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Saar-Serigraphy Serebriakova-Soutine Spilliaert-Systemic

 

Serebriakova Zinaida (b Neskuchnoye estate, Kursk province, 10 Dec 1884; d Paris, 19 Sept 1967). Russian painter. The daughter of the sculptor Yevgeny (Aleksandrovich) Lansere (1848–86) and the sister of Yevgeny Lansere and Nikolay Lansere, she studied at the Princess Tenisheva Art School in St Petersburg (1901). From 1902 to 1903 she lived in Italy. She then studied at the studio of Osip Braz (1872–1936) in St Petersburg (1903–5) and at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1905–6). In 1910 she took part in the exhibition in St Petersburg Sovremennyy zhenskiy portret (‘The modern female portrait’) and in the seventh exhibition in Moscow and St Petersburg of paintings of the UNION OF RUSSIAN ARTISTS (Soyuz Russkikh Khudozhnikov), at which she exhibited in St Petersburg the picture At the Dressing-table: Self-portrait (1910; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), which brought her fame. An unusual composition, it makes use of scumbling and shows an awareness of Old Masters, encouraged by her uncle Alexandre Benois and her brother, both members of the society WORLD OF ART (Mir Iskusstva). The influence of the society, with which she was closely linked from 1911, is noticeable in Pierrot (Self-portrait in a Pierrot Costume) (1911; Odessa, A. Mus.). In contrast to the older members of the society, however, Serebryakova was on the whole indifferent to Art Nouveau and to Symbolism.

Serov Valentin (1865—1911). Russian painter, teacher at the Moscow School of Art (1897— 1909) and a contributor to The *World of Art magazine and exhibitions. S. was brought up on *Mamontov's estate and taught at the *Abramtsevo Colony. He painted the famous men of his day, but I of his best-known works is Cirl with Peaches (1887), depicting Mamontov's daughter. He was also a talented landscape painter.

Serpotta Giacomo (b Palermo, 10 March 1656; d Palermo, 27 Feb 1732). Son of Gaspare Serpotta. He was the leading Sicilian sculptor of the late 17th century to the early 18th. Though occupying a central role in the intellectual and artistic life of his day, his real significance derives from the stuccos he produced for the oratories of Palermo, for which he was celebrated in his lifetime. A stay in Rome has been suggested, but this seems unlikely as the Roman elements in even his most mature work, such as the St Monica (c. 1720; Palermo, S Agostino), are derived from prints. His first commission, in 1677, was for the decoration of the small church of the Madonna dell’Istria in Monreale, in collaboration with Procopio de Ferari. The level of execution gives few hints of Giacomo’s outstanding future, but two years later he received a much more important commission for work at the oratory of the Compagna della Carità di S Bartolomeo degli Incurabili in Palermo (destr. 1780). From 1679 to 1680 Giacomo worked on the model for an equestrian statue of Charles II, King of Spain and Sicily; the statue was then cast in bronze by Andrea Romano and Gaspare Romano. This was destroyed in 1848, but a small bronze version survives (Trapani, Mus. Reg.).

Serusier Paul (1865—1927). French painter, founder of the *Nabis group in 1889 under the influence of *Gauguin.

