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Objective Abstraction. Term applied to the work of a group of British artists in the 1930s. It was used after the exhibition Objective Abstractions was held at the Zwemmer Gallery, London, from March to April 1934. Seven painters participated: Rodrigo Moynihan, Geoffrey Tibble (1909–52), Graham Bell, Victor Pasmore, Ceri Richards, Thomas Carr and Ivon Hitchens; Edgar Hubert (b 1906) and William Coldstream were also members of the group (although they did not exhibit on this occasion), and with Moynihan, Tibble and Bell were the only truly abstract painters at the time. All, however, as indicated by their answers to a ‘questionnaire’ published in the catalogue, were united in their rejection of the geometric abstraction espoused by much of the European avant-garde in the 1930s and in their belief in an art, inspired initially by nature, that would develop according to an unpredictable internal logic of its own.

Objet trouve.
*found object
Objet trouve.

Term applied in the 20th century to existing objects, manufactured or of natural origin, used in, or as, works of art. With the exception of the READY-MADE, in which a manufactured object is generally presented on its own without mediation, the objet trouvé is most often used as raw material in an ASSEMBLAGE, with juxtaposition as a guiding principle. Prior to the 20th century unusual objects were collected in cabinets of curiosities, but it was only in the early 20th century that found objects came to be appreciated as works of art in their own right. Antoni Gaudí, for example, used broken pieces of pottery to cover exterior surfaces in the Park Güell buildings (1900–14) in Barcelona and on various buildings designed by him during the same period. The development of COLLAGE in Cubism heralded a greater dependence on found objects, paralleling the incorporation of conversational fragments in the poetry of Guillaume Apollinaire from 1912; Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, in particular, used real items in their paintings and constructions as a way of commenting on the relationship between reality, representation and illusion. Their example in turn encouraged Vladimir Tatlin to use ordinary objects in his reliefs of 1913–14, and other sculptors, such as Alexander Archipenko and Umberto Boccioni, to extend the range of materials acceptable in sculpture.

Obrist Hermann (b Kilchberg, Switzerland, 23 May 1862; d Munich, 26 Feb 1927).
Swiss artist, craftsman and teacher. After studying science and medicine at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (1885–7), he travelled in England and Scotland in 1887. There the Arts and Crafts Movement influenced his decision to turn his attentions to the applied arts. Following brief studies at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Karlsruhe and an apprenticeship as a potter, his ceramics and furniture won gold medals at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. In 1890 he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, before visiting Berlin and Florence, where he experimented in marble sculpture and established an embroidery studio in which his own designs could be carried out; he moved his studio to Munich in 1894.


Oceanic art. The term refers to the *primitive art of the island populations of the Pacific. 3 mam areas are distinguished: Melanesia (New Guinea and surrounding islands), Micronesia (islands to the N. of Melanesia), and Polynesia (the triangle formed by the Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand and Easter Island).
The art objects include ancestor figures, canoe-prow ornaments, ceremonial shields and clubs, masks, decorated human skulls, stone carvings, carved stools and other cult objects and artefacts. Besides wood and stone, the materials used include shells, wicker, feathers, cane, fibre, bamboo, rattan and bark cloth. As distinct from * African art, various materials are often used in combination, and may be painted in bright pigments, the surfaces with stylized designs of the human face or figure. The range of styles among such widely scattered peoples is enormous, though many groups reveal related art motifs. Among the most famous examples of C). a. are the giant stone ancestor-cult figures of Easter Island, the convoluted designs of Maori wood carvings and the vast production of carved drums, masks, stools and shields of the Sepik river area on the N. coast of New Guinea.

