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Paalen-Perugino Peruzzi-Piola Piranesi-Post Pourbus-Puvis
 

Paalen Wolfgang (1905—59). Viennese-born Surrealist painter. He studied in Paris, but later lived and worked in Mexico.

Pacher Michael (f. 1435-98). Tyrolese painter and sculptor. P. was a highly influential original painter who, under the influence of Mantegna, achieved a new spatial clarity in his essentially German style; his work, however, remained for long unknown outside the Tyrol. P.'s best-known work is the St Wolfgang altarpiece in the Salzkammergut. The carved and painted central panel and the frame are by his hand, providing proof of his remarkable mastery of form. The frame, still Gothic in style, forms a part of painted compositions which themselves are in the Renaissance spirit of scientific perspective and objective observation.

Padilla  Eugenio Lucas y (1824-1870).Romantic painter.

Padua, school of. School of Italian painting which became important in the 15th с under Squarcione and through his pupils Mantegna, Tura and Grivelli powerfully influenced the Ferrarese and Venetian schools.

Pahari painting. Art of *Rajput courts (c. 1650—с 1820) in the Himalayan foothills of the Punjab. A mature style of flat, bold, intense colour and strong profiles is 1st found at Basohli. Other important centres were Bilaspur, Guler, |ammu, *Kangra and Mandi. *Mughal miniature painting was influential but Hindu folk-style predominates.

Paik Nam June (1932- ). Korean-American composer, and Performance and video artist. In 1958 he met *Gage in Germany which resulted in performance works called 'action concerts', e.g. Htude for Pianoforte (i960). In the early 1960s he became associated with *Fluxus and took part in the first 'official' Fluxus festival
in Wiesbaden in 1962. P. then began using television as an art medium, and in 1963 exhibited at the first international video art show at the Galerie Bruce Kurtz in Wuppertal. In 1964 he moved to N.Y. He made (Hello Sonato No. t for Adults Only (1965) with the cellist Charlotte Moorman, which became notorious because in the work she undresses while playingj. S. Bach; in TV Cello (1969) she plays a 'cello' made of TV monitors. In 1970 P. and the Japanese engineer Suya Abe invented a video synthesizer which could mix, polarize and distort images from several video and TV sources, e.g. (Global Groove (1973). Obsessed with television as a medium, he installs TV sets in different ways: hanging them in rows from the ceiling, lying them on the floor and stacking them like building blocks, etc., e.g. V-yramid (1982). P. has also used disembowelled old TV cabinets filled with fish, drawings or video cameras, e.g. The Elements (1991).

Painterly. *Malensch
Painters Eleven. Canadian group of painters. It was formed in November 1953 by 11 artists working in and around Toronto: Jack Bush, Oscar Cahén (1916–56), Hortense Gordon (1887–1961), Tom Hodgson (b 1924), Alexandra Luke (1901–67), Jock Macdonald, Ray Mead (b 1921), Kazuo Nakamura (b 1926), William Ronald, Harold Town and Walter Yarwood (b 1917). Seven of these artists had shown their work together in October 1953 in Abstracts at Home, an exhibition organized by Ronald at a Toronto department store, the Robert Simpson Company; when they agreed to combine forces with four others, they chose a name that reflected their number and also made ironic reference to the Group of Seven, the Ontario-based landscape painters whose influence in the province was still pervasive in the 1950s. The members of Painters Eleven, which disbanded in October 1960, differed widely in background, experience and ambition; they were united by their interest in contemporary international art and in their belief that their need to exhibit their work would be better achieved collectively than individually. They felt isolated from the art of their own time and frustrated by the control exercised over the limited exhibiting possibilities presented by such art societies as the Ontario Society of Artists and the Canadian Group of Painters.

Pala-Sena. Cultural period in Bengal under the Buddhist Pala dynasty (r. 760-1142) and the 12th-c. Hindu Senas. Stone sculpture greatly elaborated the *Gupta style. Nalanda (Kanauj) was an important centre for Buddhist *cire perdue bronze statuary. The Tantric aspect of Hinduism and Buddhism is apparent in the symbolism of P.-S. art.