Settignano Desiderio da. *Desiderio da Settignano

Seurat Georges (1859—91). French painter born in Paris. S. studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1878-9) where he was a model academic student. Early drawings show a complete absorption of *Ingres's classical discipline and his careful preparation in sketches and colour studies for each of his 7 large paintings was thoroughly traditional. His successive investigations of form, colour and line were part of a lifelong search for a sense of order in painting.
Most of his early independent works were conte drawings reflecting *Millet in subject, in which a monumentality of form was realized by gradual tonal gradation.
His Baignade (1883-4) shows the simplicity of his early works enforced by the carefully calculated composition and by a palette of primary colours. His study of colour was based not on the empirical observation of the *Impressionists, but on research into the writings of Chevreul, Blanc, Supervjlle and Delacroix. In his theory of *Divisionism (later called *Neo-Impressiomsm) each local colour is composed of tiny particles of pure colour which not only represent the colour of the object, but also the colour of light, reflected local colours and complementaries. These are blended at a distance by the eye. The purest example of this is Un Dimanche d'eta a'Lile de la Grande Jatte (1884-6). His later works - Poseuses (1886-7), Parade (1887-8), La Pondrense (1889), Le Chahut (1889-90) and Le Cirque (1890) — become increasingly linear and decorative, reflecting both the curvilinear arabesques of Art Nouweau and his own life-long interest in popular art (posters, prints, etc.). The widespread use of his Divisionist technique illustrates his superficial influence on almost all painters. Of a more long-term significance were his liberation of pure colour and his reaction against Impressionism's formlessness, which — like Cezanne — foreshadows the structural discipline of later abstract art.

Seven. *Group of Seven

Seven and Five Society. Group of 7 British figurative painters and 5 sculptors founded (1920) and subject to annual re-election. By 1935, when the group, renamed the '7 and 5' Abstract Group, mounted Britain's 1st all-abstract exhibition, leading members were *Hepworth, H. *Moore and B. *Nicholson.

Severini Gino (1883—1966). Italian painter who signed the Futurist Manifesto (1910) and was one of the most significant members of *Futurism; from 1906 he lived chiefly in Pans. His Futurist paintings include Dance of Pan-Pan (1911) and Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin (1912). He later allied himself with the Cubists and as a result of his theoretical studies publ. Du Cubisme an Classicisme (1921). This was followed by a period of representational, almost academic painting; later he returned to a non-figurative idiom. His works include murals and mosaics.

Sevic Mirko Born on 24 April 1954 at Velika Kladusa, Bosna and Hercegovina

Sezession (Ger. secession). Term for the groups of German and Austrian artists who in the 1890s resigned from the recognized academic organizations in order to further the modern (mainly *Impressionist and *Art Nouveau) movement. The most important were the S.s of Munich (1892), Vienna (1897) and Berlin (1899). The most avant-garde, the Berlin S., evolved from the rejection of Munch's paintings in the Berlin Artists' Association (1892). In 1910 the Berlin S. split and the Neue *Sezession was formed; its members included Nolde, Pechstem and other artists who later formed Die *Brucke, as well as Kandinsky and Jawlensky.

Sfumato (It. evaporated). The rendering of form by means of subtle tonal gradations so as to eliminate any sharply defined contours. The work of Leonardo is an example.

Sharaku Toshusai  Japan Artist

Shaw John Byam  (1872-1919) English family. The painter Byam Shaw married Evelyn Pyke-Nott (1870–1959), also a painter, in 1899; they had five children, one of whom, James Byam Shaw, became a dealer and art historian, specializing in Old Master drawings.

Shchukin Sergei (1851-1936). With the *Morosovs, the Shchukin family, esp. Peter (1852-1912) and Sergei, became great and distinguished patrons and collectors. Peter collected prints, drawings and rare books, as well as Russian and Eastern art and decorative arts. His brother Dimitri collected Old Masters, esp. Dutch School, Flemish masters and French pictures including *Watteau, *Boucher and *Fragonard. It was Sergei, however, who became most famous outside Russia. From the end of the 10th с to the year of the Revolution his collection of modern French art parallels its development, and it attracted the attention of students and lovers of art. His collection was visited in Moscow to be studied, and it exerted a revolutionary influence on contemporary Russian art; S. had a lively personal contact with the young artists who flocked to his house to look at the 'new' art. He assembled a rich collection of works - many through the Braque, Cezanne, Degas, Derain, Gauguin (over 15 of Gauguin's paintings were displayed in his dining room), Manet, Monet, Matisse (so many of his works — over 20 paintings in the Grand Salon of his house - that his collection was dubbed 'the apotheosis of Matisse'), and Picasso (through the art dealer *Kahnweiler) of whose work he was the 1st collector.

