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Maar-Martini Martins-Master Matisse-Molinier Momoyama-Myers

Maar Dora Henriette Theodora Markovitch alias Dora Maar (November 22, 1907 – July 16, 1997) was a French photographer and painter, best known for being a lover and muse of Pablo Picasso.
She was born in Tours, Western France, on November 22, 1907. She died 89 years of age in Paris on July 16, 1997. Her father was Croatian, her mother was born in Tourraine, France. Dora grew up in Argentina. She was famous as a photographer, and also was a painter herself, before she met Picasso. She made herself better known in the world with her photographs of the successive stages of the completion of Guernica that Picasso painted in his workshop on the rue des Grands Augustins, and other photos of Picasso. Together she and Picasso studied printing with Man Ray. Picasso met her in January 1936 (when she was 29 years old), at the terrace of the Café Les Deux Magots in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris. The famous poet Paul Eluard, who accompanied him, had to introduce him to this beautiful, sad woman. He was attracted by her beauty and self-mutilation (cutting her fingers and the table - he got her bloody gloves and exhibited them on a shelf in his apartment). She spoke Spanish fluently, so Picasso was even more fascinated. Their relationship lasted nearly nine years. Dora Maar became the rival of blonde Marie-Thérčse Walter who had given a daughter named Maya to Picasso. Picasso often painted beautiful sad Dora (she suffered because she was sterile) and called her his "private muse." Dora Maar kept his paintings for herself until her death in 1997. They were souvenirs for their extraordinary love affair which made her famous forever. For him she was the "woman in tears" in many aspects. She suffered from his moods during their love affair. Also she hated the idea that in 1943 he had found a new lover, Françoise Gilot. Picasso and Paul Elouard sent Dora to their friend, the psychiatrist Jacques Lacan, who treated her with psychoanalysis. In Paris, still occupied by the Germans, Picasso left to her a drawing of 1915 as a good-bye gift in April 1944; it represents Max Jacob his close friend who had just died in the transit camp of Drancy after his arrest by the Nazis. He also left to her some still lifes and a house at Ménerbes in Provence. The picture, Dora Maar, is currently registered with the FBI's National Stolen Art File. FBI reports that the picture was stolen from a Saudi yacht in Antibes between March 7-11, 1999, which also unearths the identity of the anonymous bidder, who obviously was a Saudi royal Picasso aficionado.

Mabuse also called Jan Gossaert (1470/80-c. 1533). Early Netherlands artist, born probably at Maubeuge, Hainault, and a master of the Antwerp Guild in 1503. In 1508 he visited Rome and from this date Italian elements appear in his work, which had been close to that ot G. David before this. Neptune and Amphitrite shows M.'s humanist interest in antique sculpture, the nude and classical architecture following the journey. It also shows a close study of Durer's Adam and Eve. All M.'s work has a fine and carefully calculated finish. In the outstanding early work The Adoration of the Kings this has been described as 'an enamel-like purity'. Among other paintings are: Adam and hi>e and Portrait of the Children of Christian II of Denmark, and Danae.

Macchiaioli (It. niacchia: stain, blot). A group ot Italian painters working in Florence с 1855—65. They rebelled against the prevailing academic style. Influenced by Corot and Courbet, and in some ways anticipating the techniques of French Impressionism, they used short brush-strokes and dots of paint to build tip an image. Among the most prominent were Giovanni Fattori and Telemaco Signorini.

Machuca Pedro Spanish painter/architect (b. 1490/95, Toledo, d. 1550, Granada)
The form of his signature (Petrus Machuca, Hispanus. Toletanus ...) on his earliest known work, the Virgin of Succour (1517; Madrid, Prado), suggests he was active at an early age in Italy. On the basis of the style of that work, a number of frescoes in the Vatican have been attributed to him, including Isaiah Blessing Jacob. Other works from the same period that have been attributed to him include a copy (Paris, Louvre) of the destroyed Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci and two paintings of the Virgin and Child (Rome, Gal. Borghese, and Turin, Gal. Sabauda), some drawings and the original drawings for reproductive engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi and Agostino Veneziano.