Palette. Flat thin board on which a painter lays and mixes his colours. By derivation used of an artist's choice of particular colours as a characteristic of his style.

Pallava. S.E. Indian dynasty (c. 300-888). Its chief artistic glories are the medieval temples at *Mahabalipuram and the early 8th-c. Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram (Conjeeveram, Tamilnadu). Exquisite P. bronzes foreshadow *Chola achievements.

Pannini Giovan Paolo (1691/2—1765). Italian landscape painter, noted particularly for his picturesque portrayal of ruins, and an admirer of the work of Salvator Rosa. His very large output included historical scenes in architectural settings and capriccios. Many of his large works were lost or destroyed.

Panofsky Erwin (1892—1968). German art historian, one of the most important of his generation. In 193s he settled in the U.S.A. where he taught at Princeton Univ. With *Saxl he established the method of *iconology. His best-known works are Meaning in the Visual Arts and Early Netherlandish Painting. *iconography.

Panorama. A circular life-size painting of a view which surrounds the spectator creating the illusion of reality.

Pantocrator (Gr. universal ruler). Term for the image of Christ in majesty in *Byzantine art. The P. situated in dome or apse as the focus of the pictorial scheme, portrays the bust and head of Christ with stern bearded face; the best examples are among the most awe-inspiring images of all religious art.

Paolini  Giulio (Italian Arte Povera Painter and Sculptor, born in 1940)

Paolozzi Eduardo (1924— ). Edinburgh-born sculptor; he studied at the Slade School, London (1943—7) and then worked (1947—50) in Paris. His Jason (1956) and Large Frog (1958) are examples of assemblages of unrelated ordinary objects — often fragments of abandoned machinery — into figures. P. has also made ceramics, drawings, prints, books and films, and he has been given commissions for civic works.

Papiers colles (Fr. glued paper). Term which refers to the technique of incorporating various types of paper — newspaper, wallpaper, bus-tickets, etc. — into a composition. It was first used by *Braque, then by other Cubist painters such as *Picasso and *Gris. *collage.

Paris Matthew (b c. 1200; d 1259). English chronicler and manuscript illuminator. In 1217 he became a Benedictine monk at St Albans and in 1236 succeeded Roger of Wendover as the abbey’s chronicler. Although his surname, which he usually wrote Parisiensis, could suggest French origins, he was most probably an Englishman characteristically trained in both Latin and Anglo-Norman. References in his works to the University of Paris, however, raise the possibility that he had studied at one of the schools in Paris. Paris maintained a wide range of contacts with the outside world through the steady flow of documents to St Albans and through the abbey’s many visitors, including Henry III and his brother, Richard of Cornwall. He attended many important royal celebrations at Westminster, Canterbury, Winchester and York, and in 1248 he was sent to Norway to reform the monastery of St Benet Holm.

Paris, school of. *Ecole de Paris

Paris Psalter (10th c; Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris). Byzantine codex of the golden age of Byzantine illumination when artists returned to classical paintings for their illustrations. The text is m Greek minuscules and it contains 14 full-page miniatures including г of David with his harp. Derived from a Graeco-Roman picture of Orpheus taming the beasts, it became very popular and was much copied.

Parkes Michael (1944 – ) is an American-born magic realism artist specializing in fantasy painting, stone lithography and sculpture. Parkes' work is widely available in the form of popular poster prints in many print shops, and nine books of his artwork have been published. Though he studied graphic art and painting at the University of Kansas, his unique style evolved in isolation, after a period in which he gave up the practice of art altogether and went to India in search of philosophical illumination. Born in 1944, he is considered one of hippie generation. Early on, he painted in the generally abstract expressionist style common among his teachers, but after his pause for reflection he began to draw and paint in a meticulous style of detailed representation which enabled him to give full expression to his inner world of images. The style was in principle realistic, the subject matter magical, and magic realism has characterised his work ever since. He studied the esoteric doctrines of the East and the West, and his imagery is drawn from a range of wisdoms including the cabalistic and the tantric, but embodied in forms from his own imagination which are immediately accessible. Here strange beasts encounter mysterious winged women, good and evil fight out their immemorial conflict (though who can be perfectly sure which is which?), and in this weightless environment worlds are unmade and remade nearer to the heart's desire. Even as a student Parkes was fascinated by various graphic processes, and in recent years he has become highly proficient in the difficult medium of the colour stone lithograph.

