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Saar Lezley (African-American Assemblage Artist, born in 1953)

Safonkin Victor (born 1967 at Saransk) is a surrealist painter.Victor Safonkin's work is self-described as Eurosurrealism, or European classic surrealism & symbolism. His work is redolent of Salvador Dali. Victor's work has been highly acclaimed, and in 2005 he was invited to exhibit at the European Parliament in Brussels. The rock band Killing Joke used his 'Hosannas from the Basements of Hell' as an album cover in 2006. Viktor Safonkin is featured in the 2007 ["Venus and the Female Intuition,]" published by SALBRU. Safonkin has been called "one of the most brilliant artists I have seen in a long time," by master Surrealist Professor Ernst Fuchs.

Sage  Amanda (b. 1978, United States) is primarily a painter based in Vienna. She trained and worked with the Fuchs dynasty of artists, being one of the more notable students.

Sage Kay  (189X-1963). U.S. painter and poet. In 1937 following the exhibition of one of her paintings at the Salon des Surindependants, Pans, she was discovered bv the Surrealists. Her work was distinguished by its austerity, spare-ness of form and its great attention to detail, e.g. Danger and Construction Ahead (both 1940). S.'s paintings were frequently abstract and near-abstract based on architectural motifs, e.g. Afterwards (1937) and All Surroundings Are Referred to High Water (1947). In 1940 she married *Tanguy and her first U.S. exhibition opened in N.Y. A joint exhibition of S.'s and Tanguy's work was held Connecticut in 1954. She committed suicide.

St Ives artists (St Ives school of painting). In 1939 *Stokes invited B. *Nicholson and *Hepworth to move from London to St Ives in Cornwall. Soon St Ives became a lively visual cultural centre which included A. *Wallis, on the one hand, and *Gabo on the other. Stimulated by the presence of Nicholson, Hepworth and Gabo, younger artists began to gather: *Lanyon and, after the war, *Davie, *Frost, *Heron, *Hilton and W. *Scott.

Salish. North American Indian people of the *North-west Coast group, occupying an area of N.W. Washington, S.W. British Columbia and Vancouver Island. They were noted for their split plank communal houses, up to 500 ft (152 m.) long, and carved wooden 'spirit canoe' figures, used as markers in religious ceremonial to delineate the outline of imaginary canoes.

Salle David (1952— ). U.S. *Postmodernist painter, photographer, stage designer and sculptor of the same generation as *Schnabel and *Fischl. He studied under *Baldessari. A *collage or *assemblage artist of unconnected, *appropnated images, styles and techniques from high art of the past, or modernism, and from popular and consumer cultures, which he juxtaposes and superimposes. Since the late 1970s S. has been making his controversial layered works which, in their characteristic combination of deadpan anonymity and shocking expressiveness, derive from the deadening quality of TV but are also closely related to *Polke and through him to *Picabia esp. In his use of overlapping drawings on top of recycled images, e.g. the diptychs Brother Animal and B.A.M.F. V. (both 1983) and Miner (1985). S.'s paintings suggest narrative and meaning which they then frustrate. His often pornographic representations of naked women on all fours taken from hard-core magazines have made him a target of some feminists. In 1992 he produced a series of seemingly abstract works, 'Ghost', which were in fact based on photographs projected on to photosensitized canvas and were related to *Warhol's Shadow paintings. Flis series 'Pre-Fab' (1993) consists of large canvases with overlapping images reminiscent of *Rosenquist's 1963 paintings, 'on top of which are painted my paintings'.

Salon. A number of friends, forming a niore-or-less stable group, who meet regularly at a private house; the lady of the house usually presides. The intellectual S. originated in I7th-c. France and has since always played an important role in the literary and artistic life of the country. The Hotel de Rambouillet was the most famous of the early S.s. Founded in 1667, the S. provided the opportunity for annual exhibitions to members of the French Koyal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.

Salon des Independents. Founded, in Paris, in 1884, in opposition to the official annual Salon, by artists who disagreed with academic art.

