Artist, born in 1953)
Safonkin Victor (born
1967 at Saransk) is a surrealist painter.Victor Safonkin's
work is self-described as Eurosurrealism, or European
classic surrealism & symbolism. His work is redolent of
Salvador Dali. Victor's work has been highly acclaimed, and
in 2005 he was invited to exhibit at the European Parliament
in Brussels. The rock band Killing Joke used his 'Hosannas
from the Basements of Hell' as an album cover in 2006.
Viktor Safonkin is featured in the 2007 ["Venus and the
Female Intuition,]" published by SALBRU. Safonkin has been
called "one of the most brilliant artists I have seen in a
long time," by master Surrealist Professor Ernst Fuchs.
(b. 1978, United States) is primarily a painter based in
Vienna. She trained and worked with the Fuchs dynasty of
artists, being one of the more notable students.
(189X-1963). U.S. painter and poet. In 1937
following the exhibition of one of her paintings at the
Salon des Surindependants, Pans, she was discovered bv the
Surrealists. Her work was distinguished by its austerity, spare-ness of form
and its great attention to detail, e.g. Danger and
Construction Ahead (both 1940). S.'s paintings were
frequently abstract and near-abstract based on architectural
motifs, e.g. Afterwards (1937) and All Surroundings Are
Referred to High Water (1947). In 1940 she married *Tanguy
and her first U.S. exhibition opened in N.Y. A joint
exhibition of S.'s and Tanguy's work was held
Connecticut in 1954. She committed suicide.
St Ives artists (St Ives school of painting). In 1939
*Stokes invited B. *Nicholson and *Hepworth to move from
London to St Ives in Cornwall. Soon St Ives became a lively
visual cultural centre which included A. *Wallis, on the one
hand, and *Gabo on the other. Stimulated by the presence of
Nicholson, Hepworth and Gabo, younger artists began to gather: *Lanyon and, after the war, *Davie, *Frost,
*Heron, *Hilton and W. *Scott.
Salish. North American Indian people of the *North-west
Coast group, occupying an area of N.W. Washington, S.W.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island. They were noted for
their split plank communal houses, up to 500 ft (152 m.)
long, and carved wooden 'spirit canoe' figures, used as
markers in religious ceremonial to delineate the outline of
Salle David (1952— ). U.S. *Postmodernist painter,
photographer, stage designer and sculptor of the same
generation as *Schnabel and *Fischl. He studied under
*Baldessari. A *collage or *assemblage artist of
unconnected, *appropnated images, styles and techniques from
high art of the past, or modernism, and from popular and
consumer cultures, which he juxtaposes and superimposes.
Since the late 1970s S. has been making his controversial
layered works which, in their characteristic combination of
deadpan anonymity and shocking expressiveness, derive from
the deadening quality of TV but are also closely related to
*Polke and through him to *Picabia esp. In his use of
overlapping drawings on top of recycled images, e.g. the
diptychs Brother Animal and B.A.M.F. V. (both 1983) and
Miner (1985). S.'s paintings suggest narrative and meaning
which they then frustrate. His often pornographic
representations of naked women on all fours taken from
hard-core magazines have made him a target of some
feminists. In 1992 he produced a series of seemingly
abstract works, 'Ghost', which were in fact based on
photographs projected on to photosensitized canvas and were
related to *Warhol's Shadow paintings. Flis series 'Pre-Fab'
(1993) consists of large canvases with overlapping images
reminiscent of *Rosenquist's 1963 paintings, 'on top of
which are painted my paintings'.
Salon. A number of friends, forming a niore-or-less stable
group, who meet regularly at a private house; the lady of
the house usually presides. The intellectual S. originated
in I7th-c. France and has since always played an important
role in the literary and artistic life of the country. The
Hotel de Rambouillet was the most famous of the early S.s.
Founded in 1667, the S. provided the opportunity for annual
exhibitions to members of the French Koyal Academy of
Painting and Sculpture.
Salon des Independents. Founded, in Paris, in 1884, in
opposition to the official annual Salon, by artists who
disagreed with academic art.