Parma, school of. School of Italian painting which flourished in the 15th and 16th cs under the patronage of the Farnese family. Correggio and his pupil Parmigianino were its most influential members.

Parmigianino  Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (1503-40). Italian Mannerist painter and engraver named after his birthplace, Parma. He fled Parma с 1521, was taken prisoner during the sacking of Rome (1527), sought asylum in Bologna, returned to Parma (1531), only to die in Casalmaggiore, again a refugee. Frescoes can be found in the churches of most of these cities, notably in S. Maria dell Steccata, Parma. P.'s art, influenced by Correggio, Raphael and Michelangelo, is characterized by the elongation of the figures, and influenced in its turn the school of *Fontainebleau. Typical of his altarpieces is the Madonna and Child with St John the Baptist and St Jerome, while among the warmest of Mannerist portraits, reserved yet somehow intimate, is the masterly Portrait of a Woman, probably portraying P.'s mistress, Antea la Bella'.

Parodi Filippo (b Genoa, 1630; d Genoa, 22 July 1702). Sculptor and wood-carver. Ratti stated that Filippo first worked as a wood-carver and went to Rome twice, staying for six years each time. The time Parodi spent in Rome is vital for the understanding of the stylistic characteristics of his work. The crowning of the pediment of the altar of the Virgin in S Maria delle Vigne, Genoa, with allegorical figures of Faith, Hope and Charity follows a composition that occurs frequently in Roman churches, and four statues representing characters from Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Narcissus, Hyacinth, Heliantha and Flora, all Genoa, Pal. Reale) reveal a thorough knowledge of Roman Baroque sculpture. These works, and a large carved wooden looking-glass in the Villa Durazzo at Albisola, Genoa, probably date not much later than 1661.

Parrhasios (fl. с 400 BC). Classical Greek painter who was born at Ephesus. He was the pupil of Euphranor and the rival of Xeuxis. He was noted for his vanity, as well as for his ability as a figure painter; he styled himself' the prince of painters'.

Pars William (b London, 28 Feb 1742; d Rome, 1782). English painter. He first established himself in London as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Society of Artists in 1760 and at the Free Society of Artists from 1761. In 1764 he won the third premium of the Royal Society of Arts for his history painting depicting Caractacus before the Emperor Claudius (untraced). In the same year he was selected by the Dilettanti Society to accompany Richard Chandler and Nicholas Revett on an archaeological expedition to Asia Minor and Greece (1764–6). His views of Classical monuments in Asia Minor were engraved and published in Ionian Antiquities (1769), while those he made in Greece, which included pioneering drawings of the Parthenon sculptures, were used in the second volume of James Stuart’s Antiquities of Athens (1777). In 1769 seven of the crisp, coolly lit watercolour originals (London, BM) with their lively figures (probably influenced by Stuart’s own gouache drawings) were exhibited at the Royal Academy; Pars was elected ARA the following year.

Parthenon. Doric temple on the Acropolis, Athens, built 447-432 BC: and dedicated to Athena the Virgin ('parthenos'). The architects were Ictinus and Callicrates, and the master sculptor *Phidias. The sculpture (of which the largest coll., known as the 'Elgin Marbles', is in the British Mus.) consisted of (1) large freestanding figures m the pediments representing Athena, Poseidon and other gods; (2) the high reliefs of the metopes, alternating with triglyphs, showing the fight between the Lapiths and Centaurs; and (3) the continuous low-relief frieze round the top of the outside cella wall, showing the Panathenaic procession of youths and maidens bringing the sacred 'cloak' ('peplos') to the goddess. Inside the cella was the huge ivory and gold statue of Athena by Phidias. Lord Elgin removed most of the sculpture during 1801—3, but some remains in situ. There are also portions of the frieze in the Louvre.