Macke August (b Meschede, Westphalia, 3 Jan 1887; d nr Perthes-les-Hurlus, Champagne, 26 Sept 1914).
German painter. He began his artistic training in autumn 1904 at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, but he was far more interested by the instruction at the Kunstgewerbeschule, run by Peter Behrens, where he attended evening courses given by the German printmaker Fritz Helmuth Ehmcke (1878–1965). Friendship with the playwrights of the Düsseldorfer Theater, Wilhelm Schmidtbonn and Herbert Eulenberg, awakened Macke’s interest in the stage. With the German sculptor Claus Cito, he developed designs for stage sets, including those for a production of Macbeth, which led to an offer by the theatre to employ him, but Macke turned it down. In April 1905 Macke travelled with Walter Gerhardt, his future wife Elizabeth Gerhardt’s brother, to northern Italy and Florence. His drawings of this period reveal freshness and a receptive sensibility. In July 1906 he travelled to the Netherlands and Belgium with Schmidtbonn, Eulenberg and Cito, continuing on with Schmidtbonn to London, where he visited the city’s museums. In November 1906 he broke off his studies at the academy. After encountering French Impressionism on a trip to Paris in summer 1907, Macke began to paint in this manner; in autumn of that year he went to Berlin to join the studio of the German painter Lovis Corinth. However, work in the studio, and Corinth’s way of suggesting corrections, did not suit Macke’s temperament, nor did the city’s oppressive atmosphere. He returned to Bonn in early 1908. His future wife’s family provided him with the means for further travel, first to Italy and then together with his wife and her uncle Bernhard Koehler, who later became his patron, to Paris. Through Koehler he gained an insight into the art market in Paris and became acquainted with Ambroise Vollard. In 1908–9 Macke discharged himself from his one-year military service. Once again in Paris on his honeymoon in 1909, he met Louis Moilliet and, through him, Karl Hofer.

Mackintosh Charles Rennie born June 7, 1868, Glasgow died Dec. 10, 1928, London
Scottish architect and designer who was prominent in the Arts and Crafts Movement in Great Britain.He was apprenticed to a local architect, John Hutchinson, and attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art. In 1889 he joined the firm of Honeyman and Keppie, becoming a partner in 1904.
In collaboration with three other students, one of whom, Margaret Macdonald, became his wife in 1900, Mackintosh achieved an international reputation in the 1890s as a designer of unorthodox posters, craftwork, and furniture. In contrast to contemporary fashion his work was light, elegant,and original, as exemplified by four remarkable tearooms he designed in Glasgow (1896–1904) and other domestic interiors of the early 1900s.
Mackintosh's chief architectural projects were the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain; two unrealized projects—the 1901 International exhibition, Glasgow (1898), and “Haus eines Kunstfreundes” (1901); Windyhill, Kilmacolm (1899–1901), and Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and Scotland Street School (1904–06). Although all havesome traditional characteristics, they reveal a mind of exceptional inventiveness and aesthetic perception. By 1914 he had virtually ceased to practice and thereafter devoted himself to watercolour painting.
Although Mackintosh was nearly forgotten for several decades, the late 20th century saw a revival of interest in hiswork. The stark simplicity of some of his furniture designs, in particular, appealed to contemporary taste, and reproductions of Mackintosh chairs and settees began to be manufactured. The Mackintosh House in Glasgow was reconstructed and opened to the public as a museum in the late 1970s.
Thomas Howarth, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Modern Movement (1952; 2nd ed., 1977), is the standard work on the architecture, well supplemented by Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings, and Interior Designs (1979).

Mackmurdo Arthur (b London, 12 Dec 1851; d Wickham Bishops, Essex, 15 March 1942).
English architect and social reformer. He was an important figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement. He trained as an architect first with T. Chatfield Clarke (1825–95) and then with the Gothic Revivalist James Brooks. He was greatly influenced by John Ruskin (they travelled to Italy together in 1874), particularly on social and economic issues. Mackmurdo believed that his work should be socially as well as artistically significant. In design he valued tradition but sought a contemporary relevance, and he promoted the unity of the arts, with architecture as the central discipline. By 1884 he had moved away from the Gothic Revival style and adopted an eclectic use of Renaissance sources. Some of his designs have been described as proto-Art Nouveau and are thought to have influenced the emergence of this style in architecture and the applied arts in Britain and Europe in the 1890s and 1900s. His pattern designs for wallpaper and textiles incorporated swirling organic motifs (e.g. Cromer Bird, cretonne, c. 1884), while for three-dimensional and architectural work he often used a simplified version of classicism derived from English 18th-century sources. Brooklyn, a small, flat-roofed house (c. 1886; Private Road, Enfield, London), was designed in an austere and simple rationalized classical style in which the logic of constructional methods was emphasized in a way that heralds the work of architects such as C. F. A. Voysey.

