley, *O'Kcc-ffe and *Man Ray. From 1925 to 1929 S. ran the Intimate Gallery, after which he opened An American Place. His influence on U.S. art was seminal. His collection, which included 450 U.S. works, was presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1949.

Still Clyfford (1904-80). U.S. painter. His style, which is highly individualistic, owes little or nothing to contemporary European movements. He was, however, a central figure among the *'Color-field' or 'abstract-imagist' wing of *Abstract Expressionism and was influential as a teacher at the California School of Fine Arts, 1946—50. He employs large monochrome masses and predominant colours are black, red and yellow. His paintings are lyrical and passionate, merging space and figure into a powerful unity, e.g. 1947-M, 1947.

Still-life. Painting containing only objects (most often domestic — tableware, flowers, books — but sometimes skulls, dead game, etc.) viewed close up. S.-l. was of early importance in oriental art, and is approached in Greek and Roman mosaics; but it emerged as an independent subject in the West only in the 16th c, e.g. practised by *Caravaggio, and flowering in I7th-c. Flanders. It was often used symbolically and allusively. *Chardin was the 1st notable French s.-l. painter. Since the j 8th c. it has been widely used, receiving impetus from the I9th-c. discovery of the Japanese colour print; with *Cezanne and others the s.-l. has been a stage in a development towards non-representational art.

Stillman Marie Spartali  (March 10, 1844 – March 6, 1927), was a British Pre-Raphaelite painter of Greek descent, arguably the greatest female artist of that movement. During a sixty-year career she produced over one hundred works, contributing regularly to galleries in Great Britain and the United States.

Stippling. In drawing or painting, modelling form by means of small dots or short strokes instead of lines or areas of colour.

Stretcher. The wooden frame on which canvas is stretched for painting.

Strozzi Bernardo (1581 —1644) called 'II Cappuccino'. Genoese painter of religious subjects who was for a time a Franciscan friar. From 1630 he worked m Venice. His painting was influenced by Rubens, later by the Venetian school.

Strudwick John Melhuish [British Pre-Raphaelite Painter, 1849-1935]

Stubbs George (1724—1806). British painter. He studied anatomy at York and then made a perfunctory visit to Italy in 1754. S. lived and worked in Lincolnshire and London, making anatomical drawings, esp. of horses, publ. the Anatomy of the Horse (1766). He became a popular painter of racehorses for the aristocracy, but his animal paintings are not mere records; they are elegant and dignified in design. He is a master of composition who also painted brilliant conversation pieces and portraits, genre paintings of rural life and some enamelled earthenware panels for Josiah Wedgwood.

Stucco. Originally the lime-plaster used as a ground in fresco painting and in the decoration of buildings; the term is now used loosely to describe any plaster or cement used on exteriors.

Stuck Franz von
(b Tettenweis, Lower Bavaria, 23 Feb 1863; d Munich, 30 Aug 1928). German draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, decorative artist, painter, sculptor and architect. He was noted for his treatment of erotic and comic aspects of mythological themes. He drew eagerly as a child, soon becoming a gifted caricaturist. From 1878 to 1881 he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich, where he received particular encouragement from Ferdinand Barth (1842–92). From 1881 to 1885 he studied at the Munich Akademie, where he was taught by Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95) and Ferdinand Lofftz (1845–1910). During his student years Stuck earned a living from designs for decorative painting, and he made notable contributions (1880–84) to the humorous Munich periodical Fliegende Blätter and to the Viennese serial publications Allegorien und Embleme and Karten und Vignetten. These did much to establish his reputation as both a skilled and a witty draughtsman.

Sturm, Der. The magazine (inaugurated in 1910) and art gallery in Berlin, of the German *Expressionist movement. In its pages appeared ills by members of the *Brucke and *Blaue Reiter groups and articles expounding the new aesthetic.

Style. Term for the manner of execution in writing, painting, etc. as opposed to subject matter or its organization (i.e. *form); (2) the common characteristics of the arts in a given period — e.g. Louis XIV s. — or of a school or movement.