Pascali Pino (1935 - 1968). Arte Povera

Pascin Jules (1885-1930). Bulgarian-born U.S. painter and decorative artist. He studied in Vienna, Berlin and Paris. He made an early reputation as a cartoonist in Germany and also ill. the works of Heine. He then turned to serious painting, working in France and the U.S.A. (becoming a citizen in 1915); his subject matter was primarily the female nude with echoes of Toulouse-Lautrec and Degas and stylistic elements from his contemporaries *Grosz and *Schiele.

Pastel. Drawing material consisting of artificial chalks made of ground white chalk and powder colour. A form of p. was used in the 1 5th c, but it was fully developed only in the 18th с, а period which found sympathetic its subtlety, charm and ability to portray light. Degas revived it and his work in the medium influenced the Impressionists.

Pater Walter Horatio (1839-94). British writer and aesthete. From 1864 to 1885 he was a fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. He became famous on the publ. of Studies of the History of the Renaissance (1873), which presented the Renaissance as an impulse moving men to seek the beautiful in art, radiating from Italy throughout Europe. Here as elsewhere P. seeks not to evaluate, but to evoke, in controlled, rhythmical prose, the beauty of his subject. In Marius the Upicurean (1885) he recounts the philosophic quest of a young Roman in Antonine times for truth and inner peace. Other important works are Imaginary Portraits (1887), Appreciations (1889) and the autobiographical The Child in the House (1894).

Patina. A thin coating, often of a carbonate of copper, green in colour, which forms on bronze sculptures, etc. after prolonged exposure to the air, or burial, or is induced artificially. The term is also used to describe the oxide that forms on the surface of other metals, and by extension to describe the surface, achieved by age, handling and polishing over the years, of furniture, silver, etc.

Pattern painting. School of post-Matisse decorative painting, often deliberately coarse in the way it uses figurative motifs, which flourished mainly in N.Y. during the second half of the 1970s. Joyce Kozloft, Kim MacConnel and Brad Davis are among the artists involved. Synonym: Dekor.

Pearl Frush.Pin -Up Art

Pearlstein Philip (1924- ). U.S. figurative painter. Since the early 1960s he has concentrated on the realistic but non-expressive depiction of nudes and, he has written, 'on the exploitation of creating the illusions of form in space'. This statement conveys that, contrary to Realist concerns about subject matter, what are important to P. are formal considerations often achieved through hard-edge handling, composition and cropping, e.g. Two Reclining Female Models (1973). The tension with subject matter and an impersonal *trompe l'aeil verisimilitude give his paintings a look of formal abstraction.

Pechstein Max (1881-1955)- German painter. In Dresden he met *Heckel and *Kirchner and became a member of Die *Brucke (1906). His style at the time shows a complete if more decorative assimilation of their ideas, both in his taste for the raw and unsophisticated and in his expressive use of colour and paint — Under the 'Trees (1911). In 1910 he joined *Nolde's Neue *Sezession. His later work, like Muller's, involved a more obviously sophisticated, decorative form of primitivism. He taught at the Berlin Academy from 1923 to 1933, when he was dismissed by the Nazis, and again from 1945.

Peintres cubistes, Les. *Apollinaire

Penck A.R., born Ralph Winkler P. (1939- ). East German painter and sculptor who settled in the west in 1980. In the 1960s he shared ideas with the *Neo-Expressionist *Baselitz. In the 1970s he developed a hieroglyphic style in a series of paintings called 'Standart' in which a black stick figure represents Everyman. The overall hieroglyphic mixture of stick figures, symbols, numbers, letters and patterns allude to a mythic subconscious, but are also related to *Klee, *Miro and other primitivist modern artists, e.g. Der Jager (1985).