Oil painting. An increasingly important technique in European painting since the late 1 5th c. O. p. in one form or another had been known since antiquity for coarse work such as house painting, but the technique was immensely refined in early 1 sth-c. Flanders, the improved medium being gradually taken up by Italian painters. Powdered colours, mixed with a fine oil (usually linseed) until the resulting paint is sufficiently viscous, are applied to a prepared ground - usually stretched canvas with an overall coating in a neutral pigment. The technique at its most elaborate, as in the work of the old masters, involved a careful application of colours building up from dark to lighter tones and relying on extensive technical knowledge of the interaction between the various pigments — the various chemicals involved can act on one another and, if not carefully applied, can over a period of time damage the layers of paint above and next to them. Colours can be laid down with the intention that they should show through upper layers to a certain extent, while coloured transparent glazes can be applied for further gradations of tone. Apart from the immense tonal subtlety of the medium, surface texture can also be varied by *impasto and *brushwork.

Oderisi Roberto ( fl Naples, c. 1330–82). Italian painter. He was one of the foremost artists of 14th-century Naples, and the only named south Italian painter active in the mid-14th century whose artistic personality can be reconstructed. He is known from a single documentary reference, when he was appointed ‘magistrum pictorium regium’ by Charles III, King of Naples, on 2 February 1382, and from his signature, ROBERTUS DE ODERISIO DE NEAPOLI, on the foot of a Crucifixion from S Francesco, Eboli (Salerno, Mus. Duomo). The earliest panel paintings attributed to Oderisi include the polyptych of the Dormition and Coronation of the Virgin, with SS Nicholas, James, Julian and Anthony Abbot, executed for the Coppola family for Scala Cathedral, near Amalfi (Lombardy, priv. col.), the smaller Coronation of the Virgin (Milan, priv. col.) and the Crucifixion (Naples, Capodimonte). Associated with these paintings are some badly preserved frescoes, for example those in the cathedral at Amalfi, which appears to have been the region of Oderisi’s early activity. Despite being extremely rough and schematic, the style of these works reveals a thorough grounding in Tuscan figure painting that can be linked to the presence in Naples, between 1328 and 1333, of Giotto and some of his assistants , among them Maso di Banco and the so-called Master of the Vele from Assisi. The iconography of the frescoes was also clearly inspired by Tuscan works in Naples, such as the Giotto panel painted for the palatine chapel at Castel Nuovo, and the fresco of the Crucifixion by his shop in the convent of S Chiara.

Oehme Ernst Ferdinand (Dresden, 1797 - Dresden, 1855). Romanticism

Oelze Richard (b Magdeburg, 29 June 1900; d Posteholz, nr Hameln, 27 May 1980). German painter and draughtsman. He studied at the Bauhaus in Weimar under Johannes Itten (1921–5). His early work was influenced by Constructivism, but Oelze was soon impressed by Neue Sachlichkeit, with which he became familiar while living in Dresden (1926–9). At this time he also became acquainted with Otto Dix and his work. His pictures from the late 1920s, for example Still-life with White Plate and Coloured Balls (oil on panel, 1928–9; Berne, priv. col.), show a clear concreteness and strong composition and reflect the trance-like state found in works of Magic Realism. During this period he also visited the Bauhaus in Dessau for several months. On a trip to Ascona in 1929 he saw reproductions of the works of Max Ernst and Hans Arp for the first time. In 1933 he moved to Paris, where he remained until 1936 and made contact with the Surrealists. By the 1930s dreams and premonitions were becoming themes in his work, and his paintings increasingly featured dream-creatures, combinations of animal and plant, plant and human, human and animal. In the painting Daily Tribulations (1934; Düsseldorf, Kstsamml. Nordrhein–Westfalen) the fears and difficulties experienced by Oelze one year after the Nazis had taken power in Germany were given visual form. Morbid forms in a river dominate the picture and block, like a hedge, any view into depth. In the same year that it was painted this work was enthusiastically taken up by the Surrealists at an exhibition in the Porte de Versailles. In 1936 it was shown in New York at the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition at MOMA. Expectation (1936; New York, MOMA), probably Oelze’s best-known work, conveys like no other picture of its time the mood in Europe in those years, in all its oppressiveness and apprehension. The clarity of the realism of the human figures is contrasted with the dark forms of vegetal growth; both dissolve in the cool and utterly alien coloration cast over them by the deep sky. The deep perspective of this picture is unusual in Oelze’s work.