Sheeler Charles (1883-1965). U.S. painter of industrial architecture and machinery, a leading exponent of *Cubist-Realism (or Precisionisni) exemplified in New England Irrelevancy. In the 1930s, beginning with scenes of the River Rouge Plant for Ford, he worked in a style of straight realism, influenced by his work as a photographer. *Magic Realism.

Sherman Cindy (1954- ) U.S. *Postmodern artist using black-and-white and colour photographs. Her works, usually in series, in which she is exclusively the subject, are not self-portraits: the many stereotype 'characters' she simulates, 'plays' and photographs are depicted in ways that are often rife with narrative ambiguity. Her disguises range from stereotypes of women on TV, in films, girlie magazines and advertisements, to subjects from fairy-tales, myths, operas and Old Master paintings. S.'s 'Untitled Film Stills' series (c 75 in total), begun in 1977, is made up of small, documentary-like black-and-white photographs based on '40s and '50s film noir B-movies, taken in her studio and around Manhattan, which hint at narrative. In the early '80s S. produced a series of'horizontal' (2 ft [0.6 m.] by 12 ft I3.7 m.|) Playboy-type photographs which focus on the mood and individuality of the 'model' - 'the part the photographer doesn't want to take pictures of. She subsequently used different techniques and formats, including Cibachrome colour and 6 ft (1.8 m.) large prints. In a new series, started in the '90s S. disguised herself as either a male or female subject from famous Old Master portraits, e.g. Untitled (1990), in which she is a Bacchus by Caravaggio. S. has said that her purpose is 'to go blank': through this effacement of her own 'self, she addresses the issue of identity in images that might in other contexts remain unquestioned.

Shinn Everett (1876-1953). U.S. painter, member of The *Eight. Influenced by Degas, he abandoned urban realism for subjects from the theatre and theatrical decoration.

Shuncho Japan Artist

Shunei Katsukawa  Japan Artist

Shunga-Kanva. Cultural period in N. India (r. 184 ВС—All 17) named after its 2 dominant dynasties. The most famous Shunga monument is the stone slupa railing from Bharhut, imitative of split-log wooden prototypes, on the inscribed uprights of which are carved nature spirits assimilated to Buddhism. Other sites include Besnagar and important sculptures at Bodhgaya which are probably Kanva.

Shunso Katsukawa  Japan Artist

Sickert Walter Richard (1860-1942). British artist, the leading British Impressionist painter. S. studied under Whistler and was much influenced by his friend Degas, whose wit and meticulous draughtsmanship he appreciated fully. He employed Impressionist techniques to portray interiors, often of the theatre, using, however, sombre tones to express the nuances of colour rather than light. S. also painted landscapes and townscapes in London, Dieppe and Venice. In 1911 he helped to found the *Camden Town Group and was also a member of the *New English Art Club and the *London Group. In London, after 1905, he was associated with *Gore, L. *Pissarro and *Gilman. The coll. A Free House! (1947) reveals that S. was a fluent writer on artistic subjects.

Siena, school of. School of Italian painting which flourished between the 13th and 15th cs and for a time rivalled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art. Its most important representatives include *Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil *Martini; Pietro and Ambrogio *Lorenzetti; Domenico and *Taddeo di Bartolo; *Sassetta; and *Matteo di Giovanni. In the 16th с the Mannerists *Beccafumi and *Sodoma worked there.

Signac Paul (1863—1935). French painter who joined Seurat and with him worked out the theoretical principles of *Neo-Impressionism which he defined in D'Eugene Delacroix an neo-impressionnisme (1899). He was the most rigid exponent of *Divisionism.

Significant form. Term used by the British art critic C. *Bell in 1913 to describe the essence of works of art, which he saw in terms of forms, and relationships of forms. Form itself is, according to Bell the true content of the work of art, and other kinds of content (e.g. narrative and symbolic elements) are secondary.