Penrose Roland Sir (1900—84). British artist and writer on art. He lived in France (1922—36) and became a close friend of Picasso and the *Surrealist artists and writers. He organized the 1st International Surrealist Exhibition (1936) in Britain. After World War II he was one of the founders of the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. 1 of the most prominent British Surrealist artists, he also wrote several books including Picasso: his Life and World (1958), Portrait of Picasso (1956), Man Ray (1975), Tapies (1978) and his autobiography. Scrap Book (1981).

Pentimento. Term sometimes used in painting of figures, etc. which the artist painted over but which, through the course of time, have become visible through the superimposed layers of paint.

Perceptismo.

Argentine movement initiated in Buenos Aires in 1947 under the leadership of the painter Raul Lozza (b 1911) and the theoreticians Rembrandt Lozza (1915–90) and Abraham Haber (1924–86). It was announced in 1948 by an exhibition and manifesto. Like the ASOCIACIÓN ARTE CONCRETO INVENCIÓN, from whose internal disagreements the movement emerged, it was concerned with the promotion of Constructivism in Argentina. The theories they promulgated were also conveyed through a magazine, Perceptismo: Teórico y polémico, published from 1950 to 1953. One of their primary concerns was with the relationship between the quantity (in terms of surface area) and quality of flat colour; they conceived of the surface as a field against which to arrange shapes whose only justification lay in their interrelationships. In rejecting the supposed conflict between pictorial or fictitious space and the physical space in which we move, they proposed that both were equivalent in value. Lozza’s use of enamel on wood to create surfaces as polished and perfect as lacquer typified the technical perfection sought by these painters as a means of suppressing any trace of subjectivity that would otherwise distract the observer from the physical presence of the work, as, for example, in Painting from the Perceptist Period: No. 184 (1984; Buenos Aires, Mus. Mun. A. Plást. Sívori).

Percier Charles. Neoclassicism

Performance Art. Throughout the history of modern art, from 1910 on, P. a., sometimes called 'live art' has been used by modern art movements as a means of shaking up the prevailing art establishment and as a catalyst for new ideas. It is characterized by 3 factors: it is live, it takes place in front of an audience and it usually involves performing artists who also work in other media — dancers, fine artists, musicians and poets: the performer is the artist, seldom a 'character' like an actor. P. a. was used notably by exponents of *Futurism (Marinetti, Boccioni), Russian Futurists and *Constructivists (Mayakovsky, the Blue Blouse Group, etc.), *Dada (H. Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck, etc.), *Surreahsm (Breton, Dali, etc.) and at the *Bauhaus under *Schlemmer, director of the theatre workshop, in accord with the Bauhaus principle of a 'total art work'. From 1952 P. a. took on even greater significance esp., to begin with, in the U.S.A. following the seminal Black Mountain College p. by John Cage and p.s -often called *'Happenings' — by artists associated with *Pop art such as *Rauschenberg, *Dine, *Oldenburg and *Kaprow. More recently, *Action,*Earth and *Conceptual art have made extensive use of the medium in works by artists such as *Klein and *Manzoni; and of the younger generation, *Acconci, *Anderson, *Beuys, *Burden, *Gilbert and George, *Schneemann and R.*Wilson.

Performance Art
. Descriptive term applied to ‘live’ presentations by artists. It was first used very loosely by artists in the early 1960s in the USA to refer to the many live events taking place at that time, such as Happenings, Fluxus concerts, Events, body art or (in Germany) Aktionen and Demonstrationen. In 1969 performance was more specifically incorporated into titles of work in the USA and UK and was interchangeable with ‘performance piece’ or simply ‘piece’, as in Vito Acconci’s Performance Test or Following Piece (both 1969), and by many other artists such as Dennis Oppenheim, Yoko Ono (b 1933), Dan Graham, Rebecca Horn, Joan Jonas, Laurie Anderson and Bruce Nauman. It was closely linked to the ideological tenets and philosophy of CONCEPTUAL ART, which insisted on ‘an art of which the material is concepts’ and on ‘an art that could not be bought and sold’; those who made performance pieces did so as a statement against the gallery system and the art establishment.