Okamoto Taro (1911-1996). Surrealism in Japan

O'Keeffe Georgia (1887—1986). U.S. painter and wife of *Stieglitz; she was one of the prominent figures in the 1920s U.S. reaction against avant-garde European ideas and movement towards a romantic, naturalistic art. Her own painting, however — 'magical realism' — has Surrealist undertones. The exotic colour and form of plants and flowers are heightened by taking them out of their natural context. Later works include the 24-ft wide (7.3-m.) Sky Above Clouds IV (1965).

Oldenburg Claes (1929— ). Swedish-born U.S. artist; he came to prominence as one of the major figures of U.S. art of the 1960s associated with *Pop. Early works in the style of *Abstract Expressionism gave place to 'total environments' (The Street, i960), *Happenings (Store Days, 1962) and *Performance art and eventually to soft sculptures of commonplace, vastly enlarged objects made out of canvas, kapok or vinyl — Floor-Burger (1962), Soft Light Switches (1964), etc. —and monuments, e.g. Lipstick on Caterpillar Tracks (1969).

Olivier Johann Heinrich Ferdinand von (b Dessau, 1 April 1785; d Munich 11 Feb 1841). Painter, draughtsman and lithographer, brother of Heinrich Olivier. The brothers’ mother was a court opera singer in Dessau, and Ferdinand’s later interest in the German medieval and Nazarene styles owed much to the intellectual climate at the Anhalt-Dessau court, where Leopold III Frederick Francis, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, had been the first German prince to introduce the Gothic Revival style. Olivier took up drawing in 1801–2 under the tuition of Carl Wilhelm Kolbe and the engraver Johann Christian Haldenwang (1777–1831). In 1802–3 he accompanied his father to Berlin, where he studied woodcut techniques under Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Unger (1755–1804) and may have attended August Wilhelm Schlegel’s lectures on belles-lettres and art. It was here, at the latest, that he discovered Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (Berlin, 1797) by Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and Ludwig Tieck, and the latter’s Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen (Berlin, 1798), two books of vital significance for the painting of the Romantic era. Having decided to make art their career, Ferdinand and his brother Heinrich spent two years (1804–6) in Dresden, where they copied the works of Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain in the art gallery during the summer months. Ferdinand also took lessons from Jacob Wilhelm Mechau (1745–1808) and Carl Ludwig Kaaz, both painters of idealized landscapes, and he was probably introduced to the work of Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David Friedrich by Friedrich August von Klinkowström (1778–1835), a friend of Runge. In June 1807 Ferdinand’s excellent knowledge of French led to his appointment as embassy secretary in Paris, where Heinrich soon joined him. However, after just a few weeks he gave up his diplomatic career in order to devote himself to a study of the Musée Napoléon, which at that time housed art treasures pillaged from all parts of Europe. Ferdinand and Heinrich jointly produced three paintings for Leopold III Frederick Francis of Anhalt-Dessau: a portrait of Napoleon on Horseback (c.1809; Wörlitz, Schloss), and a Last Supper and Baptism (1809–10; Wörlitz, Evangel. Ch.) for the Gothic Revival church in Wörlitz. Although these last two were supposed to be copies after the ‘old German school’, the Olivier brothers in fact used 15th- and 16th-century Dutch and Flemish models to create original compositions. At the end of 1809 they returned to Dessau. In 1810, on a tour of the Harz with his younger brother Friedrich Olivier, Ferdinand produced a number of markedly naturalistic sketches that testify to the break with his schooling in Dresden, for example Cliffs on the Brocken (1810; Dessau, Anhalt. Gemäldegal.). In 1811 he travelled with Friedrich via Dresden to Vienna where the Lukasbrüder had been formed shortly before. Although the group had since moved to Rome, the Olivier brothers soon became acquainted with its ideals through Philipp Veit, Friedrich von Schlegel’s stepson, whose home they frequented, and Joseph Sutter (1781–1866). In 1817, with Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, they were accepted—from afar—into the Lukasbrüder.

Olmec. *Pre-Columbian Mexican culture, fl. с 800—400 ВС; the principal O. site is at La Venta on the Gulf Coast. Archaeological finds include carved altars, plaques, jade figurines and massive stone heads.