Salon des Refuses. Special exhibition held in Paris in 1863
of the works refused by the Salon of that year. The
exhibition was ordered by Napoleon III after the outcry
caused by the number of rejections; nevertheless, the
paintings exhibited were attacked by critics and public
alike. One of the principal exhibits was *Manet's Le
Dejeuner sur Vherhe while other artists exhibiting were
*Boudin, *Cezanne, *Fantin-Latour, *Jongkind, *Pissarro and
de' Rossi, called (1510—63). Florentine
*Mannerist painter and designer, pupil of Andrea del Sarto
and friend of Vasari. He worked in Florence, Venice and Rome and from 1554 to 1556
in Paris. His paintings include Justice and Story of Psyche.
Trevi Fountain (1732-63) by Niccolo Salvi
(1936- ). Greek-born U.S. artist. He studied
at Rutgers Univ. and Columbia Univ. under *Schapiro. His
works include assemblages, constructions, Box 54 (1966),
disturbing environments, Mirrored Rooms (i960),
figure/portrait photography, pieced-fabric compositions and
pastels, October 17, 1974.
Sanctis, Fabio de
by Fabio de Sanctis, all testified
to the permanence of surrealist values after more than forty years of
spiritual adventure which had been so rich in varied experiences.
Sand painting. A technique of making designs m different
colours of sand, practised by the Navajos and other North
American Indians (and also in Tibet, in Japan, and among the
Australian Aborigines) in connection with religious
ceremonies. They are ephemeral and must be done anew on
Sandys Frederick (1829-1904). British ill., subject painter
and portraitist associated with later Pre-Raphaelitism.
Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1445, Firenze, d. 1516, Firenze)
Sangallo Giuliano da
(1445?–1516) was an
architect, sculptor, and military engineer whose
masterpiece, a church of Greek-cross plan, Sta. Maria delle
Carceri in Prato (1485–91), was strongly influenced by
Filippo Brunelleschi. It is the purest, most classic
expression of that style of 15th-century architecture.
Giuliano worked for the powerful Medici family in Florence
and built their villa at Poggio a Caiano in 1485. As a
military engineer he was effective in the defense of
Florence against Naples in 1478. In Rome Giuliano worked on
the design of St. Peter's, but he was overshadowed by
Bramante. He designed influential facade projects for S.
Lorenzo, Florence, in 1515–16.
Sansetsu Kano Japan
Sapunov Nikolay (b Moscow, 17 Dec
1880; d Gulf of Finland, nr Terrioki [St Petersburg
region], 14 June 1912).
Russian painter and stage designer. From 1894 to 1904 he studied
at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow
under Konstantin Korovin and Vladimir Serov, and under Isaak
Levitan, who had a formative influence on his early landscape
studies. On a visit to Rome, Florence and Pisa in 1902 Sapunov was
impressed by the painting of Adolphe Monticelli. In 1904 Sapunov
participated in the exhibition of the Crimson Rose (Rus. Alaya
roza) group of Symbolists in Saratov.
Sansovino Jacopo (b Florence,
2 July 1486; d Venice, 27 Nov 1570).
Sculptor and architect. After establishing his reputation in
Florence and Rome, he moved to Venice following the Sack of Rome
(1527) and remained active there until his death. His most important
architectural works were buildings that transformed the Piazza S
Marco. The influence of his sculptural style continued well into the
Sargent John Singer (1856-1925). Painter of the English
school, but of U.S. origin. S. studied in Pans, arriving in
London (1884) as an 'Impressionist', although influenced by
the work of Frans Hals and Velazquez. Famous after the
acquisition by the Chantrey Trustees of Carnation, Lily,
Lily, Rose, S. became a prolific and fashionable portrait
painter. His technical dexterity and ability to flatter the
sitter were offset by a bravura brushwork, sometimes
degenerating into the slipshod, which earned him and his
followers the nickname of 'the Slashing School'.
Stefano di Giovanni (c. 1392—1450). Sienese
painter of great power and invention; he combined naivety
with the courtly sophistication of the International Gothic
style. His most important work consists of a series ot 8
panels dealing with the life of St Francis, painted lor the
town of Borgo San Sepolcro (1437—44).