Signorelli Luca (1441-1 523). Italian painter, pupil of Piero della Francesca. S. anticipated Michelangelo in his interest in nude figures in action, though he was not entirely successful in his attempts to depict movement. His work finds its most complete expression in the famous fresco cycle at Orvieto cathedral (1499—1503), a series of semicircular compositions conveying his vision of life, death, damnation and resurrection. The story is told in a harsh, brutal manner which emphasizes the solemnity and horror of the subject. S.'s interest in the formal qualities of dramatic action pervades his religious compositions and portraits. S. worked on the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel in the 1480s.

Silbermann Jean-Claude b. 1935

Silhouette. A profile outline, sometimes a head, cut out of black paper or painted or drawn from shadow. The medium was at its most popular in the 18th с and early 19th с and derives its name from Etienne de Silhouette (1709—67), an unpopular French finance minister, whose hobby was cut-out portraiture.

Silk-screen printing. *serigraphy

Silver point. 15th—i6th-c. drawing technique; Durer was a master of the medium. A silver pointed pencil (sometimes gold or lead) was used on paper, often tinted, prepared with an abrasive compound. Although heightened effects were obtained with opaque white, s. p. depended fundamentally on line; shading for example was possible only by *hatching. The s.-p. line was indelible.

Simberg Hugo
(b Hamina, 24 June 1873; d Дhtдri, 12 July 1917). Finnish painter and printmaker. He first studied at the Finnish Fine Arts Association in Helsinki. His natural inclination towards mysticism led him to seek the instruction of Akseli Gallen-Kallela, with whom he studied in Ruovesi intermittently between 1895 and 1897. Gallen-Kallela’s influence, in particular his Symbolist synthesis of the National Romantic style, is evident in Simberg’s early works, such as Frost and Autumn (both 1895; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), which are highly personal expressions of the mysticism of nature. These small allegorical watercolours convey in a deliberately primitive style the despondency of autumn, fusing many of Simberg’s unique, fairy-like motifs.

Siqueiros David Alfaro (1896—1974). Mexican painter; with *Rivera and *Orozco, one of the great contemporary Mexican muralists. He fought in the Mexican Revolutionary army and his left-wing political and trade union activities led to frequent periods of imprisonment and exile; his large-scale paintings are full of energy and violence, mirroring his rebellious spirit (e.g. Viewers, T962). In Europe (1919) he and Rivera formulated principles for creating a public art derived from the *Pre-Columbian tradition. From 1922 S. painted many huge, turbulent, crowded murals, e.g. The Mexican Revolution. He used a variety of mediums and styles evolved from *Surrealism.

Sisley Alfred (1839/40—99). Painter born in Paris of British parents. While a student under Gleyre (1863-4) be met Monet, Renoir and Bazille and painted with them near Fontainebleau. He made 4 visits to Britain (1871—97); from 1880 he lived at Moret-sur-Loing. Influenced at 1st by Corot, he became a central figure of the *Impressionist group, exhibiting with them (1874, 1876, 1877, 1883). The paintings of the floods at Marly are paramount examples of Impressionism, freshly painted in clear colour; his landscapes are mostly of the Lle-de-France.

Sistine Chapel. A private chapel of the Pope, also used for Papal elections. It is a long plain room covered with a tunnel-vault pierced by windows. Built in 1473 for Sixtus IV (whence the name) it was decorated (1481—3) with large frescoes by *Botticelli, *Ghirlandaio, *Perugino, *Pinturicchio and *Rosselli. Between 1508 and 1512 the ceiling was painted by *Michelangelo in 9 main scenes (from the Creation to Noah) surrounded by Prophets, Sybils and nude youths. In 1536—41 Michelangelo returned to paint The Last Judgement on the E. wall behind the altar.

Situation artists. 18 British painters, e.g. *Denny, *Hoyland and R. *Smith, who mounted an exhibition in London in 1960 of large abstract pictures at least 30 ft (9.14 m.) square. The aim was to fill the spectator's field of vision and so make him participant ш а situation created by the artwork.