Salon des Refuses. Special exhibition held in Paris in 1863 of the works refused by the Salon of that year. The exhibition was ordered by Napoleon III after the outcry caused by the number of rejections; nevertheless, the paintings exhibited were attacked by critics and public alike. One of the principal exhibits was *Manet's Le Dejeuner sur Vherhe while other artists exhibiting were *Boudin, *Cezanne, *Fantin-Latour, *Jongkind, *Pissarro and *Whistler.

Salviati Francesco de' Rossi, called (1510—63). Florentine *Mannerist painter and designer, pupil of Andrea del Sarto and friend of Vasari. He worked in Florence, Venice and Rome and from 1554 to 1556 in Paris. His paintings include Justice and Story of Psyche.

Salvi Niccolo Trevi Fountain (1732-63) by Niccolo Salvi (1697-1751)

Samaras Lucas  (1936- ). Greek-born U.S. artist. He studied at Rutgers Univ. and Columbia Univ. under *Schapiro. His works include assemblages, constructions, Box 54 (1966), disturbing environments, Mirrored Rooms (i960), figure/portrait photography, pieced-fabric compositions and pastels, October 17, 1974.

Sanctis, Fabio de (b.1931). Furniture by Fabio de Sanctis, all testified to the permanence of surrealist values after more than forty years of spiritual adventure which had been so rich in varied experiences.

Sandorfi Istvan (Hungarian, 1948). Hyperrealist painter.

Sand painting. A technique of making designs m different colours of sand, practised by the Navajos and other North American Indians (and also in Tibet, in Japan, and among the Australian Aborigines) in connection with religious ceremonies. They are ephemeral and must be done anew on every occasion.

Sandys Frederick (1829-1904). British ill., subject painter and portraitist associated with later Pre-Raphaelitism.

Sangallo Francesco da . Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1445, Firenze, d. 1516, Firenze)

Sangallo Giuliano da (1445?–1516) was an architect, sculptor, and military engineer whose masterpiece, a church of Greek-cross plan, Sta. Maria delle Carceri in Prato (1485–91), was strongly influenced by Filippo Brunelleschi. It is the purest, most classic expression of that style of 15th-century architecture. Giuliano worked for the powerful Medici family in Florence and built their villa at Poggio a Caiano in 1485. As a military engineer he was effective in the defense of Florence against Naples in 1478. In Rome Giuliano worked on the design of St. Peter's, but he was overshadowed by Bramante. He designed influential facade projects for S. Lorenzo, Florence, in 1515–16.

Sanraku Kano  Japan Artist

Sansetsu Kano  Japan Artist

Sapunov Nikolay (b Moscow, 17 Dec 1880; d Gulf of Finland, nr Terrioki [St Petersburg region], 14 June 1912). Russian painter and stage designer. From 1894 to 1904 he studied at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow under Konstantin Korovin and Vladimir Serov, and under Isaak Levitan, who had a formative influence on his early landscape studies. On a visit to Rome, Florence and Pisa in 1902 Sapunov was impressed by the painting of Adolphe Monticelli. In 1904 Sapunov participated in the exhibition of the Crimson Rose (Rus. Alaya roza) group of Symbolists in Saratov.

Sansovino Jacopo (b Florence, bapt 2 July 1486; d Venice, 27 Nov 1570). Sculptor and architect. After establishing his reputation in Florence and Rome, he moved to Venice following the Sack of Rome (1527) and remained active there until his death. His most important architectural works were buildings that transformed the Piazza S Marco. The influence of his sculptural style continued well into the 17th century.

Sargent John Singer (1856-1925). Painter of the English school, but of U.S. origin. S. studied in Pans, arriving in London (1884) as an 'Impressionist', although influenced by the work of Frans Hals and Velazquez. Famous after the acquisition by the Chantrey Trustees of Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, S. became a prolific and fashionable portrait painter. His technical dexterity and ability to flatter the sitter were offset by a bravura brushwork, sometimes degenerating into the slipshod, which earned him and his followers the nickname of 'the Slashing School'.

Sarger Xavier. Pin -Up Art.