Saville Jenny (born
in Cambridge in 1970) is an English painter and a leading Young British
Artist (YBA). Saville is known for her monumental images of women,
usually self portraits. Saville does not
meet the usual public perception of the YBAs as she has dedicated her
career to traditional figurative oil painting. Her painterly style has
been compared to that of Lucian Freud and Rubens. Her paintings are
usually much larger than life size. They are strongly pigmented and give
a highly sensual impression of the surface of the skin as well as the
mass of the body. She sometimes adds marks onto the body, such as white
"target" rings. Since her debut in
1992, Saville's focus has remained on the female body. Her published
sketches and documents include surgical photographs of liposuction,
trauma victims, deformity correction, disease states and transgender
patients. Her painting Strategy (South Face/Front Face/North Face)
appeared on the cover of Manic Street Preachers' third album The Holy
Bible. Saville gained her
degree at Glasgow School of Art (1988-1992), and was then awarded a six
month scholarship to the University of Cincinnati, where she states that
she saw "Lots of big women. Big white flesh in shorts and T-shirts. It
was good to see because they had the physicality that I was interested
in." She studied at the Slade School Of Art between 1992 and 1993. At
the end of her postgraduate education the leading British art collector
Charles Saatchi purchased her entire senior show and commissioned works
for the next two years. In 1994 Saville spent many hours observing
plastic surgery operations in New York. Today, she works and lives in
London, and is a tutor of figure painting at the Slade School of Art.
Savinio Alberto. The pseud, of Andrea de Chirico
(1891—1952). Italian writer, painter and concert pianist,
brother of the painter De *Chirico.
(c. 1480—с 1550). Italian painter
of religious subjects and portraits influenced by the
Venetian school and Leonardo da Vinci. Fie anticipated
Caravaggio in his realism and Elsheimer in his use of
strange lighting effects.
Scarpazza Vittore. *Carpaccio Vittore
Schad Christian (1884—1982). German artist, a member of Die
*Neue Sachhchkeit movement as a painter. Around 1918 he
experimented with photography and produced 'photograms' to
which he returned in 1960 when he developed what *Tzara
termed Schadographs — a method that, without the use of the
camera, incorporated interferences with the development
Schadow Friedrich Wilhelm
(b Berlin, 6 Sept 1788; d Düsseldorf, 19 March 1862).
Painter, teacher and writer, son of Johann Gottfried Schadow. He studied at
the Berlin Akademie from 1805 and in 1806 showed paintings at the annual
Akademie exhibition. Under his teacher, Friedrich Georg Weitsch, he quickly
became a skilled portrait painter, and by 1810 he was commissioned to paint
portraits of members of the Prussian royal family and of the Empress of Austria.
Influenced by the English artist John Flaxman, Schadow developed an emphasis on
outline. In 1810 Schadow went with his brother Ridolfo Schadow to Rome,
where in 1813 he became a member of the Lukasbrüder and, in 1814, a Catholic. In
1815–17 he took part, with Peter von Cornelius, Friedrich Overbeck and Philipp
Veit, in the commission for frescoes of the Story of Joseph for a room in
the Casa Bartholdy (now Berlin, Alte N.G.). In his continuing interest in
portraits, Schadow differed from his colleagues. Following the example of
Gottlieb Schick and similarly inspired by Raphael, Schadow developed a poetic
style of portraiture. In 1819 he returned to Berlin in order to help Karl
Friedrich Schinkel with the decoration of the Schauspielhaus. He took over the
running of a studio and won a high degree of respect as a painter and teacher.
Schadow’s decorative painting was often combined with an idealistic and
intellectual element, as in Poetry (1825; Potsdam, Neues Pal.), a winged
figure standing on clouds over a coastal landscape writing the names of poets on
a tablet while gazing upwards.
Schamberg Morton Livingston
(born in 1958, in Hollywood,
California) is an American painter.
The artist received his B.F.A in 1980 at the School of Visual Arts
located in New York City. Scharf's works consist of popular culture
based shows with made up science related backgrounds.