Macomber Mary born August 21, 1861, Fall River,Massachusetts, U.S. died February 4, 1916, Boston
American artist remembered for her highly symbolic, dreamlike paintings. Macomber studied drawing with a local artist from about 1880 to 1883, then at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston for a year, until ill health cut short her studies. After her recovery she studied briefly with Frank Duveneck and then opened a studio in Boston. In 1889 her painting Ruth was exhibited in the National Academy of Design show in New York City. Over the next 13 years she exhibited 25 more paintings at the National Academy and was a frequent exhibitor at other major museums and galleries.Macomber's symbolic, allegorical, and decorative panels, revealing the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites, were widely admired by her contemporaries. Among her more celebrated works are Love Awakening Memory (1892), Love's Lament (1893), St. Catherine (1897), The Hour Glass (1900), The Lace Jabot (1900; a self-portrait), Night and Her Daughter Sleep (1903), and Memory Comforting Sorrow (1905). In the later years of her career she also devoted much time to portraiture.

Maderno Stefano (b ?Rome, 1575; d Rome, 17 Sept 1636). Italian sculptor. He was one of the outstanding sculptors in Rome in the early 17th century, and his work, together with that of such sculptors as Pietro Bernini, Nicolas Cordier, Camillo Mariani and Francesco Mochi, is generally considered to mark a transition from the late Renaissance (or Mannerist) style to the early Baroque. He has long been considered a Lombard, but Donati (1945) questioned his northern origins on the basis of his death certificate, which gives Palestrina (30 km from Rome) as his place of birth. Pressouyre (1984) published the marriage contract drawn up between the sculptor and his second wife, Lucrezia Pennina, on 24 October 1611, which refers to both Maderno and his father as Roman, and drew attention to the artist’s signature on his relief of Rudolf II of Hungary Attacking the Turks (1613–15) on the tomb of Paul V in S Maria Maggiore

Madrazo y Kuntz Federico de (b Rome, 9 Feb 1815; d Madrid, 10 June 1894). Son of José de Madrazo y Agudo. In 1818 the family returned from Rome to Madrid, where Federico studied painting under his father and the other leading Spanish Neo-classical painters Juan Antonio de Ribera and José Aparicio. Federico’s Continence of Scipio (1831; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando Mus.) gained him the status of academician. It shows the French Neo-classical traditions instilled in him at the Madrid Academia by his professors, all pupils of Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Federico won immediate popularity in court circles with his sympathetic rendering of Ferdinand VII in the King’s Illness (1832; Madrid, Patrm. N.), and that same year (1832) he was named Pintor Supernumerario de Cámara.

Madurai Tainilnadu, S. India. Capital of the medieval Pandya kingdom whose art and architecture, e.g. the rock-cut shrine at Kalugumalai, derives from *Chola styles. The Nayak dynasty (r. 1550—1743) transformed it into a temple city with mandapa halls of elaborately sculptured columns and lofty gopurams (huge gateway towers) covered in tiers of sculpture.

Maerten van Heemskerck. *Heemskerck Maerten van

Maes Nicolaes (bapt Dordrecht, Jan 1634; bur Amsterdam, 24 Dec 1693). Dutch painter. The son of the prosperous Dordrecht merchant Gerrit Maes and his wife Ida Herman Claesdr., Nicolaes Maes learnt to draw from a ‘mediocre master’ (Houbraken) in his native town before he studied painting with Rembrandt in Amsterdam. His training in Rembrandt’s studio must have taken place between 1648/50 and 1653. By December 1653 Maes had settled in Dordrecht and made plans to marry, while a signed and dated picture of 1653 confirms that the 19-year-old artist had completed his training and embarked on an independent career. Maes continued to reside in Dordrecht until 1673.

Maerten van Veen. Name by which Van *Heemskerck is sometimes known.

Maesta (It. majesty). Short name given to paintings of the Madonna and Child enthroned in majesty with saints and angels in adoration.

Magic realism or 'Sharp-Focus Realism'. A style of primarily U.S. painting which combines simple, sharply defined Precisionist compositions of machine-like clarity with decorative and illustrative Cubism (*Cubist-Realisin). It has occasionally fantastic or symbolic overtones. *Sheeler, Preston Dickinson and *Blume are sometimes described as M. Realists.

Magic realism.

