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German group of painters founded in 1952 in Frankfurt am Main and active until 1954. The four members were Karl Otto Götz, Otto Greis, Heinz Kreutz and Bernard Schultze. When they exhibited their most recent works under the label of neo-Expressionism at the Zimmergalerie Franck, Frankfurt am Main, in December 1952, the writer René Hinds (1912–72) coined the name Quadriga, alluding to a Roman triumphal chariot. Impressed by the spontaneity and form-shattering power of the paintings, Hinds compared the works to a team of four fiery racehorses in their victory parade. There was also the analogy of the four artists breaking through audaciously after nearly 20 years of isolation from the international avant-garde. With European and American movements such as Abstract Expressionism and Tachism in Paris and the work of the Cobra group sharing so many qualities, shortly after 1950 Art informel developed as a universal language. The importance of Quadriga was in the members’ roles as pioneers of Art informel in Germany. However, the fairly loose connections between the members led them to develop in different directions and resulted in the group’s dissolution.

Quarenghi Giacomo (b Rota d’Imagna, Bergamo, 20 Sept 1744; d St Petersburg, 1 March 1817). Italian architect and interior designer, active in Russia. He studied painting, first in Bergamo and then in Rome (from 1763), in the studios of Anton Raphael Mengs and Stefano Pozzi, before studying architecture (1767–9) with Paolo Posi, Antoine Deriset and the latter’s pupil Niccolà Giansimoni (d 1800). His contacts with enlightened artistic circles in Rome, with their enthusiasm for antiquity and the ideals of Neoclassicism, were important and bore fruit in his later work. A period in Venice (1771–2), where he was studying the works of Palladio, brought him into contact with members of the British community there, through whom he secured a few English commissions, such as the altar (1772–4) in the Roman Catholic private chapel of HENRY ARUNDELL at Wardour Castle, Wilts. Quarenghi later visited the south of France (1778–9) and was much interested in the work of Charles de Wailly and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, which confirmed his commitment to Neo-classicism. His first major commission (1771–7) was the internal reconstruction of the monastery of S Scholastica at Subiaco; various minor works followed.

Quarton. *Charonton Enguerrand (c 1410— с 1461). French painter, born at Laon in the north, but working at Avignon from 1447 to 1461. 2 paintings are documented: Virgin of Mercy and the large-scale altarpiece Coronation of the Virgin. The imaginative conception and detail of the latter show evidence of great talent.

Quellinus the Elder, Artus (b Antwerp, bapt 30 Aug 1609; d Antwerp, 23 Aug 1668). Sculptor, son of Erasmus Quellinus. He is generally recognized as the greatest Flemish sculptor of the Baroque. After training with his father, in 1634 he travelled to Italy and worked in the studio of François du Quesnoy in Rome. By 1639 he had returned to Antwerp, where in 1640 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke and married Margaretha Verdussen; in the same year he took over his father’s studio. His pupils included Peeter Verbrugghen, his cousin Artus Quellinus, Gabriel Grupello, Guillielmus Kerricx and probably Louis Willemsens.

Quercia Jacopo della (b Siena, ?1374; d Siena, 20 Oct 1438). Italian sculptor, sienese school. He was the most significant non-Florentine sculptor of the 15th century: a transitional figure in the development of Italian Renaissance sculpture, who infused the Late Gothic art of Nicola Pisano  with a new appreciation of antiquity, paving the way for such later artists as Antonio Federighi and Francesco di Giorgio in Siena, Niccolo dell’Arca in Bologna and, most notably, Michelangelo. He worked for a wide spectrum of patrons—the papal states, noble and mercantile families and the cities of Siena and Florence—and was the only Sienese artist of his century to achieve a truly national reputation.

Quinn Marc
(born 1964) is a British artist, best known for Alison Lapper Pregnant, a statue of Alison Lapper currently installed on the fourth plinth at Trafalgar Square, self, a sculpture of his head made with his own frozen blood, and "Garden" (2000). He is one of the Young British Artists (YBAs).
Quinn was born in London. He studied history and the history of art at Robinson College, Cambridge. He worked as an assistant to the sculptor Barry Flanagan. He was not represented in the 1988 Damien Hirst-curated Freeze exhibition which brought the YBAs together for the first time (although he did at one time share a flat with Hirst). Quinn emerged in the early 1990s. He was the first artist represented by Jay Jopling, and was exhibited in Charles Saatchi's defining Sensation. Quinn's signature piece in the art world is Self (1991), a frozen sculpture of the artist's head made from 4.5 litres (9.5 US pints) of his own blood, taken from his body over a period of 5 months. Self, like many other pieces by the YBAs, was bought by Charles Saatchi (in 1991 for a reputed £13,000). The press reported in 2002 that the sculpture had been destroyed by builders employed to expand the kitchen for Saatchi's partner, the celebrity chef Nigella Lawson, when they unplugged the freezer in which it was being stored (it has to be kept at -12C/10F). This would seem to have been unfounded, however, as the piece was exhibited intact by Saatchi when he opened his new gallery in London in 2003. In April, 2005, Self was sold to a US collector for £1.5m.His next important piece in terms of public profile was the frozen garden he made for Miuccia Prada in the year 2000. A whole garden full of plants which could never grow together kept in cryogenic suspension, "Garden" seems to anticipate many of the environmental themes which have become so important in the last few years. Quinn has also made a series of marble sculptures of people either born with limbs missing or who have had them amputated. This culminated in the 15 ton marble statue of Alison Lapper, a woman who was born with no arms and severely shortened legs, which sits on the fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square in London. His portrait of John Sulston, who won the Nobel prize for sequencing the human genome on the Human Genome Project, is in the National Portrait Gallery. It consists of bacteria containing Sulston's DNA in agar jelly. Since 2005 Quinn has become known to the general public for his sculpture of Alison Lapper, which is on prominent display on a plinth in Trafalgar Square in front of the National Gallery.
In April 2006, Sphinx, a sculpture of Kate Moss by Quinn was revealed. The sculpture shows Moss in a yoga position with her ankles and arms wrapped behind her ears. This body of work culminated in an exhibition at the Mary Boone Gallery in New York in May 2007.

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