Perino del Vaga (1500-46). Also known as 'Pierino del Vaga' and 'Pietro Buonaccorsi'. An Italian painter of the Roman school. He studied under Raphael and was employed on the decoration of the Vatican where, after 1520, he took over much of Raphael's work. He also worked in Florence (1523—5) and Genoa, decorating the Palazzo Doria. He was, with Giulio Romano, the greatest successor to Raphael's Academy.

Perov Vasili (b Tobolsk, 2 Jan 1834; d Kuz’minki, 10 June 1882). Russian painter. Son of a public prosecutor, he studied intermittently at Arzamas from 1846 to 1849 at the Art School of Alexander Stupin (1776–1862), a classicist painter whose School was the first of its type in provincial Russia, and during the 1850s at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Sergey Zaryanko. The work of Pavel Fedotov, pictorial satire in the press and genre scenes by the Old Dutch masters and William Hogarth were the greatest formative influences on Perov. His early works, permeated by a Biedermeier romantic spirit, combine detailed brushwork with anecdotal narrative and aim at criticizing social behaviour in line with the contemporary democratic doctrines of such writers as Nikolay Chernyshevsky. Such anti-clerical pictures as the Village Sermon (1861; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are distinguished by a particular irony. As in the prose of Nikolai Leskov, which has many affinities with Perov’s painting, there is a conflict between feelings of love and hatred, and between an intimate knowledge of the daily life of the people and an alienating irony. In 1862–4 Perov travelled abroad, working mainly in Paris, where he painted a series of vivid genre scenes of city life. Perov’s success as a genre painter reached its peak in the latter half of the 1860s. His compositions become more laconic and expressive; overcoming an indisciplined use of colour, he achieved an impressive unity with an austere greyish-brown palette. Such works as the Drowned Girl (1867) and the Last Tavern by the City Gates (1868; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are analogous to the prose of Fyodor Dostoyevsky in their depiction of the lowest strata of urban life. Perov also wrote, producing talented sketches of popular life.

Perspective. In art a system for representing the 3-dimensional space of actuality on the 2-dimensional space of the picture plane. The basic observations behind systems of perspective are that objects in the distance appear smaller than objects close to the spectator and that parallel lines appear to meet in the far distance. Working from such premises and the earlier system of *costruzionc legittima, 15th-c. Florentine artists, Brunelleschi, Uccello, Piero della Francesca and above all L. B. Alberti, evolved the principles of linear p., dependent upon, among other things, the correct use of vanishing points (i.e. the points where parallel lines appear to converge). Aerial perspective achieves effects of distance by exploiting the changes in colour and tonal values as objects recede from the observer; the apparent blue of distant mountains is an obvious effect which can be used in aerial perspective.

Perugino Pietro (Pietro Vannucci) (c. 1445—1523). Italian painter of the Umbrian school; his work was influenced by his master Verrocchio, Signorelli and the Flemish painters. He used the novel technique of oil painting with great mastery and painted the luminous quality of the Unibrian landscape: green-brown foreground and middle distance, bluish far distance are typical of his colour scheme; his figures are gracefully elongated, with clearly articulated joints, sculpturesque draperies and dreamy expressions. P. was called to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV in 1481 to decorate the Sistme Chapel with a fresco series — the most important is Christ Gving the Keys to St Peter. A severely symmetrical composition, it shows P.'s mastery of perspective and disposition of figures in a monumental geometry. The fresco The Crucifixion painted in Siena in 1496 is a masterpiece. The frescoes painted in the Cambio, Perugia (1498—1500) show his style in decline. Lack of originality results in stereotypes and genuine feeling is replaced by sentiment. These frescoes had a profound influence on the development of Italian art, as they shaped the youthful work of P.'s pupil and assistant Raphael.

 
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