German group of painters founded in 1952 in Frankfurt am
Main and active until 1954. The four members were Karl Otto
Götz, Otto Greis, Heinz Kreutz and Bernard Schultze. When they
exhibited their most recent works under the label of
neo-Expressionism at the Zimmergalerie Franck, Frankfurt am
Main, in December 1952, the writer René Hinds (1912–72) coined
the name Quadriga, alluding to a Roman triumphal chariot.
Impressed by the spontaneity and form-shattering power of the
paintings, Hinds compared the works to a team of four fiery
racehorses in their victory parade. There was also the analogy
of the four artists breaking through audaciously after nearly
20 years of isolation from the international avant-garde. With
European and American movements such as Abstract Expressionism
and Tachism in Paris and the work of the Cobra group sharing
so many qualities, shortly after 1950 Art informel
developed as a universal language. The importance of Quadriga
was in the members’ roles as pioneers of Art informel
in Germany. However, the fairly loose connections between the
members led them to develop in different directions and
resulted in the group’s dissolution.
(b Rota d’Imagna, Bergamo, 20 Sept 1744; d St Petersburg,
1 March 1817).
Italian architect and interior designer, active in Russia. He
studied painting, first in Bergamo and then in Rome (from 1763), in
the studios of Anton Raphael Mengs and Stefano Pozzi, before
studying architecture (1767–9) with Paolo Posi, Antoine Deriset and
the latter’s pupil Niccolà Giansimoni (d 1800). His contacts
with enlightened artistic circles in Rome, with their enthusiasm for
antiquity and the ideals of Neoclassicism, were important and bore
fruit in his later work. A period in Venice (1771–2), where he was
studying the works of Palladio, brought him into contact with
members of the British community there, through whom he secured a
few English commissions, such as the altar (1772–4) in the Roman
Catholic private chapel of HENRY ARUNDELL at Wardour Castle, Wilts.
Quarenghi later visited the south of France (1778–9) and was much
interested in the work of Charles de Wailly and Claude-Nicolas
Ledoux, which confirmed his commitment to Neo-classicism. His first
major commission (1771–7) was the internal reconstruction of the
monastery of S Scholastica at Subiaco; various minor works followed.
Quarton. *Charonton Enguerrand (c 1410— с
1461). French painter, born at Laon in the
north, but working at Avignon from 1447 to 1461.
2 paintings are documented:
Virgin of Mercy and the large-scale altarpiece
Coronation of the Virgin. The imaginative
conception and detail of the latter show
evidence of great talent.
Quellinus the Elder, Artus
(b Antwerp, bapt 30 Aug 1609;
d Antwerp, 23 Aug 1668). Sculptor, son of Erasmus Quellinus.
He is generally recognized as the greatest Flemish sculptor
of the Baroque. After training with his father, in 1634 he
travelled to Italy and worked in the studio of François du
Quesnoy in Rome. By 1639 he had returned to Antwerp, where
in 1640 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke and
married Margaretha Verdussen; in the same year he took over
his father’s studio. His pupils included Peeter Verbrugghen,
his cousin Artus Quellinus, Gabriel Grupello, Guillielmus
Kerricx and probably Louis Willemsens.
Quercia Jacopo della
(b Siena, ?1374; d Siena, 20 Oct 1438).
Italian sculptor, sienese school.
He was the most significant non-Florentine sculptor of the 15th century: a
transitional figure in the development of Italian Renaissance sculpture, who
infused the Late Gothic art of Nicola Pisano with a new appreciation of
antiquity, paving the way for such later artists as Antonio Federighi and
Francesco di Giorgio in Siena, Niccolo dell’Arca in Bologna and, most notably,
Michelangelo. He worked for a wide spectrum of patrons—the papal states, noble
and mercantile families and the cities of Siena and Florence—and was the only
Sienese artist of his century to achieve a truly national reputation.
Marc (born 1964) is
a British artist, best known for Alison Lapper Pregnant, a
statue of Alison Lapper currently installed on the fourth
plinth at Trafalgar Square, self, a sculpture of his head
made with his own frozen blood, and "Garden" (2000). He is
one of the Young British Artists (YBAs).
Quinn was born in London. He studied history and the history
of art at Robinson College, Cambridge. He worked as an
assistant to the sculptor Barry Flanagan. He was not
represented in the 1988 Damien Hirst-curated Freeze
exhibition which brought the YBAs together for the first
time (although he did at one time share a flat with Hirst).
Quinn emerged in the early 1990s. He was the first artist
represented by Jay Jopling, and was exhibited in Charles
Saatchi's defining Sensation. Quinn's signature piece in the
art world is Self (1991), a frozen sculpture of the artist's
head made from 4.5 litres (9.5 US pints) of his own blood,
taken from his body over a period of 5 months. Self, like
many other pieces by the YBAs, was bought by Charles Saatchi
(in 1991 for a reputed £13,000). The press reported in 2002
that the sculpture had been destroyed by builders employed
to expand the kitchen for Saatchi's partner, the celebrity
chef Nigella Lawson, when they unplugged the freezer in
which it was being stored (it has to be kept at -12C/10F).
This would seem to have been unfounded, however, as the
piece was exhibited intact by Saatchi when he opened his new
gallery in London in 2003. In April, 2005, Self was sold to
a US collector for £1.5m.His next important piece in terms
of public profile was the frozen garden he made for Miuccia
Prada in the year 2000. A whole garden full of plants which
could never grow together kept in cryogenic suspension,
"Garden" seems to anticipate many of the environmental
themes which have become so important in the last few years.
Quinn has also made a series of marble sculptures of people
either born with limbs missing or who have had them
amputated. This culminated in the 15 ton marble statue of
Alison Lapper, a woman who was born with no arms and
severely shortened legs, which sits on the fourth plinth in
Trafalgar Square in London. His portrait of John Sulston,
who won the Nobel prize for sequencing the human genome on
the Human Genome Project, is in the National Portrait
Gallery. It consists of bacteria containing Sulston's DNA in
agar jelly. Since 2005 Quinn has become known to the general
public for his sculpture of Alison Lapper, which is on
prominent display on a plinth in Trafalgar Square in front
of the National Gallery.
In April 2006, Sphinx, a sculpture of Kate Moss by Quinn was
revealed. The sculpture shows Moss in a yoga position with
her ankles and arms wrapped behind her ears. This body of
work culminated in an exhibition at the Mary Boone Gallery
in New York in May 2007.