Style of painting popular in Europe and the USA mainly from the 1920s to 1940s, with some followers in the 1950s. It occupies a position between Surrealism and Photorealism, whereby the subject is rendered with a photographic naturalism, but where the use of flat tones, ambiguous perspectives and strange juxtapositions suggest an imagined or dreamed reality. The term was introduced by art historian Frank Roh in his book Nach-Expressionismus: Magischer Realismus (1925) to describe a style deriving from Neue Sachlichkeit, but rooted in late 19th-century German Romantic fantasy. It had strong connections with the Italian Pittura Metafisica of which the work of Giorgio de Chirico was exemplary in its quest to express the mysterious. The work of Giuseppe Capogrossi and the Scuola Romana of the 1930s is also closely related to the visionary elements of Magic Realism. In Belgium its surreal strand was exemplified by René Magritte, with his ‘fantasies of the commonplace’, and in the USA by Peter Blume, as in South of Scranton (1930–31; New York, Met.). Later artists associated with Magic Realism include the American George Tooker (b 1920), whose best-known work Subway (1950; New York, Whitney) captures the alienation of strangers gathered in public, and the German Christian Schad, who also used the style in the 1950s. The later use of the term for types of non-Western, particularly Latin American fiction was not connected with the artistic application.

Magnasco Alessandro (1667-1749). Italian painter in the manner of Salvator Rosa, of monks, gypsies, etc. in wild stormy landscapes.

Magnum [Magnum Photos, Inc.]. International photographic agency, founded with offices in New York and Paris in April 1947 by the photographers Robert Capa, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Chim, George Rodger (b 1908) and William Vandivert (1912–c. 1992). In the period after World War II, when illustrated news magazines flourished, Magnum became the most famous of picture agencies. This was initally due to the reputation of its founder-members, who had photographed the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) and World War II (three of them as correspondents for Life magazine). Its celebrity was sustained by the success of its work, the quality of the photographers it continued to attract and by the deaths while on assignment of Capa (the driving force behind Magnum), Chim and Werner Bischof, the first new member to be admitted.

Magritte Rene (1898-1967). Belgian Surrealist painter. His early work (c. 1920) was influenced by *Futurism and *Cubism. In 1925 he founded, with the Belgian poet and collagist E. L. T. Messens, the reviews Oesophage and Marie which launched Belgian ^Surrealism. From that year, and under the influence of De *Chirico's vision which showed him 'the ascendancy of poetry over painting', M. developed his personal style: literal paintings of precise, illusionistic images encapsulating poetic ideas, which transcend formal concerns and which suggest the mysterious and unknown presence, or action, of more than what can be seen, e.g. The Menaced Assassin (1926) which incorporates all the features of M.'s subsequent painting: perplexing narrative, suggesting the extraordinary by means of the ordinary, distortion of scales, an erotic quality, the unexpected, mysterious and unfamiliar. In 1927 M. went to Pans for 3 years and joined other Surrealists, before settling in Brussels for the rest of his life. M.'s 'magic realism', applied to different themes, changed little throughout his career, e.g. The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images (1928-9), which aims to subvert identity, The Human Condition I (1933), which introduces the theme of real space vs. painted spatial illusionism (trompe l'ail), Threatening Weather (1928) and The Ladder of Fire I (1933), The Castle of the Pyrenees (1959), and Delusions of Grandeur (1961). M.'s paintings did not receive wide attention until after World War II. The retrospective exhibition of his work at M.O.M.A., N.Y., in 1965, and subsequent large-scale retrospectives in London and Paris, however, confirmed him as one of the most important Surrealist artists and perhaps the most widely popular modernist painter of the 20th с M.'s characteristic style has since exerted a wide influence, also on posters, advertising and graphic design.

MA group. Hungarian group of artists and writers, active c. 1916 to 1926. It was associated with the journal MA, whose name was derived from the Hungarian for ‘today’, but it also refers to the movement Hungarian Activism. Founded by the writer and artist LAJOS KASSÁK, MA first appeared in November 1916, and from then until it was banned on 14 July 1919 it was published in Budapest, at first edited solely by Kassák and by 1917 by Béla Uitz also. From 1 May 1920 until its demise in mid-1926 it was published in Vienna under Kassák’s sole editorship. It was the most important forum for Hungarian Activism, and over the years its members included Sándor Bortnyik, Péter Dobrovic (1890–1942), Lajos Gulácsy, János Kmetty, János Máttis Teutsch, László Moholy-Nagy, Jószef Nemes Lampérth, Béla Uitz among others. The first issue had a Cubist cover by the Czech artist Vincenc Benes and an article by Kassák entitled ‘A plakát es az uj festészet’ (‘The poster and the new painting’, MA, pp. 2–4), which set the revolutionary tone of the group. The article suggested that painting should aspire to the same aggressive power as that achieved by posters: ‘The new painter is a moral individual, full of faith and a desire for unity! And his pictures are weapons of war!.’ Many members of the MA group did in fact produce posters during the short Communist regime under Béla Kun in 1919; Uitz, for example, designed Red Soldiers, Forward! (1919; Budapest, N.G.).