Olson Axel (1899-1986). Surrealism.

Olson Erik (1901-1986). Surrealism.

Omega Workshops. Founded by Roger Fry in 1913; several painters including *Grant and V. *Bell took part. Furniture, fabrics and pottery were designed and decorated in the workshops following current fashions in painting among the *Bloomsbury Group and issued anonymously with the Greek letter omega as sole mark; the actual construction, weaving, etc. of their products was done by craftsmen. The O.W. were not financially successful and closed in 1920.
Omega Workshops. English applied arts company based in London. It was founded by Roger Fry in 1913 and lasted until 1919. The company produced ceramics, furniture, carpets and other textiles, designed and made by Fry, Duncan Grant, Vanessa Bell, Henri Doucet (1883–1915), Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, Winifred Gill (1891–1981) and Nina Hamnett. The name Omega Workshops was first mentioned in Fry’s circular letter of 11 December 1912 sent out as a financial appeal. Wyndham Lewis may also have been involved in the founding of the Workshops. Of the various explanations of the name the most common is that it implied the products to be the ‘last word’ in design (OH being the last letter of the Greek alphabet).

Ono Yoko. Happening.

Onslow-Ford Gordon (1912- 2003). Gordon Onslow Ford was the last surviving member of the 1930s Paris surrealist group surrounding André Breton.
He was born in Wendover, England, on December 26, 1912. He served in the British Navy until 1937 after which he focused on his art career. In 1938 he became an official member of the surrealist group in Paris. At the onset of World War II, he returned to Britain. In 1941 he was asked to present a series of lectures in New York. It was while in New York that he met and married Jacqueline Johnson. They lived in Erongaricuaro, a small village in central Mexico, for six years before moving to San Francisco.

Optical Art. Term which gained currency in the 1960s for a style of abstract painting deriving from the work of such painters as *Albers and *Vasarely. O. a. concerns itself with purely visual sensations, relying for its effects upon optical illusions; often canvases are a mass of small shapes, lines or vivid colours constantly shifting under the eye. The best works are black-and-white. Some of the most inventive works are by B. *Riley.

Op Art.

Term used as an abbreviation of ‘optical art’ to refer to painting and sculpture that exploits the illusions or optical effects of perceptual processes. It was used for the first time by a writer in an unsigned article in Time magazine (23 Oct 1964) and entered common usage to designate, in particular, two-dimensional structures with strong psychophysiological effects. The exhibition, The Responsive Eye, held in 1965 at MOMA, New York, under the direction of William C. Seitz, showed side by side two types of visual solicitations already practised by artists for some time: perceptual ambiguity created by coloured surfaces, then at the fore in the USA, and the coercive suggestion of movement created by lines and patterns in black and white, used abundantly by European artists engaged in KINETIC ART. The outstanding Op artists included Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, Jesús Soto, Yaacov Agam, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Julio Le Parc and François Morellet.

Opbouw De [Dut.: ‘construction’].

Dutch association of architects, based in Rotterdam between 1920 and 1940. It was founded on 31 January 1920 by the Rotterdam architect Willem Kromhout as an alternative to the existing group Bouwkunst en Vriendschap; precise details of the establishment of De Opbouw, however, were lost when its archives were destroyed by fire during the German bombing in 1940. Its initial members were Marinus Jan Granpré Molière, a leading figure of the Delft school, Josephus Klijnen (1887–1973), L. Bolle, Alphonsus Siebers (1893–1978), Pieter Verhagen (1882–1950), Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt, Jaap Gidding (1887–1955), Jacob Jongert, Willem Hendrik Gispen (1890–1981) and J. J. P. Oud. Later they were joined by MART STAM and JOHANNES BERNARDUS VAN LOGHEM, who became chairmen, Cornelis van Eesteren, Willem van Tijen, W. van Gelderen, Piet Zwart, Paul Schuitema (1897–1973) and Theodor Karel van Lohuizen (1890–1956). Binding the members initially was the search for a clearly distinctive position in contrast to that of Amsterdam, the cultural centre. The influence of De Stijl, Nieuwe Bouwen (‘new building’) and a general interest in new ideas about art and architecture played a part, but no manifesto was possible because differences in viewpoints—such as those between Granpré Molière and Oud—were too great. De Opbouw moved to the left politically from the second half of the 1920s, through the influence of Stam and van Loghem. This gradually resulted in some members leaving the group, including Oud and Klijnen. This political orientation became linked with support for functionalist architecture, thus making possible De Opbouw’s merger with the Amsterdam-based ARCHITECTENGROEP DE 8 in 1932. Collective action with Amsterdam was achieved mainly through the periodical De 8 en Opbouw and through participation in CIAM activities, while De Opbouw continued to be active independently in Rotterdam. De Opbouw ceased in 1940, with the German occupation. It held a number of exhibitions of members’ work and twice (1927 and 1935) issued statements about urban planning questions, but its importance was chiefly defined by the work of its members.