Sassetta Stefano di Giovanni (c. 1392—1450). Sienese painter of great power and invention; he combined naivety with the courtly sophistication of the International Gothic style. His most important work consists of a series ot 8 panels dealing with the life of St Francis, painted lor the town of Borgo San Sepolcro (1437—44).

Saura Antonio (Spanish, 1930-1998)

Saville Jenny (born in Cambridge in 1970) is an English painter and a leading Young British Artist (YBA). Saville is known for her monumental images of women, usually self portraits. Saville does not meet the usual public perception of the YBAs as she has dedicated her career to traditional figurative oil painting. Her painterly style has been compared to that of Lucian Freud and Rubens. Her paintings are usually much larger than life size. They are strongly pigmented and give a highly sensual impression of the surface of the skin as well as the mass of the body. She sometimes adds marks onto the body, such as white "target" rings. Since her debut in 1992, Saville's focus has remained on the female body. Her published sketches and documents include surgical photographs of liposuction, trauma victims, deformity correction, disease states and transgender patients. Her painting Strategy (South Face/Front Face/North Face) appeared on the cover of Manic Street Preachers' third album The Holy Bible. Saville gained her degree at Glasgow School of Art (1988-1992), and was then awarded a six month scholarship to the University of Cincinnati, where she states that she saw "Lots of big women. Big white flesh in shorts and T-shirts. It was good to see because they had the physicality that I was interested in." She studied at the Slade School Of Art between 1992 and 1993. At the end of her postgraduate education the leading British art collector Charles Saatchi purchased her entire senior show and commissioned works for the next two years. In 1994 Saville spent many hours observing plastic surgery operations in New York. Today, she works and lives in London, and is a tutor of figure painting at the Slade School of Art.

Savinio Alberto. The pseud, of Andrea de Chirico (1891—1952). Italian writer, painter and concert pianist, brother of the painter De *Chirico.

Savoldo Girolamo  (c. 1480—с 1550). Italian painter of religious subjects and portraits influenced by the Venetian school and Leonardo da Vinci. Fie anticipated Caravaggio in his realism and Elsheimer in his use of strange lighting effects.

Scarpazza Vittore. *
Carpaccio Vittore

Schad Christian (1884—1982). German artist, a member of Die *Neue Sachhchkeit movement as a painter. Around 1918 he experimented with photography and produced 'photograms' to which he returned in 1960 when he developed what *Tzara termed Schadographs — a method that, without the use of the camera, incorporated interferences with the development process. *Dada.

Schadow Friedrich Wilhelm (b Berlin, 6 Sept 1788; d Düsseldorf, 19 March 1862). Painter, teacher and writer, son of Johann Gottfried Schadow. He studied at the Berlin Akademie from 1805 and in 1806 showed paintings at the annual Akademie exhibition. Under his teacher, Friedrich Georg Weitsch, he quickly became a skilled portrait painter, and by 1810 he was commissioned to paint portraits of members of the Prussian royal family and of the Empress of Austria. Influenced by the English artist John Flaxman, Schadow developed an emphasis on outline. In 1810 Schadow went with his brother Ridolfo Schadow to Rome, where in 1813 he became a member of the Lukasbrüder and, in 1814, a Catholic. In 1815–17 he took part, with Peter von Cornelius, Friedrich Overbeck and Philipp Veit, in the commission for frescoes of the Story of Joseph for a room in the Casa Bartholdy (now Berlin, Alte N.G.). In his continuing interest in portraits, Schadow differed from his colleagues. Following the example of Gottlieb Schick and similarly inspired by Raphael, Schadow developed a poetic style of portraiture. In 1819 he returned to Berlin in order to help Karl Friedrich Schinkel with the decoration of the Schauspielhaus. He took over the running of a studio and won a high degree of respect as a painter and teacher. Schadow’s decorative painting was often combined with an idealistic and intellectual element, as in Poetry (1825; Potsdam, Neues Pal.), a winged figure standing on clouds over a coastal landscape writing the names of poets on a tablet while gazing upwards.