Scharf uses popular images that he grew in a trash can, such as The
Flintstones and The Jetsons. The reason Scharf uses cartoon images in
his art work is to bring popular culture in the fine arts. Scharf
wants to see how far he can push the line between high and low art.
Scharf to this day is making art work that makes the viewers think
about where the line is and how far has the artist pushed it.
He did the album covers of The B-52s in the mid-80s.
Scharf was friends with Keith Haring. In 2004 he starred in Nomi Song,
a documentary about his friend, opera singer and new wave star Klaus
Scheffer Ary (1795-1858). German-born Dutch painter, ill.
and engraver. In France from 1811 on, S. gamed great
popularity with history and genre paintings and portraits.
(b Genoa, 17 July 1688; d Genoa, 2 Jan
1763). Brother of Bernardo Schiaffino. He was the pupil and then assistant of
Bernardo, who in 1721 sent him to complete his training
in Rome, where he entered the workshop of Camillo
Rusconi. He remained there until 1724, enriching his
technique and cultural education by studying the works
of Bernini, Rusconi and other sculptors. Back in Genoa,
he executed such works as St Dominic (Genoa,
Teatro Carlo Felice), in which Rusconi’s influence is
evident. The marble group of Pluto and Proserpine,
sculpted for the Durazzo family and still in its
original location (Genoa, Pal. Reale), is based on a
bozzetto by Rusconi. In 1731 Schiaffino executed the
grandiose Crucifix with Angels for King John V of
Portugal (Mafra, Convent) and in 1738 began the
theatrical funeral monument to Caterina Fieschi
Adorno (Genoa, SS Annunziata di Portoria). The wax
models of the Eight Apostles and Four Doctors
of the Church that he modelled in 1739 (all
untraced) were clearly inspired by the large Apostles
by Rusconi and other sculptors in S Giovanni in Laterano,
Rome. They were made for the stuccoist Diego Francesco
Carlone so that he could, under Schiaffino’s directions,
execute 12 monumental statues in stucco (Genoa, S Maria
Assunta in Carignano). In these latter works the
classicizing authority of Rusconi’s figures was
transformed into a freer and more restless arrangement,
the compact forms dissolving in the light, animated
draperies. The statues reveal how Schiaffino had
combined his knowledge of Roman sculpture with his study
of Pierre Puget’s Genoese works and with the style of
the Piola workshop. He emulated the free rhythms of the
Rococo found in the painting of Gregorio de’ Ferrari,
developing a decorative approach that is even more
marked in the Assumption of the Virgin (1740;
Varazze, S Ambrogio) and in the Rococo chapel of S
Francesco da Paola (1755; Genoa, S Francesco da Paola),
which he covered in polychrome marbles. His last works
include the Virgin of Loreto (1762; Sestri
Levante, Parish Church).
Schiaparelli Elsa (10
September 1890 – 13 November 1973) was an influential
Italian fashion designer. Along with Coco Chanel, she
dominated fashion between the two World Wars. Starting
with knitwear, her designs were heavily influenced by
Surrealists like her collaborator Salvador Dali. However
unlike Chanel she never adapted to the changes in fashion
after WWII and her business closed in 1954.
Schiele Egon (1890—1918). Austrian painter and graphic
artist; with Klimt, who influenced him, and Kokoschka, one
of the great *Expressionist artists of early 20th-c. Vienna.
S.'s most powerful work is in his male and female nudes in
pencil, gouache, watercolour, etc.; the figures express in
their postures emotions from despair to passion — and the
female nudes are often
unashamedly erotic. S. was primarily a draughtsman, and the
angularities of his line and its nervous precision pervade
all his work. His 1st real success came in the last year of
his life, but full recognition was not accorded his work
until the 1950s.
Schifano Mario (Italian, 1934-1998)
Schinkel Karl Friedrich (1781-1841). German architect. S.
began as a painter and designer of theatre sets, with a
special fondness for vast imaginary Gothic buildings. S. was
also a noted painter of Romantic landscapes.