Six Dynasties, the. Period in Chinese history (265—581) marked by political disunion and the ascendance of Buddhism in the arts. Outstanding painters were the 4th-c. *Ku K'ai-chih and the 6th-c. theorist *Hsieh Ho and Chang Seng-yu at the 6th-c. court of Nanking. In sculpture a gilt bronze Sakayamuni Buddha (338) reveals the influence of *Gandhara. Shrines and colossal figures of Buddhas and attendant figures were hewn out of the cliffs at Ping-ling-ssu and Mai-chi-shan, Kansu (begun 4th c), Tun-huang, W. Chinese Turkestan (366 onwards), Yunkang, Shansi (5th c.) and Lung-men, Honan (late 5th—6th c). Remarkable wall paintings also survive at the 1st 3 sites, notably Tun-huang.

Sketch. Quick drawing or painting made as an aid to memory or a rough draught of a painting made to give the artist some idea of what the completed work will look like. Some of the s.s of artists such as Constable have a spontaneity which is lost in their finished paintings. In the case of Rubens, the full-scale compositions were frequently the work of pupils whereas his s.s were his own.

Sleigh Sylvia [British-born American Contemporary Realist Painter, born in 1916]. Sylvia Sleigh (professional name for Sylvia Sleigh Alloway, 1916, Llandudno, Gwynedd, Wales) is a naturalised American realist painter. After studying at the Brighton School of Art, she had her first solo exhibition in 1953 at the Kensington Art Gallery. She married Lawrence Alloway, an art critic, before moving to the United States in the early 1960s when he became a curator at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Around 1970, from feminist principles, she painted a series of works reversing stereotypical artistic themes by featuring naked men in poses usually associated with women. Some directly alluded to existing works, such as her gender-reversed version of Ingres's The Turkish Bath (the reclining man is her husband, Laurence Alloway). Philip Golub Reclining alludes similarly to the Rokeby Venus by Velázquez. Other works equalise the roles of men and women, such as the 1976 Concert Champetre, in which all the characters are nude, unlike its similarly composed namesake by Titian (sometimes credited to Giorgione), in which only the women are. She comments on her works: "I feel that my paintings stress the equality of men & women (women & men). To me, women were often portrayed as sex objects in humiliating poses. I wanted to give my perspective. I liked to portray both man and woman as intelligent and thoughtful people with dignity and humanism that emphasized love and joy". In 2007, in an interview with Brian Sherwin for Myartspace, Sylvia Sleigh was asked if gender equality issues in the mainstream art world, and the world in general, had changed for the better. Sylvia answered, "I do think things have improved for women in general there are many more women in government, in law and corporate jobs, but its very difficult in the art world for women to find a gallery.". According to Sylvia there is still more that needs to be done in order for men and women to be treated as equals in the art world.

Sloan John (1871 —1951). U.S. realist painter, ill. for newspapers in Philadelphia and N.Y., and cartoonist, one of the most important members of The Eight. His city scenes include Greenwich Village Backyards (1914). His later studies of nudes show an interest in formal problems.

Sluter Claus (d. с. 1405). Netherlands sculptor in the service of Philip the Bold of Burgundy. He assisted Jean de Marville in constructing the portal of the Carthusian monastery at Champmol, completing it in 1400 with the addition of 4 figures. The duke's tomb (Dijon Mus.), begun in 1384, was only completed in 1411 after S.'s death. Carved in black-and-white marble, the duke's effigy was placed on a slab surmounting a rectangular base flanked by figures in different attitudes of grief. This tomb and the well-head, 'The Well of Moses (1395—1406), with its powerful figures of the Prophets, anticipating Michelangelo, were influential well into the 16th с S. was a great innovator m the expressive handling of drapery, realism of gesture and rendering of character type. Regarded as the founder of the Burgundian school.