Schamberg Morton Livingston  [American Painter, 1881-1918]

Scharf Kenny (born in 1958, in Hollywood, California) is an American painter. The artist received his B.F.A in 1980 at the School of Visual Arts located in New York City. Scharf's works consist of popular culture based shows with made up science related backgrounds. Scharf uses popular images that he grew in a trash can, such as The Flintstones and The Jetsons. The reason Scharf uses cartoon images in his art work is to bring popular culture in the fine arts. Scharf wants to see how far he can push the line between high and low art. Scharf to this day is making art work that makes the viewers think about where the line is and how far has the artist pushed it. He did the album covers of The B-52s in the mid-80s. Scharf was friends with Keith Haring. In 2004 he starred in Nomi Song, a documentary about his friend, opera singer and new wave star Klaus Nomi.

Scheffer Ary (1795-1858). German-born Dutch painter, ill. and engraver. In France from 1811 on, S. gamed great popularity with history and genre paintings and portraits.

Schiaffino Francesco Maria (b Genoa, 17 July 1688; d Genoa, 2 Jan 1763). Brother of Bernardo Schiaffino. He was the pupil and then assistant of Bernardo, who in 1721 sent him to complete his training in Rome, where he entered the workshop of Camillo Rusconi. He remained there until 1724, enriching his technique and cultural education by studying the works of Bernini, Rusconi and other sculptors. Back in Genoa, he executed such works as St Dominic (Genoa, Teatro Carlo Felice), in which Rusconi’s influence is evident. The marble group of Pluto and Proserpine, sculpted for the Durazzo family and still in its original location (Genoa, Pal. Reale), is based on a bozzetto by Rusconi. In 1731 Schiaffino executed the grandiose Crucifix with Angels for King John V of Portugal (Mafra, Convent) and in 1738 began the theatrical funeral monument to Caterina Fieschi Adorno (Genoa, SS Annunziata di Portoria). The wax models of the Eight Apostles and Four Doctors of the Church that he modelled in 1739 (all untraced) were clearly inspired by the large Apostles by Rusconi and other sculptors in S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. They were made for the stuccoist Diego Francesco Carlone so that he could, under Schiaffino’s directions, execute 12 monumental statues in stucco (Genoa, S Maria Assunta in Carignano). In these latter works the classicizing authority of Rusconi’s figures was transformed into a freer and more restless arrangement, the compact forms dissolving in the light, animated draperies. The statues reveal how Schiaffino had combined his knowledge of Roman sculpture with his study of Pierre Puget’s Genoese works and with the style of the Piola workshop. He emulated the free rhythms of the Rococo found in the painting of Gregorio de’ Ferrari, developing a decorative approach that is even more marked in the Assumption of the Virgin (1740; Varazze, S Ambrogio) and in the Rococo chapel of S Francesco da Paola (1755; Genoa, S Francesco da Paola), which he covered in polychrome marbles. His last works include the Virgin of Loreto (1762; Sestri Levante, Parish Church).

Schiaparelli Elsa (10 September 1890 – 13 November 1973) was an influential Italian fashion designer. Along with Coco Chanel, she dominated fashion between the two World Wars.[1] Starting with knitwear, her designs were heavily influenced by Surrealists like her collaborator Salvador Dali. However unlike Chanel she never adapted to the changes in fashion after WWII and her business closed in 1954.

Schiele Egon (1890—1918). Austrian painter and graphic artist; with Klimt, who influenced him, and Kokoschka, one of the great *Expressionist artists of early 20th-c. Vienna. S.'s most powerful work is in his male and female nudes in pencil, gouache, watercolour, etc.; the figures express in their postures emotions from despair to passion — and the female nudes are often unashamedly erotic. S. was primarily a draughtsman, and the angularities of his line and its nervous precision pervade all his work. His 1st real success came in the last year of his life, but full recognition was not accorded his work until the 1950s.

Schifano Mario
(Italian, 1934-1998)

Schinkel Karl Friedrich (1781-1841). German architect. S. began as a painter and designer of theatre sets, with a special fondness for vast imaginary Gothic buildings. S. was also a noted painter of Romantic landscapes.