Oppenheim Dennis .
Born in Electric City, Washington, 1938. School of Arts and Crafts, Oakland (B.F.A., 1965) and Stanford University, Palo Alto, (M.F.A., 1965).
Lives and works in New York City. The artistic trajectory of Dennis Oppenheim has always been characterized by its incorrigible discontinuity, motivated then as today by an intensely adventurous curiosity. Following his earthworks (1967-69 and body-works came the installations (from 1972 onwards), using puppets as their main theme (the harrowing piece "Attempt to Raise Hell" at the Pompidou Center). Later on, at the end of the seventies, Oppenheim produced what he calls his "machine pieces" which, by denying the object its sculptural status, are presented as complex constructions, systems open to both an aleatory and an enigmatic mode of functioning... There is an interesting progression from the early machine pieces which seemed infused with a confidence in rationality and in the possibility of grasping the structure of the mind to the late works which were designed to literally blow up and which seem to celebrate the triumph of irrationality and chaos.

Oppenheim Meret (1913—85). *Surrealist artist widely known for her Objet (1936): a cup, saucer and spoon covered in fur, which has come to be seen as the archetypal Surrealist object.

Orellana Chilean Gaston (b 1933). Grupo Hondo. Spanish group of painters.

Orozco Jose Clemente (1883—1949). Mexican painter, trained as an architect, who turned to painting in 1909. At first working in water-colours (e.g. Mexico in Revolution, 1916), he later became a leading fresco painter, much in demand for decorating public buildings in Mexico and the U.S.A. In 1923—4 he executed the famous murals for the National Preparatory School in Mexico where he also did a 2nd series in 1926—7. From 1927 O. worked continuously in the U.S.A. where he had important commissions, notably at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire (Modem Migration of the Spirit, 1932—4). * Pollock became attracted to O.'s work as well as to that of the other 2 important contemporary Mexican inuralists, *Rivera and *Siqueiros. O.'s subject matter tended to social realism, but it was treated m a decorative, formalized and rhythmic manner. In this sense O. gave a new aspect to the Revolutionary epic style initiated by Rivera.

Orphism. A tendency of abstract art in Paris с 1911-14. In 1912 Apollinaire called the Cubist painting of *Delaunay 'Orphic', linking it with that of Leger, Picabia, Duchamp and some works of Picasso and F. Kupka. The name has only stayed with the painting of Delaunay and his wife Sonia Terk Delaunay, who experimented with colour circles, segments and rhythms in a style called 'simultaneity'. 2 U.S. painters, MacDonald-Wright and Morgan Russell, stressed colour in a similar way (*Synchromism).