Slutzky Naum. The Bauhaus school

Smith Kiki (born January 18, 1954, in Nuremberg, Germany) is an American artist classified as a feminist artist, a movement with beginnings in the twentieth century. Her Body Art is imbued with political significance, undermining the traditional erotic representations of women by male artists, and often exposes the inner biological systems of females as a metaphor for hidden social issues. Her work also often includes the theme of birth and regeneration, sustenance, and frequently has Catholic allusions. Smith has also been active in debate over controversies such as AIDS, gender, race, and battered women. Smith began sculpting in the late 1970s. She is best known for her sculptures; however, she creates pieces in a variety of media. She was an active member of the artist's group Colab. Her print collection is particularly extensive and began in the 1980s. The Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) has consistently collected her prints, and now owns over fifty of her print projects. Speaking of the quality of reproduction inherent to the medium, Smith has stated that "Prints mimic what we are as humans: we are all the same and yet every one is different. I think there's a spiritual power in repetition, a devotional quality, like saying rosaries." (1998)Since 1980, Smith has produced a myriad of work in mediums such as sculptures, prints, installations and others that have been admired for having a highly developed, yet sometimes unsettling, sense of intimacy in her works’ timely political and social provocations. These traits have brought her critical success. In the Blue Prints series 1999, Kiki Smith experimented with the aquatint process. The "Virgin with Dove" was achieved with aquatint and airbrushing with stop out, an acid resist that protects the copper plate and prevents the Prussian blue ink from adhering therefor creating a halo around the Virgin and Holy Spirit. This image of the Virgin is a powerful example of contemporary Marian art. Smith's first works were screenprints on dresses, scarves and shirts, often with images of body parts. In association with artist group Colab, Smith printed an array of posters in the early 1980s containing political statements or announcing upcoming events. A sampling of her other works include: All Souls (1988), a screenprint on 36 attached sheets of handmade Thai paper with repetitive images of a fetus, in black and white. Smith created similar prints including Untitled (Baby's Heads), 1990 and Untitled (Negative Legs), 1991. How I Know I'm Here (1985) is a 16-foot, horizontal, four part linocut depicting internal organs including a heart, lungs, and male and female reproductive organs, intermingled with etched lines representing her own feet, face, and hands. Possession Is Nine-Tenths of the Law (1985) is a nine part print portfolio that individualizes and calls attention to the body's internal organs. Smith used the image of a human ovum, surrounded on one side by protective cells, in Black Flag (1989), and 'Cause I'm On My Time (inserts for Fawbush Gallery Invitations ) (1990). Mary Magdelene (1994), a sculpture made of silicon bronze and forged steel, features a woman's nude body in an untraditional way: her whole body is flayed, skin removed to show bare muscle tissue. However, her face, breasts and area surrounding her navel remain smooth. She wears a chain around her ankle and her face is relatively undetailed and is turned upwards. Smith's sculpture Standing (1998), featuring a female figure standing atop the trunk of a dead Eucalyptus tree, is a part of the Stuart Collection of public art on the campus of the University of California, San Diego. Smith has also created an extensive collection of self-portraits, nature-themed works, and many pieces that depict scenes from fairy-tales, often in unconventional ways. Smith feel that she makes traditional objects.

Smith Rodney. Surrealist photographer

Smithson Robert  (1928—73). U.S. artist, one of the most prominent practitioners of *Earth art. Originally a *Minimal art sculptor of 'primary structures', S. developed his concept of 'sites and nonsites', a notion which affected greatly the development of 'site sculpture' (art made in specific outdoor locations) in the late '60s and in the '70s. His 2 major earthworks were Spiral jetty (1970), a mud and rock coil in Great Salt Lake, 1500 ft (457.2 m.) long and 1 5 ft (4.57 m.) wide, and Broken (Circle/Spiral Hill (1971). *Long.

Snyders Frans (1579—1657). Flemish painter of still-life subjects, animals and hunting scenes, pupil of P. *Bruegel the Younger and H. van Balen. He worked in Antwerp, often collaborating with Rubens, in whose pictures he painted the flowers and fruit. One of his best-known paintings is The Kitchen Table.

Socialist Realism. Pronounced as a dogma for all Soviet artists in all fields of art in 1934. It aimed to produce art comprehensible to the masses, and inspire the people with admiration for the dignity of the working man and his task of building Communism. Heroic idealization of work and the worker was the required theme, and the guiding hand of the Communist party and its discipline was to mould and prune artists, in order to create, in Stalin's words, worthy 'engineers of souls'. The approved techniques were derived from the realistic and naturalistic traditions.