Styrsky Jindrich (1899-1942)

Sudeikin Serge (b Smolensk, 19 March 1882; d Nyack, NY, 12 Aug 1946). Russian stage designer and painter. He attended the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow from 1897 to 1909, studying mainly under Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov, but although he painted a few Impressionist landscapes, his first major artistic concern was with Symbolism, as in his paintings of the first decade of the 20th century such as Pastorale (1905; Moscow, I. A. Myasnikova priv. col.) and Love (1907; Moscow, E. A. Gunst priv. col.). After taking part in the exhibition Crimson Rose in Saratov in 1904, he became a founder-member of the BLUE ROSE group of Symbolist painters, who paid homage to the painting of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, and he developed their mystical motifs and contributed to their exhibition in 1907. Sudeykin was also in contact with the World of Art group, and, on the invitation of Serge Diaghilev, he travelled to Paris in 1906 with the Russian section of the Salon d’Automne, a connection that anticipated his work as a painter for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes; he designed the production of La Tragédie de Salomé in 1913 (original sketches St Petersburg, E. A. Ratner priv. col., and Moscow, A. V. Gordon priv. col.). By 1908 Sudeykin had become interested in a more primitivist, stylized conception of painting that depended on evocations of 19th-century aristocratic and mercantile Russia, as in Promenade at Shrovetide (1910s; St Petersburg, priv. col.), a choice of theme that brought him considerable popularity among the nouveaux riches of Moscow and St Petersburg.

Sukenobu Japan Artist

sumi-e. *Japanese art-term tor monochrome ink painting.

Sunday painter. Someone who paints for pleasure in their spare time. The term is often used in a derogatory sense but is also associated with modern primitive painters who usually began as self-taught amateurs.

Sung. Chinese dynastic era divided into N. Sung (960-1 126) and S. Sung (1126-1279) by invasions which occupied most ot N. China and drove the emperors from their capital at К ai-feng to Hang-chou. It witnessed the classical epoch of *Chincse art. Confucianism and Taoism were strong influences: the most famous treatise m the N. Sung period was Kuo Jo-hsti's Lxperiences in Painting (1074) which analyses the work of a series of prominent painters from the late T'ang down to the 1070s. The division between courtly and scholarly' traditions became marked (*wen-jen and *Chmese art). Leading N. Sung courtly painters were Fan Kuan (fl. 990—1020), 1'ravelliug amid Mountains and Gorges; Hsu Tao-ning, Visiting in the Mountain Stream (e. 1000); Kuo Hsi (mid-11th c), Larly Spring; and the late 11th—I2th-c. Chang Tsc-tuan, River Life on the ... Ch'ing-ming festival. The S. wen-jen affected an unacademic clumsiness, working in ink on paper rather than the courtly colour on silk. They included Su Tung-p'o (1036—1101), Wen T'ung (d. 1079), his teacher in bamboo painting, Mi Fu (1051-1 107), and the calhgra-phcr Huang T'nig-chicn (1045—1 105). Li Kung-lin (1040—1106) copied many old masterpieces in the archaizing fashion of the period; his panoramic scroll of his country estate, Lung mien, followed the Tang painter *Wang Wei. The N. Sung emperor, Hm-tsung (reigned 1101—25), a dictatorial patron of the imperial academy, was a painter of exquisite delicacy and an elegant calligraphcr. The principal artist of the academy, Li T'ang, noted for his 'axe-cut' brushstroke, linked the grandeur of N. Sung with the S. Sung interest in atmospheric perspective and the representation of space personified by the 'Ma-Hsia' school of *Ma Yuan (fl. 1190—1225) and *Hsia Kuei (fl. 1200—30). This in part influenced the mid-13th с school ot *Ch'an Buddhist artists, e.g. Liang K'ai, Mu-ch'i and the noted dragon painter Chen Jung.

Super Realism. Art of extreme verisimilitude, associated with the U.S.A. in the 1970s but to a lesser extent popular also in Western Europe. In painting it is usually, though not always, based on the direct copying of photographs (Photo Realism); in sculpture it makes much use of direct casts from the human figure. Also called Hyper Realism.

Suprematism. The rst system of purely abstract pictorial composition, based on geometric figures. Its founder was the Russian artist *Malevich whose 1st Suprematist work was a black square on a white ground painted in 1913; he himself described this as 'no empty square, but rather the experience of non-objectivity ... the supremacy of pure feeling ..." Malevich's early Suprematist works were 2-dimensional simple geometric studies using chiefly primary colours; from с 1915 greater complexity appears, 2 or more interrelated groups of shapes overlapping or in receding succession, introducing the 3rd dimension.

Surikov Vasily (1848-1916). Russian painter, a member of the *Wanderers. His subjects, however, were chiefly historical: one of the most famous is the colossal canvas The Boyarina Morosova (1887). Lie was fascinated by Russian medieval art and architecture; Veronese, Titian and other monumental Italian painters played a part in forming his style which was the earliest attempt to marry the ideals of the Wanderers with national artistic traditions.