Schlemmer Oskar (1888-1943). German sculptor who studied at
the Stuttgart Academy under Holzel (1909-14, 1918-19). He
exhibited at the Sturm Gallery, Berlin, in 1919 and from
1920 to 1928 was at the Weimar *Bauhaus teaching sculpture.
His paintings, mural reliefs and sculpture run through a
wide range of media in reducing the figure to a rhythmic
play between convex, concave and flat surfaces. At the
Dessau Bauhaus he directed the Bauhaus stage and taught the
course 'Man'. His Triadie Ballet produced at the
Landestheater, Stuttgart (1922), was performed at the Weimar
Bauhaus in 1923; in it he extended the concepts of his
sculpture by the introduction of time, movement and changing
light. Under Nazi suppression he virtually retired in 1937.
Schmidt, Friedrich von
(Born at Frickenhofen, 1825;
died at Vienna, 1891)
Joost (1893-1948) was a teacher or
master at the Bauhaus and later a professor at the College
of Visual Arts, Berlin. He was a visionary
typographer/graphic designer who is best known for designing
the famous poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar,
Schmidt-Rottluff Karl (1884-1976). German artist born at
Rottluff, near Chemnitz. He, *Heckel and *Kirchner founded
Die *Brucke group in Dresden in T906 and were joined by
*Nolde and *Pechstein. He stayed with the group until its
dissolution in 1913. S.-R. was one of the most brutally
violent of the German *Expressionists, aggressively stark in
drawing and raw in colour, e.g. Two Women (1912). In Berlin
(from 19 m) he was deeply influenced by Negro sculpture and
produced several carvings, often brightly coloured, e.g.
Head (1917) and woodcuts, e.g. The Way to Emmaus (1918).
(1939- ). U.S. painter, Performance
artist, film maker and writer. Her work is known for its
controversial themes: feminist history, sexuality and what
she calls 'the body as a source of knowledge'.
Scholz Georg (Germany, 1890-1945)
Schongauer Martin (c. 1430-91). German painter, influenced
by R. van der Weyden, and engraver. He worked mainly in
Colmar and his only authenticated work, Madonna of the Rose
Bower (1473), is in St Martin's church, Colmar. A number of
other paintings, mainly of Madonnas and Nativity scenes, are
attributed to him. His engravings exercised a powerful influence on
*Durer and on the development of the medium in Germany. H.
Burgkmair was his pupil.
(1892 - 1982)
Schughardt Dietrich (born 1945)
(July 12, 1892 – November 19,
1942) was a Polish language novelist and painter, widely
considered to be one of the greatest Polish prose stylists
of the 20th century. Schulz was born in Drohobycz, at the
time when it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the
province of Galicia (now Drohobych is in Ukraine) to Jewish
(b Altona, Holstein, 21 July 1877; d Avon,
Swiss painter and printmaker of German birth. He became a
Swiss citizen and received his artistic training under
Joseph Mittey (b 1853) at the Ecole des Arts
Décoratifs in Geneva. Following brief success there, Schwabe
moved to Paris where he supported himself as a designer of
wallpaper while he developed considerable graphic skills. He
soon became active in Symbolist circles, winning favour as
an illustrator of mystical religious themes. His highly
refined drawings and watercolours accompany texts such as
Le Rêve by Emile Zola (published 1892; drawings, Paris,
Pompidou; exhibited Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, also
in 1892), Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal (1900),
Maeterlinck’s Pelléas et Mélisande, Catulle Mendes’s
L’Evangile de l’enfance de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ
selon Saint Pierre (1900) and Albert Samain’s Jardin
de l’Infante (1908). Luxurious editions of his coloured
etchings, woodcuts and lithographs, created for
bibliophiles, were exhibited at the Salon of the Société
Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1897.
Schwarzkogler Rudolph (1940-69).