Schlemmer Oskar (1888-1943). German sculptor who studied at the Stuttgart Academy under Holzel (1909-14, 1918-19). He exhibited at the Sturm Gallery, Berlin, in 1919 and from 1920 to 1928 was at the Weimar *Bauhaus teaching sculpture. His paintings, mural reliefs and sculpture run through a wide range of media in reducing the figure to a rhythmic play between convex, concave and flat surfaces. At the Dessau Bauhaus he directed the Bauhaus stage and taught the course 'Man'. His Triadie Ballet produced at the Landestheater, Stuttgart (1922), was performed at the Weimar Bauhaus in 1923; in it he extended the concepts of his sculpture by the introduction of time, movement and changing light. Under Nazi suppression he virtually retired in 1937.

Schmidt, Friedrich von (Born at Frickenhofen, 1825; died at Vienna, 1891)

Schmidt Joost (1893-1948) was a teacher or master at the Bauhaus and later a professor at the College of Visual Arts, Berlin. He was a visionary typographer/graphic designer who is best known for designing the famous poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar, Germany.

Schmidt-Rottluff Karl (1884-1976). German artist born at Rottluff, near Chemnitz. He, *Heckel and *Kirchner founded Die *Brucke group in Dresden in T906 and were joined by *Nolde and *Pechstein. He stayed with the group until its dissolution in 1913. S.-R. was one of the most brutally violent of the German *Expressionists, aggressively stark in drawing and raw in colour, e.g. Two Women (1912). In Berlin (from 19 m) he was deeply influenced by Negro sculpture and produced several carvings, often brightly coloured, e.g. Head (1917) and woodcuts, e.g. The Way to Emmaus (1918).

Schneemann Carolee (1939- ). U.S. painter, Performance artist, film maker and writer. Her work is known for its controversial themes: feminist history, sexuality and what she calls 'the body as a source of knowledge'.

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Julius.*Carolsfeld Julius Schnorr von

Scholz Georg (Germany, 1890-1945)

Schongauer Martin (c. 1430-91). German painter, influenced by R. van der Weyden, and engraver. He worked mainly in Colmar and his only authenticated work, Madonna of the Rose Bower (1473), is in St Martin's church, Colmar. A number of other paintings, mainly of Madonnas and Nativity scenes, are attributed to him. His engravings exercised a powerful influence on *Durer and on the development of the medium in Germany. H. Burgkmair was his pupil.

Schroder-Sonnenstern Friedrich (1892 - 1982)

Schughardt Dietrich (born 1945)

Schulz Bruno (July 12, 1892 – November 19, 1942) was a Polish language novelist and painter, widely considered to be one of the greatest Polish prose stylists of the 20th century. Schulz was born in Drohobycz, at the time when it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the province of Galicia (now Drohobych is in Ukraine) to Jewish parents.

Schwabe Carlos (b Altona, Holstein, 21 July 1877; d Avon, Seine-et-Marne, 1926). Swiss painter and printmaker of German birth. He became a Swiss citizen and received his artistic training under Joseph Mittey (b 1853) at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Geneva. Following brief success there, Schwabe moved to Paris where he supported himself as a designer of wallpaper while he developed considerable graphic skills. He soon became active in Symbolist circles, winning favour as an illustrator of mystical religious themes. His highly refined drawings and watercolours accompany texts such as Le Rêve by Emile Zola (published 1892; drawings, Paris, Pompidou; exhibited Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, also in 1892), Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal (1900), Maeterlinck’s Pelléas et Mélisande, Catulle Mendes’s L’Evangile de l’enfance de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ selon Saint Pierre (1900) and Albert Samain’s Jardin de l’Infante (1908). Luxurious editions of his coloured etchings, woodcuts and lithographs, created for bibliophiles, were exhibited at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1897.

Schwarzkogler Rudolph (1940-69). Viennese Actionism.