Mahabalipuram or Mamallapuram, Tamil-nadu, India. Coastal site near Madras of rock-carved Hindu sculpture and temples for the *Pallava king Narasimha Varman I (d. 688). The reliefs, in a developed, elegant post-Andhra style, include the Descent of the Ganges. On the beach are 5 small rock-cut temples, called Raths ('chariots [of the gods]'), profusely adorned with sculptures, and the early 8th-c. granite-built shore temple of Shiva.

Mahlon Blaine (1894 - 1969). Mahlon Blaine was a twentieth century American artist who is remembered chiefly today for his brilliant illustrations to many books, both children's and adult. His mastery of line was, and remains, unique and masterful. Likened, rightfully, to Aubrey Beardsley, Blaine was another original mind, and his interest in portraying the animal nature of humanity lost him a wider audience. The only monograph on the artist so far published is The Art of Mahlon Blaine (Peregrine Books, 1982), and this wonderful book, which includes a deep insight into the artist by his colleague Gershon Legman, contains a good cross-section of Blaine's colour and b-&-w art and an excellent bibliography of Blaine books compiled by Roland Trenary. Many other books illustrated by Blaine turn up commonly in secondhand bookshops: his illustrated versions of Voltaire's Candide and Sterne's A Sentimental Journey are frequently encountered. These books are good examples of his work, but the enthusiast is advised to pursue the many other Blaine-illustrated books, especially the weird-fantastic fiction titles so perfectly-suited to his work.

Maillol Aristide (1861-1944). French sculptor. He studied painting and sculpture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1882-6). He was associated with the Nabis as a painter and tapestry designer and did not concentrate solely on sculpture until c. 1897, when his sight was failing. His early works (wood carvings and terracotta statuettes) provided the basis of his later sculpture, most of which was cast in bronze. He was influenced at first by *Rodin (the 2 men shared a mutual respect), but his mature treatment of the figure, strengthened by a visit to Greece in 1906, has a sensuality which is closer to classical art than to Rodin's expressive and sometimes erotic Romanticism. M.'s whole oeuvre is built round the female nude. His most original work (r. 1898—1910) is important for its renewed respect for mass after the fluid surface richness of Rodin and the Impressionist sculpture of artists like M. *Rosso. Torso (1906) is typical in its massive simplicity of closed form with a strong sense of a contained dynamic energy. After 1910 his work was relatively uninventivc and ranges from the prosaic stylization of his Memorial to Cezanne (1912-25) to the rather theatrical quality of symbolic figures such as Air and River (1939-43).

Maitani Lorenzo. Italian sculptor and architect (b. ca. 1255, Siena, d. 1330, Orvieto)

Majo Bruno di was born in 1944 by italian parents in Tripoli, Lybia. He lives and works in Tuscany, Italy.

Makart Hans (1840-84). Austrian history painter of huge decorative canvases; student of *Piloty.

Makimono. *Japanese art

Makovets. Association of Russian painters and graphic artists active in Moscow from 1921 to 1926. The name is that of the hill at Sergiyev Posad, on which the monastery of the Trinity and St Sergius, a centre of Russian Orthodoxy, is located, although until 1924 the group was known as the ‘Art is Life’ Union of Artists and Poets (Rus. Soyuz khudozhnikov i poetov ‘Iskusstvo–zhizn’). Sergey Gerasimov, Lev F. Zhegin (1892–1969), Konstantin K. Zefirov (1879–1960), Vera Ye. Pestel’ (1896–1952), Sergei M. Romanovich (1894–1968), Artur Fonvizin, Vasily Chekrygin, Nikolai M. Chernyshov (1885–1973), Aleksandr Shevchenko and others joined the association. They were greatly influenced by the aesthetics of Pavel Florensky, who was the spiritual leader of the group.