Orphism.
Term coined by Guillaume Apollinaire c. 1912 to refer to the work of several painters in Paris. He applied it to a new kind of joyously sensuous art, whose roots were in Cubism and which had a tendency towards abstraction. The word orphique had been used by the Symbolists and originated in the Greek myth of Orpheus, who was significant as the ideal artist for the Symbolists. In 1907 Apollinaire had written a collection of quatrains under the title Bestiaire ou cortège d’Orphée (Paris, 1911), with woodcuts by Raoul Dufy, into which he incorporated the figure of Orpheus as a symbol of the poet and the artist in general. For Apollinaire, however, as for the generation of Symbolists who preceded him, the myth of Orpheus meant the study of mystic, occult and astrological sources, which gave rise to artistic inspiration. ‘The voice of light’, which he described in his Orphic poems, was a metaphor, common in mystic texts, for ‘inner experiences’. In a footnote to his volume of poetry he identified the ‘voice of light’ by means of a line drawing, although it was still not fully articulated; once it had totally expressed itself, it would take on colour and become painting. The metaphor of light, therefore, represented the artist’s power to create entirely new forms and colours, and in the process referred to the creation myth of hermetic, Orphic texts. Accordingly, Orphism could signify a direct sensuous address by means of colour and light, as well as an innovative creative process.

OSA [Ob’edineniye Sovremennikh Arkhitektorov; Rus.: Union of Contemporary Architects].

Soviet architectural group, active in Moscow from 1925 to 1930. It was founded by MOISEY GINZBURG and Aleksandr Vesnin and it attracted many of Moscow’s Modernist architects by arguing for architecture’s pivotal role in creating the new Soviet society. OSA’s activities passed through several distinct phases in response to changing political circumstances and engaged the public on several fronts: these included an exhibition of contemporary architecture in 1927; architectural conferences in 1928 and 1929; and the bi-monthly journal Sovremennaya arkhitektura, which appeared from 1926 to 1930. Disavowing aesthetic and formal considerations, OSA made functional and technical matters pre-eminent. Starting with general reflections about the USSR, OSA architects then analysed the State’s building requirements in terms of cost, user profile and building types. The group endorsed a view of architecture as an integral part of the State apparatus, with a role in transforming society, for example by evolving new building types, such as the Workers’ Club, and with responsibilities, for example in containing costs by adopting prefabrication methods. Their approach to design was disciplined, with the design process itself being reduced to four distinct phases: the building programme’s spatial organization and technical requirements; the volumetric implications of these factors; their physical implementation; and the consolidation of the previous three steps into architectural coherence and unity. This rigorous design method helped OSA to forge its own identity and to create a legacy of designs challenging the best work of other European and Soviet avant-garde groups. The most characteristic designs by architects associated with the group include: the Vesnin brothers’ unexecuted projects for the Palace of Labour (1922–3), Moscow, and the Leningrad Pravda Building (1924), Moscow; Grigory Barkhin’s Izvestiya Building (1925–7), Moscow; Ginzburg’s unexecuted project for the Orgametals Headquarters (1926–7); Il’ya Golosov’s Zuyev Club, Moscow; and Ivan Leonidov’s unexecuted projects for the Lenin Institute (1927) and the Ministry of Heavy Industry (1933–4), both Moscow. All of these designs, however, owed as much to the talents of their respective authors as to OSA’s design method.

Osbert Alphonce (1857-1939), French Symbolist.

Ostroumova-Lebedeva Anna (b St Petersburg, 17 May 1871; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], 5 May 1955). Russian painter and printmaker. She studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and also worked in Paris in 1898 and 1899 in the studio of James A. McNeill Whistler, alongside Konstantin Somov. She joined the WORLD OF ART (Mir Iskusstva) group in 1899 and contributed to their journal. Working mainly in graphic arts, in both monochrome and colour, she was responsible for a revival of woodcutting techniques in Russia. Following the example of Alexandre Benois, she worked on ‘historical landscapes’, and she is best remembered for her views of the Baroque and classical architecture of St Petersburg and its environs, as in the series of woodcuts entitled St Petersburg (1908–10).