Schwarz Rudolf. Art Deco

Schwertberger De Es (born Dieter Schwertberger 1942, Gresten, Austria), commonly known simply as De Es (since 1972), is an Austrian artist, painter and modeller. His work has been shown in exhibitions in New York City, where he lived for a short time, and Switzerland. De Es was born in 1942 in Gresten, Lower-Austria (then part of Nazi Germany) as Dieter Schwertberger, the second son of two teachers. His father died during World War II, leaving his mother to bring him, and his elder brother, up. He graduated from the Engineering School of Vienna in 1962, aged 19. His first decade as an artist began when he was taught to paint by Ernst Fuchs, in the style of the 'Technique of the Old Masters' from 1963 onwards. These initial paintings were shown to the world in a one-man-show in the gallery of Professor Fuchs, in Vienna 1964. After this exhibition he went on to further study, and modify, the 'Techniques of the Old Masters' to his own purposes in a selection of work he called Ideas of Truth, and his portfolio The Missing Weapon, which was shown at the Gallery Bernard, in Solothurn, Switzerland in 1968. After this he went on to develop more on his art technique, with shows in Switzerland from 1968 to 1972. In 1973 De Es went on to serve as the assistant to Ernst Fuchs, at the Summer Academy in Reichenau. It was in this time that De Es went through the Stone Period, in which his art work consisted mainly of objects and people made from cracked rock and stone (such as his famous 'triptych' painting The Joining, later displayed in SoHo, New York City for an entire year in 1977). During this period he held a series of exhibitions in Vienna and elsewhere in Europe. His book Fundamental Images was published in this period. De Es moved to SoHo, New York City in 1975, continuing his Stone Period of art work. In the 1979 he opened his own Gallery, Studio Planet Earth, before ending the Stone Period with a series of 'Time-Portals' paintings. De Es' 1980s period of work opened with his work on the vast Transformation cycle of paintings, depicting 'Planetarians' (fictional beings invented by De Es), which were displayed at the Dome of Peace exhibition in 1980. This was followed by the publishing of his post-card book, Sharing the light in 1983. Three years later, in 1986, De Es returned to Austria, the same year in which Sphinx Verlag published the book The Philosopher's Stone in Basel. This book contained images and work from Fundamental Images. He ended his 1980s period of work with his first Planetarian sculptures, from 1987 to 1989, and the publication of his Dome of Peace works in an artwork portfolio. In the early 1990s he continued with the Planetarian sculptures, with an outdoor exhibition of forty Planetarians at Gurten Mountain, near Bern, Switzerland, marking the 800th 'birthday' anniversary of the city. In 1993 he published his book Heavy Light, a selection of his work from throughout his life. He also started work on another book, Prime Matter, which covered his Stone Period, which was published over the following years. He lives with his wife, Marilyn, in Austria, where he continues to work.

Schwind Moritz von (1804-71). Austrian painter and graphic artist, a representative of late German Romanticism; pupil of Cornelius. He attempted monumental murals but was more successful with smaller paintings such as Das Knabcn Wunderhorn and 'The Morning Hour and book ill.

Schwitters Kurt (1887-1948). German painter, sculptor, writer, architect, typographer and publisher. He started painting in a Cubist idiom, but after World War I he became associated with the German *Dadaists. In 1918 he was the founder of the Dada group in Hanover. He lived in Norway from 1930 to 1937 and then in Britain. His 2 principal media were constructions and collage in which he used broken and discarded rubbish to create works of remarkable sensitivity, e.g. Opened by (Mstoms (1937—9). Hc extended these ideas in what he called 'merz' pictures, e.g. the 3 Merzhaue: Hanover (1920—2; destroyed 1943), Oslo (1930—7; burnt 1953) and Langdale, Westmorland (1947—8), constructions which filled a whole building.

Scopas (niid-4th с. BC). Greek sculptor of the early *Hellenistic period. The tendency towards violent action and pathos m his work became typical of much Hellenistic sculpture. He worked on the famous Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Scorper. A small chisel or gouging instrument used in wood- or metal-engraving for clearing large areas of a block or for engraving broad lines.