Malczewski Jacek
(b Radom, 15 or 14 July 1854; d Kraków, 8 Oct 1929). Polish painter. He began his training in 1873 in Kraków’s School of Fine Arts on the instigation of the historical painter Jan Matejko (1838–93). Malczewski was initially taught by Wladyslaw Luszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Feliks Szynalewski (1825–92) and from 1875 worked exclusively under Matejko’s supervision. In 1876–7 he studied under Ernest Lehmann (1814–82) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; here he began to abandon Matejko’s historical subject-matter in order to tackle contemporary problems and give expression to his own experiences. He espoused the realism of, among others, Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school. In 1877 he again studied under Matejko but broke away in 1879. In 1880 he travelled to Italy and in 1884 acted as draughtsman for an archaeological expedition to Asia Minor, visiting en route Vienna, Trieste, the Albanian coastline, Rhodes and Athens. His mature work dates from after a period spent in Munich in 1885–6.

Malespine Emile (French, 1892-1952). Leader of the Lyons dadaists.

Malerisch (Ger. painterly). The art historian *Wolfflin gave a particular meaning to this term by using it to characterize the type of painting which expresses form in terms of colour and tone (e.g. Rembrandt and Titian) as opposed to line (e.g. Botticelli).

Malevich Kasimir (1878-1935). Russian painter born in Kiev, coming to Moscow about 1905 and working for the next few years in a private studio run by Roerich. From 1908 to 1910 M.'s work underwent rapid development under the impact of French Post-Impressionism (The * Golden Fleece) and came to the notice of *Larionov, who invited him to contribute to the 1st *Knave of Diamonds Exhibition. For the next 2 years he associated closely with Larionov and *Goncharova, sharing their interest in national folk-art as well as continuing his enthusiasm for the work of Cezanne, Matisse, Picasso and Van Gogh. Intimate with Russian Futurist poets, e.g. Mayakovsky and Khlebnikov, M. designed scenery and costumes for Victory over the Sun, produced in St Petersburg (1913), one of the back-cloths being an abstract black-and-white square. According to M., this production launched *Suprematism. During the next 2 years he painted a series of Surrealist and 'nonsense Realist' works, e.g. An Unglishman in Moscow. In 1915 he exhibited 36 abstract canvases, including the famous Black Square. In this later period of Suprematism (1917-18), e.g. Sensation of the Space of the Universe, soft amorphous forms combined with geometric; 2 series dominated, those using a cross form and a White on White series such as the painting of a white square on a white ground in 1918. After this M. ceased to paint except as illustration to theories expounded in a series of pamphlets and small books. His 1st idealized architectural drawings (1915—16) developed into 3-dimensional plaster sculptures, Architectonicas; during the 1920s M. was influential as a teacher in Vitebsk and Moscow and from 1922 in Leningrad.

Maliavin Philip (b Kazanka, Samara region [now Orenburg region], 10 Oct 1869; d Nice, July, 1940). Russian painter and draughtsman. He studied icon painting at the St Panteleimon monastery, Agios-Oros, Greece, from 1885 to 1891. He then enrolled at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, where he stayed until 1899, taking lessons from Il’ya Repin, one of his principal influences, before embarking on his career as a painter. At the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris he was awarded a gold medal for his picture Laughter (Venice, Ca’ Pesaro), a celebration of peasant women. Malyavin enjoyed a certain success for his many vivid, colourful portrayals of peasant women, further examples being Peasant Woman in Yellow (1903; Nizhniy Novgorod, A. Mus.) and Whirlwind (1906; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). He was also noted for his fine portraits of contemporaries, such as Grabar (1895) and Somov (1895; both St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.).

Malkine Georges (1898-1970) was not mentioned in Le Surrealisme et la peinture, despite the fact that he had been a member of the 'heroic wave'. La Revolution surrealiste published his drawn stories, his drawing Ecstasy, and his painting The Valley of Chevreuse. He was a friend of Robert Desnos, and illustrated his The Night of Loveless Nights. Malkine had an inventive mind which was supported by a kind of pictorial sensuality. But he was little concerned to make a career in art, being too absorbed by the vicissitudes of his life, which led him into a strange mixture of trades : violinist, photographer, street vendor of neckties, actor, fairground hand, proof-reader. Claude-Andre Puget, who had known him since his youth, said of him : 'His was the only genuinely surrealist existence I have known.' In 1927 Malkine's exhibition at the Galerie Surrealiste was a great success. Shortly afterwards he left for the South Seas, where he travelled for three years. He was able to get back to France only by working his passage as a dishwasher. He began to paint again in 1930 and continued until 1933, when he stopped. He did not resume painting until he went to live in America in 1949. His work has retained a vein of surrealist fantasy, as his 1966 tribute to the composer Satie (a kindred spirit) shows.