Surrealism. Movement begun in 1924 (when the *Dada movement split) with a manifesto written by *Breton, in which it is described as 'pure automatism'. This fitted Surrealist literature better than Surrealist painting, but Surrealist art has become better known than Surrealist writing, especially in the works of *Arp, M. *Ernst, *Dali and *Miro. The dominant vehicle of S. ideas and work, literary and visual, was the magazines. La Revolution Surrealiste, the 1st official S. magazine, rst appeared m Pans, December 1924, instigated by Breton, Aragon, Eluard and others, with contributors including Robert Desnos, De *Chirico, *Man Ray, Ernst, *Picasso and *Masson. 12 issues came out and it ceased publication in 1929. Le Surrealisme аи service de la Revolution, considered by Breton as the best S. magazine, came out in Paris in 6 numbers between 1930 and 1933. It was succeeded by the eclectic review Minotaure (1933—9), publ. in Paris. Other important S. magazines publ. outside France were the Bulletin Internationale du Surrealisme (1935 and 1940), publ. by the S. group in Belgium, London Bulletin (1938—40), and in N.Y. View (1940—7) and VVV(1942—4). S. paintings are of 2 mam sorts: Dali has called the one 'hand-painted dream objects' — conventional techniques are tised to depict a fantastic image like De Chinco's enigmatic townscapes or the soft watches in Dali's Persistence of Memory; the other is inventive in technique, as in rubbings ('frottage') by Ernst, the *decalcomania (a sort of monotype) invented by Dominguez, and the informal abstract painting of such an artist as Masson. In both sorts of painting the Surrealists aimed to mingle reason with unreason, using dreams, chance effects, the automatism uncontrolled by aesthetic or moral consideration, to create a new reality. Surrealist poetry by writers such as Paul Eluard and Rene Crevel had the same aim, and so had the 2 important Surrealist films Un Chien Andalou and L'Age d'Or. The zenith of the movement was in the 1930s, Surrealist groups having been formed in Britain, the U.S.A., Japan, Scandinavia and elsewhere. During the war many Surrealists were in the U.S.A. (e.g. *Duchamp), where their art and ideas had a liberating influence on U.S. art.
There has been some Surrealist activity in Paris since 1945, but the major Surrealist artists have worked and developed independently. The term S. is more loosely used of fantastic, weird or horrific imagery in the art of any period. The word was coined in 1917 by Apollinaire for the work of certain artists, in particular Marc Chagall.

Sustris Lambert (b Amsterdam, c. 1510–15; d ?Venice, after 1560). He trained in Amsterdam and by the early to mid-1530s was in Rome; a graffito with his signature is in the Domus Aurea next to that of Maartin van Heemskerck, who was there in 1532–6. He was probably in Venice c. 1535, in the studio of Titian. His characteristic thin, dry handling can be seen in the landscape of Titian’s Presentation of the Virgin (1534–8; Venice, Accad.). There is a similar landscape in the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (Munich, Alte Pin.) now attributed to Sustris. His presence in Titian’s workshop in this period is supported by his Venus (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), a copy of Titian’s Venus of Urbino (Florence, Uffizi), which left Venice in 1538.

Svanberg Max Walter  (Swedish, 1912-1995). Born in 1912 in Malmo. Together with Anders Osterlin and Carl Otto Hulten he was member of the swedish group Imaginisterna. Max Walter Svanberg only became involved in Cobra through a couple of reproductions in the magazine Cobra.

Svomas. *Vkhutemas

Symbolism. A movement in European literature and the visual arts c. 1885— c. 1910, based on the notion that the prime concern of art was not to depict, but that ideas were to be suggested by symbols, thus rejecting objectivity in favour of the subjective. It combined religious mysticism with an interest in the decadent and the erotic. Among the artists associated with the movement were *Redon, G. *Moreau and *Puvis de Chavannes in France, F. Khnopff in Belgium, *Toorop in Holland, *Hodler in Switzerland, *Khint in Austria and *Segantini in Italy.

Synchromism. U.S. art movement, originated in Paris (1912) by S. Macdonald-Wnght and *Russell and joined by P. Bruce and A. Frost. They developed a brilliant chromatic idiom, clearly related to Orphism, and exhibited at the Armory Show (1913).

Synthetism. A style of painting in the 1890s by *Gauguin, *Bemard and other artists at *Pont-Aven in Brittany. Flat areas of colour are surrounded with black lines. The group around Gauguin believed that an artist must synthesize his impressions and paint from memory, rather than depict directly. The Pont-Aven artists organized an exhibition under the title 'Synthetisme', during the Universal Exhibition of 1889. In 1891 a group was formed including Gauguin, Bernard, Charles Laval and Louis Anqu etin. *cloissomsm.

Systemic painting. Abstract painting which is based on a logical system; often the repetition and sometimes progressive variation of a single element, either in one work or in a series of related canvases, e.g. F. *Stella.

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