Scott George Gilbert (born July 13, 1811, Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, Eng. died March 27, 1878, London). English architect, one of the most successful and prolific exponents of the Gothic Revival style during the Victorian period. Scott was apprenticed to a London architect and designed the first of his many churches in 1838; but his real artistic education dates from his studyof A.W.N. Pugin's works on medieval architecture. The first result of this study was his design for the Martyrs' Memorial (1841) at Oxford. Scott won the competition for the Nikolai Church (1845–63) in Hamburg, Germany, with a design in 14th-century German Gothic. This commission launched his career and earned him an international reputation. Among his best-known works are the Albert Memorial (1863–72) and the Midland Grand Hotel (built c. 1872; later called St. Pancras Hotel) attached to St. Pancras Station, both in London. Scott's significance rests partly on the sheer number of important buildings with whichhe was associated. Among the approximately 850 structuresthat he designed, restored, or otherwise influenced are almost 500 churches, 39 cathedrals and minsters, and many buildings for colleges and universities. Because he was the organizer and director of the largest English architectural firm of the period, Scott's own individual designs are difficult to determine. The restoration of long-neglected medieval cathedrals and abbeys, which was one aspect of the Gothic Revival, was a controversial issue even in the 19th century; and Scott's restoration of such famous monuments as Ely, Salisbury, and Lichfield cathedrals, as well as Westminster Abbey, has been regarded with mixed feelings by subsequent generations. Scott was knighted in 1872.

Scumbling. In oil painting, the technique of working a layer of opaque colour over an existing colour in such a way that the latter is only partially obliterated and a broken effect obtained.

Segal George (1924— ). U.S. sculptor who began his career as a painter. S. studied at Cooper Union, N.Y., Pratt Institute of Design and N.Y. University. S. exhibited regularly from 1956 but won special acclaim in the 1962 N.Y. exhibition 'New Realists'. He is noted for life-sized white plaster figures cast from life, frozen in a gesture or pose and often juxtaposed with colourful, real everyday environments. Examples include The Gas Station (1963—4), The Diner (1964—6), The Bowery (1970) and The Curtain (1974).

Segantini Giovanni (1858—99). Italian painter noted for his landscapes of Alpine scenery and who, in later life, painted strangely symbolic pictures, e.g. 'The Bad Mothers. There is an S. museum at St Moritz.

Sekine Nobuo. Japanese artists  (b 1942)

Seligmann Kurt (1900—62). Swiss painter, graphic artist and theatrical designer in the *Surrealist tradition. In 1939 he settled in the U.S.A.

Seon Alexandre b Chazelles-sur-Lyon, 1855; d Paris, 7 May 1917. French painter and illustrator. On 9 November 1872 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon where he worked with the engraver J.-B. Danguin (1823–94) and on 19 March 1877 he was enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and joined Henri Lehmann’s studio, where he befriended Seurat. In 1879 he sent some drawings to the Salon and in the following year two paintings, Hunting and Fishing (untraced). Shortly afterwards he became the pupil of Puvis de Chavannes, working closely with him for the next ten years. Sйon assisted Puvis principally with his murals for the Pantheon in Paris and the great staircase of the Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. In 1884 he won first prize in the competition organized by the municipality of Courbevoie for the decoration of the banqueting halls of the town hall, choosing the theme of The Seasons (executed in 1889). During this period he was appointed drawing-master for the schools of the city of Paris. He believed that ‘art should be instructive’ and interested himself deeply in social problems. In 1891 he painted a portrait of Josephin Peladan (Lyon, Mus. B.-A.) and the following year with Peladan and the Comte de la Rochefoucauld he founded the Salon de la Rose + Croix in order to ‘fight against naturalism in painting and to provide a platform for young artists’.

Sepia. A brown pigment prepared from the inky secretion of the cuttle-fish and used in watercolour and ink, often in monochrome. It was not much used until the 19th с and should not be confused with *bistre.

Serial imagery. The same image repeated several times, sometimes with slight variations, in a contemporary painting or sculpture. The image chosen can be figurative (*Warhol) or abstract (Judd and other *Minimal sculptors).

Serigraphy. A print making technique based on stencilling. Ink or paint is brushed through a fine screen made of silk, and masks are used to produce the design. These can be made of paper, or from varnish applied to the silk itself. Also called silk-screen printing.

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