Malouel Jean (d. 1419?). Flemish artist and court painter (from 1397) to Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy. He was commissioned to paint 5 altarpieces for the Chartreuse of Champmol in 1 398 and was one of the earliest panel painters of N. Europe.

Mamallapuram. *Mahabalipuram

Mamontov Savva Ivanovich. Muscovite merchant and railway tycoon who during the 1870s and 1880s gathered round himself on his estate at *Abramtsevo the most prominent painters of the Wanderers group. In 1883 he opened his 'Private Opera' in Moscow where he introduced the music of Rimsky Korsakov, Borodin and Mussorgsky to the Russian public and where Chaliapin made his debut. These productions were also revolutionary in their use of painters as stage designers, a tradition continued directly by Diaghilev. Stanislavsky was a cousin of M.

Man Ray (1890—1976). U.S. painter, photographer, film maker; one of the founders of the New York *Dada movement and long associated with *Surrealism, though by temperament an eclectic. In the 1920s and 1930s he worked in Paris, mainly as a photographer: he and *Moholy-Nagy explored the principles of space and motion in a type of photography that bypassed the camera and concerned itself with forms produced directly on the photographic printing paper. He wrote an autobiography, Self Portrait (1963).

Manes Union of Artists [Czech Spolek vytvarnych umelcu Mánes].

Czech association of painters, sculptors, architects, critics and art historians, active from 1887 to 1949. It was founded in 1887 by students at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts whose aim was to develop the Bohemian artistic traditions embodied in the work of Josef Mánes (see MÁNES, (2)) and of artists of the older generation such as Mikolás Ales, whom they elected as their first president. In the mid-1890s, when the union comprised almost the entire younger generation of artists, it specifically associated itself with the Secessionist movement in central Europe. In the autumn of 1896 it started publishing the first Czech art journal, Volné smery, and from 1898 onwards it organized exhibitions that expressed the new artistic values, both as regards the choice of works and the methods of presentation. Among the leading personalities were the sculptor Stanislav Sucharda, the painter Jan Preisler and the architect Jan Kotera. The union collaborated with the Hagenbund of Vienna, and established many contacts with Paris and other artistic centres. Members systematically brought modern European art to the notice of the Bohemian public, organized the Rodin retrospective exhibition of 1902, for which the society built a fin-de-sičcle exhibition pavilion to Kotera’s design, and also mounted numerous other exhibitions. In 1911 the younger generation, led by Emil Filla, left the union and founded the GROUP OF PLASTIC ARTISTS. When the latter fell into decline during World War I, the majority of those who had left returned to the Mánes Union, occupying a decisive position in it during the inter-war period. In 1930 the union opened a functionalist exhibition building, designed by Otakar Novotny. In the 1930s it supported contemporary artistic trends and provided a venue for avant-garde architects and Surrealist artists. In 1936, when the photographic section was founded, the union brought together the avant-garde of the 1920s and 1930s at the International Exhibition of Photography. The last influx of strength into the union was linked with the generation that matured in the late 1930s, including Josef Istler, Václav Tikal, Zdenek Sklenár and Karel Cerny. Soon after the Communist putsch in Czechoslovakia in 1948 the union went into decline.