Schwertberger De Es
(born Dieter Schwertberger 1942, Gresten, Austria), commonly
known simply as De Es (since 1972), is an Austrian artist,
painter and modeller. His work has been shown in exhibitions
in New York City, where he lived for a short time, and
Switzerland. De Es was born in 1942 in Gresten,
Lower-Austria (then part of Nazi Germany) as Dieter
Schwertberger, the second son of two teachers. His father
died during World War II, leaving his mother to bring him,
and his elder brother, up. He graduated from the Engineering
School of Vienna in 1962, aged 19. His first decade as an
artist began when he was taught to paint by Ernst Fuchs, in
the style of the 'Technique of the Old Masters' from 1963
onwards. These initial paintings were shown to the world in
a one-man-show in the gallery of Professor Fuchs, in Vienna
1964. After this exhibition he went on to further study, and
modify, the 'Techniques of the Old Masters' to his own
purposes in a selection of work he called Ideas of Truth,
and his portfolio The Missing Weapon, which was shown at the
Gallery Bernard, in Solothurn, Switzerland in 1968. After
this he went on to develop more on his art technique, with
shows in Switzerland from 1968 to 1972. In 1973 De Es went
on to serve as the assistant to Ernst Fuchs, at the Summer
Academy in Reichenau. It was in this time that De Es went
through the Stone Period, in which his art work consisted
mainly of objects and people made from cracked rock and
stone (such as his famous 'triptych' painting The Joining,
later displayed in SoHo, New York City for an entire year in
1977). During this period he held a series of exhibitions in
Vienna and elsewhere in Europe. His book Fundamental Images
was published in this period. De Es moved to SoHo, New York
City in 1975, continuing his Stone Period of art work. In
the 1979 he opened his own Gallery, Studio Planet Earth,
before ending the Stone Period with a series of
'Time-Portals' paintings. De Es' 1980s period of work opened
with his work on the vast Transformation cycle of paintings,
depicting 'Planetarians' (fictional beings invented by De
Es), which were displayed at the Dome of Peace exhibition in
1980. This was followed by the publishing of his post-card
book, Sharing the light in 1983. Three years later, in 1986,
De Es returned to Austria, the same year in which Sphinx
Verlag published the book The Philosopher's Stone in Basel.
This book contained images and work from Fundamental Images.
He ended his 1980s period of work with his first Planetarian
sculptures, from 1987 to 1989, and the publication of his
Dome of Peace works in an artwork portfolio. In the early
1990s he continued with the Planetarian sculptures, with an
outdoor exhibition of forty Planetarians at Gurten Mountain,
near Bern, Switzerland, marking the 800th 'birthday'
anniversary of the city. In 1993 he published his book Heavy
Light, a selection of his work from throughout his life. He
also started work on another book, Prime Matter, which
covered his Stone Period, which was published over the
following years. He lives with his wife, Marilyn, in
Austria, where he continues to work.
Schwind Moritz von (1804-71). Austrian painter and graphic
artist, a representative of late German Romanticism; pupil
of Cornelius. He attempted monumental murals but was more
successful with smaller paintings such as Das Knabcn
Wunderhorn and 'The Morning Hour and book ill.
Schwitters Kurt (1887-1948). German painter, sculptor,
writer, architect, typographer and publisher. He started
painting in a Cubist idiom, but after World War I he became
associated with the German *Dadaists. In 1918 he was the
founder of the Dada group in Hanover. He lived in Norway
from 1930 to 1937 and then in Britain. His 2 principal media
were constructions and collage in which he used broken and
discarded rubbish to create works of remarkable sensitivity,
e.g. Opened by (Mstoms (1937—9). Hc extended these ideas in
what he called 'merz' pictures, e.g. the 3 Merzhaue: Hanover (1920—2;
destroyed 1943), Oslo (1930—7; burnt 1953) and Langdale,
Westmorland (1947—8), constructions which filled a whole
Scopas (niid-4th с.
BC). Greek sculptor of the early
*Hellenistic period. The tendency towards violent action and
pathos m his work became typical of much Hellenistic
sculpture. He worked on the famous Mausoleum at
Scorper. A small chisel or gouging instrument used in wood-
or metal-engraving for clearing large areas of a block or
for engraving broad lines.
Scott George Gilbert
(born July 13, 1811, Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, Eng.
died March 27, 1878, London).
English architect, one of the most successful and prolific exponents
of the Gothic Revival style during the Victorian period.