Ott Jerry (American 1947-) Jerry Duane Ott is an artist that is most known for his photorealism work and creative use of painting surfaces. Painting anything on anything and vice versa. His latest technical development are paintings wrapped across two and three dimensional surfaces. They range from drawings a few inches wide to sculptural assemblages more than five feet tall and eight feet long. His paintings are more about the nature of art and the experience of seeing than about the subjects they depict. Jerry Ott is a true master airbrush artist and a leading painter in the 'Photo Realist' school of painting that emerged in the 60's. In the early 70’s Jerry Ott received a great deal of attention in his career as one of two such artists – Hilo Chen being the other - dealing exclusively with the nude figure. If there ever were a subject ideally suited for rendering by an airbrush, it would be the human figure and the airbrush is the tool used to develop that "feel" of the human body--skin that you think you can touch. Ott's work has found international acclaim. His realistic paintings appear in the art capitals of Europe, Japan and as far a field as New Zealand. Among the prestigious Institutions that have acquired his works are New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Walker Art Center. In his recent paintings, the effects of light and shade, optical illusions, nubile woman and delicate flesh continue to fascinate Ott. In "Pipe Dreams," he juxtaposes a pretty but unanimated girl with three banal lamps which refer to the mass-produced ceramic jars, vases and lamps sold as art. In Ott's painting, however, the reflections in the porcelain lamp bases and shadows that play across the skin are least as important as the woman herself.

Ottoman art. *Islamic art

Outerbridge Paul (1896–1958) was an American photographer noted for early use and experiments in color photography. Outerbridge was a fashion and commercial photographer, an early pioneer and teacher of color photography, and an artist who created erotic nudes photographs that could not be exibited in his lifetime. Outerbridge, while still in his teens, worked as an illustrator and theatrical designer designing stage settings and lighting schemes. After an accident caused his discharge from the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service, in 1917, he enlisted in the U.S. Army where he did his first photography work. In 1921, Outerbridge enrolled in the Clarence H. White school of photography at Columbia University. Within a year his work began being reproduced in Vanity Fair and Vogue magazine. In London, in 1925, the Royal Photographic Society invited Outerbridge to exhibit in a one-man show. Outerbridge then traveled to Paris and became friends with surrealist artists, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, and Berenice Abbott. In Paris, Outerbridge did a layout for the French Vogue magazine, met and worked with Edward Steichen, and built the largest, most completely equipped advertising photography studio of the times. In 1929, 12 of Outerbridge's photographs were included in the prestigious, German Film und Foto exhibition. Returning to New York in 1929, Outerbridge opened a studio doing commercial and artistic work and began writing a monthly column on color photography for the U.S. Camera Magazine. Outerbridge worked in tri-color carbro process. In 1937, Outerbridge's photographs were included in an exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art and, in 1940, Outerbridge published his seminal book, Photographing in Color, using high quality illustrations to explain his techniques. A scandal over his shocking, full-color erotic nude photography, led to Outerbridge retiring as a commercial photographer and moving to Hollywood in 1943, although he continued to contribute photo stories to magazines and write his monthly column. In 1945, Outerbridge married fashion designer Lois Weir and worked in their joint fashion company, Lois-Paul Originals. One year after his death, Smithsonian Institution staged a one-man show of Outerbridge's photographs in 1959. Although his reputation has faded, revivals of Outerbridge's photography in 1970s and 1990s has periodically brought him into contemporary public knowledge.

Outsider art. Art made by artists who are either not specifically trained as such by defined standards, accepted members of the art establishment or of the same racial, cultural and social background as those who become professionally empowered to define art within a society. At various times art not conforming to such definitions and made by people marginalized by such societies — women, ethnic minorities, peasants, children and the insane — has been designated as C). a. *Primitive art and *primitives.

Overbeck Johann Friedrich (1789—1869). German painter. After studying in Vienna, he went to Rome (1810) and became well known after an exhibition of work there in 1819. He founded, in Rome, the German *Nazarene movement with *Cornelius, *Pforr and others. His subjects were mainly historical and religious.

Ozentant Amedee (1886-1966). French painter and one of the theorists of the school of *Paris. He was a pupil of *Segonzac. A leading exponent of *Purism, he collaborated in writings with *Le Corbusier; in 1920—5 they co-published L'Espril nouveau. He founded the Academie Ozenfant (1930) in Paris, but subsequently went to live in N.Y. in 1938.

 

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