Social Realism. A term used to describe paintings of the life and environment of the lower middle and working classes in the 20th с The 2 main groups generally identified as S.-r. painters are The *Eight, painting after 1900 in the U.S.A., and a British group (*Kitchen Sink school), working in the 1950s, among them John Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middle-ditch and Jack Smith.

Sokov Leonid
Russian artist and sculptor, (Леонид Соков) was born in Mikhalevo in the Tver region, Russia in 1941. Sokov emigrated to the United States in 1980.

Solana Jose Gutierrez (b Madrid, 28 Feb 1886; d Madrid, 24 June 1945). Spanish painter and writer. His private tuition in art from 1893 was furthered with studies at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid from 1900 to 1904. On completing his studies he began to frequent the Nuevo Café de Levante, where he met many writers of the ‘Generation of 1898’ movement. Their irony, satire and melancholy strongly influenced Solana’s painting and literary work, such as his first book of essays on contemporary life in Spain, Madrid, Escenas y costumbres (Madrid, 1913, 2/1918). From the 1920s he exhibited widely in Spain and in group exhibitions abroad. In his paintings, influenced above all by Goya and by Spanish Baroque masters such as Juan de Valdés Leal, he treated subjects such as death, as in The Procession of Death (1930; Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.), prostitution and alcoholism.

Somov Konstantin (b St Petersburg, 1 Dec 1869; d Paris, 6 May 1939). Russian painter and graphic artist. He was the son of a curator at the Hermitage, and he attended the St Petersburg Academy of Art from 1888 to 1897, studying under the Realist painter Il’ya Repin from 1894. In 1897 and again in 1898–9 he went to Paris and attended the studios of Filippo Colarossi and of Whistler. Neither the Realism of his Russian teachers nor the evanescent quality of Whistler’s art was reflected for long in Somov’s work. He turned instead for inspiration to the Old Masters in the Hermitage and to works of contemporary English and German artists, which he knew from visits abroad and from the art journals.

Sorayama Hajime. Pin -Up Art

Sosen Mori  Japan Artist

Soto Jesus-Rafael (1923— ). Venezuelan artist who settled in Paris in 1950. He soon became engaged in *Op(tical) research and in 1954, together with other practitioners of *Kinetic art, joined the Galerie Denise Rene which became the forum for their experiments in perception, illusion, movement and change. The kinetic
effect in his work (e.g. Petite Double Face, 1967) is obtained by the superimposition of a grille (wires or nylon cords, etc.) on a painted panel, sometimes 3-dimensional, or mobile.

Sotto in su (It. from below upward). Term applied to foreshortening in a ceiling painting so that from below the figures have the appearance of floating in space. It was used by *Mantegna (Camera degh Sposi frescoes, Mantua) and reached its highest point of development in the *Baroque period.

Southern school. *Chinese art

South-west Indian cultures (North American). *Hohokam, *Mogollon, *Pueblo

Soutine Chaim (1894—1943). Russian painter. He moved to Paris (1913), living in desperate poverty; there he met *Chagall and *Modigliani. Like theirs, his work was only tenuously connected with the current Parisian mainstream. S.'s art is closer to other isolated *Expressionists such as *Nolde and *Kokoschka. Under the influence of the *Fauves and Van *Gogh, the haunted melancholy of his early work gave way to the volcanic violence of colour and technique in the landscapes painted at Ceret (1919—22), e.g. Cnarled Trees whose crude brushwork witnesses furiously expended energy. These are some of the most extreme examples of Expressionism.
With a growing patronage from 1923 (most of his works are still in private colls) his financial hardship was over, but the disturbing images persisted, painted in the colour and texture of raw flesh, e.g. the Rembrandt-inspired Carcass of Beef. Only in his last works, e.g. Windy Day, Auxerres (1939), does a lyrical decorative quality appear.

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