Scott was apprenticed to a London architect and designed the first
of his many churches in 1838; but his real artistic education dates
from his studyof A.W.N. Pugin's works on medieval architecture. The
first result of this study was his design for the Martyrs' Memorial
(1841) at Oxford. Scott won the competition for the Nikolai Church
(1845–63) in Hamburg, Germany, with a design in 14th-century German
Gothic. This commission launched his career and earned him an
international reputation. Among his best-known works are the Albert
Memorial (1863–72) and the Midland Grand Hotel (built c. 1872; later
called St. Pancras Hotel) attached to St. Pancras Station, both in
London. Scott's significance rests partly on the sheer number of
important buildings with whichhe was associated. Among the
approximately 850 structuresthat he designed, restored, or otherwise
influenced are almost 500 churches, 39 cathedrals and minsters, and
many buildings for colleges and universities. Because he was the
organizer and director of the largest English architectural firm of
the period, Scott's own individual designs are difficult to
The restoration of long-neglected medieval cathedrals and abbeys,
which was one aspect of the Gothic Revival, was a controversial
issue even in the 19th century; and Scott's restoration of such
famous monuments as Ely, Salisbury, and Lichfield cathedrals, as
well as Westminster Abbey, has been regarded with mixed feelings by
subsequent generations. Scott was knighted in 1872.
Scumbling. In oil painting, the technique of working a layer
of opaque colour over an existing colour in such a way that
the latter is only partially obliterated and a broken effect
George (1924— ). U.S. sculptor who began his career as
a painter. S. studied at Cooper Union, N.Y., Pratt Institute
of Design and N.Y. University. S. exhibited regularly from
1956 but won special acclaim in the 1962 N.Y. exhibition
'New Realists'. He is noted for life-sized white plaster
figures cast from life, frozen in a gesture or pose and
often juxtaposed with colourful, real everyday environments.
Examples include The Gas Station (1963—4), The Diner (1964—6), The Bowery (1970) and The Curtain (1974).
Segantini Giovanni (1858—99). Italian painter noted for
his landscapes of Alpine scenery and who, in later life,
painted strangely symbolic pictures, e.g. 'The Bad Mothers.
There is an S. museum at St Moritz.
Japanese artists (b
Kurt (1900—62). Swiss painter, graphic artist and
theatrical designer in the *Surrealist tradition. In 1939 he
settled in the U.S.A.
Chazelles-sur-Lyon, 1855; d Paris, 7 May 1917.
French painter and illustrator. On
9 November 1872 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon where he worked with the
engraver J.-B. Danguin (182394) and on 19 March 1877 he was enrolled at the Ecole
des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and joined Henri Lehmanns studio, where he befriended
Seurat. In 1879 he sent some drawings to the Salon and in the following year two
paintings, Hunting and Fishing (untraced). Shortly afterwards he became the
pupil of Puvis de Chavannes, working closely with him for the next ten years. Sйon
assisted Puvis principally with his murals for the Pantheon in Paris and the great
staircase of the Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. In 1884 he won first prize in the
competition organized by the municipality of Courbevoie for the decoration of the
banqueting halls of the town hall, choosing the theme of The Seasons (executed in
1889). During this period he was appointed drawing-master for the schools of the city of
Paris. He believed that art should be instructive and interested himself
deeply in social problems. In 1891 he painted a portrait of Josephin Peladan
(Lyon, Mus. B.-A.) and the following year with Peladan and the Comte de la Rochefoucauld
he founded the Salon de la Rose + Croix in order to fight against naturalism in
painting and to provide a platform for young artists.
Sepia. A brown pigment prepared from the inky secretion of
the cuttle-fish and used in watercolour and ink, often in
monochrome. It was not much used until the 19th с and should
not be confused with *bistre.
Serial imagery. The same image
repeated several times, sometimes with slight variations, in
a contemporary painting or sculpture. The image chosen can
be figurative (*Warhol) or abstract (Judd and other *Minimal
Serigraphy. A print making technique based on stencilling.
Ink or paint is brushed through a fine screen made of silk, and masks are used to produce the
design. These can be made of paper, or from varnish applied
to the silk itself. Also called silk-screen printing.