Manet Edouard (1832—83). French painter born in Pans. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1850—6) under Couture. His Spanish Cttitar Player (i860) was awarded an honourable mention at the 1861 Salon, his only real public success. He continued to cherish official recognition, believing the Salon to be the 'real field of battle' and was reluctant to link his name with younger revolutionaries. In the 1 860s, however, he was himself the main object of controversy and ridicule. The barrage of hostility which greeted Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe (1861—3) at the famous Salon des Refuses of 1863 was followed in 1865 by the scandalized outcry against Olympia (1863-5). From the start M. had followed the advice of Baudelaire and Courbet to paint modern life. The main public objection was that reality was not adequately disguised: the unabashed nakedness of the female figures was offensive to a public that could approve open eroticism in the right classical garb. In fact M. was little concerned with subject matter; he used highly respectable traditional compositions taken from Giorgione, Raphael and Titian on which to base his scenes of modern life. His primary interest was in the organization of the picture surface. Olympia is flooded with a strong frontal light producing simple tonal contrasts and flattening form and space.
The chief formative influence on M.'s style was that of Spanish art; already fervently Hispanophile, he visited Spam in 1865 and declared Velazquez 'the painter of painters'. The figure of M.'s Le Fijre (1866) is isolated against a nondescript grey ground, and his early ideas crystallized in the maturity of Le Balcon (1868) and Le Dejeuner a I'Atelier (1868), with a fluid directness of execution and a cool grey/green palette that owe much to Velazquez. He admired the same painterly facility in Frans Hals while visiting Holland in 1872.
During the 1870s at Argenteuil he came under the influence of the Impressionists. Although often linked with them by his contemporaries (he was congratulated for 2 Monet seascapes in 1865, much to his dismay), he is really important with Courbet as their predecessor: in the steadfast integrity of his stand against official disapproval, in his lack of concern for subject matter in painting and in the establishment of the artist's complete freedom in handling colours and tone. He never exhibited with the Impressionists and during the 1870s continued to paint highly composed studio pictures (In the Conservatory 1879). His last important work, Le Bar aux Folies-Bergeres (1882), returned to his ideas of the 1860s.
He was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur in 1882, but he died bitter and cynical about this late recognition. A large memorial exhibition was held at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, bastion of officialdom, in 1884.

Manfredi Bartolomeo (c 1580—с 1620). Italian painter, born near Mantua, who worked in Rome (1610—19). His paintings were influenced by, and are sometimes mistaken for, those of Caravaggio. M. influenced the Utrecht school. I le later adopted Mannerism and painted religious subjects in a genre idiom.

Mannerism. Any affectation of style, but used more specifically of Italian painting, sculpture and architecture of the period between the High Renaissance and the Baroque period. Architecturally it differs from Renaissance in its deliberate contradiction of classical rules (e.g. regarding the use of orders), aiming at discord instead of harmony and strain instead of repose; and from Baroque in not fusing all its elements into unified, dynamic patterns, but producing effects of ambiguity and discomfort rather than energy and confidence. It is first fully realized in Michelangelo's Vestibule of the Laurentian Library (1523) and characterizes most of the works of Giulio Romano, Ammanati, Ligorio, Buontalenti and Vignola. Similar qualities appear in French and British architecture slightly later. M. painting is also characterized by a search for novelty and excitement leading to capriciously elongated figures on complicated *contraposto, asymmetrical composition with huge discrepancies in scale, and harsh colour. Michelangelo, Tintoretto and El Greco are the great creative exponents of M., but the style is best exemplified in the paintings of such artists as Parmigianino, Rosso and Pontonno; other Mannerist painters and sculptors include Daniele da Volterra, Niccolo dell'Abbate, Bronzmo, Cellini and Giovanni da Bologna.

Mansart Francois (1598-1666) was appointed architect to Louis XIII of France in 1636. He was one of the creators of the style classique, which developed from the cultural renaissance in 16th-century France and replaced the Mannerist style with a more purely classical and distinctively French version of the European Baroque. His great-nephew and pupil Jules Hardouin-Mansart became royal architect in 1675 and built the Palace of Versailles around an earlier building by Louis Le Vau, as well as the dome of the Invalides in Paris (1680-1707). His designs for city squares made him an influential town planner in his day. The Mansarts gave their name to the high, steeply pitched "mansard" roof.
Manship Paul (b St Paul, MN, 25 Dec 1885; d New York, 1 Feb 1966). American sculptor. He grew up in St Paul, MN, where he attended evening classes at the St Paul Institute of Art from 1892 to 1903. In 1905 he went to New York and studied at the Art Students League, before becoming an assistant to the sculptor Solon Borglum (1868–1922). The following year Manship moved to Philadelphia to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. In 1909 he won the Prix de Rome and attended the American Academy in Rome (1909–12). During this period he not only received rigorous technical training but also toured Italy, Greece and Egypt, where he became the first of many modern American sculptors who were attracted to the abstract qualities of Etruscan, ancient Greek and Egyptian art.

Mantegna Andrea (c. 1431 —1506). Northern Italian painter and engraver. M. appears to have been both the apprentice and the adopted son of the antiquarian and painter F. Squarcione, tor 6 years in Padua, before freeing himself in a lawsuit. Squarcione's studies of antiquity, the humanistic influences of Padua Univ. and the masterpieces resulting from Donatello's 10-year stay in the city were each important in the formation of M.'s art. He painted The Assumption, 4 Scenes from the Life of St James and The Martyrdom of St Christopher in the Ovetari chapel, Eremitani church, Padua (1448—59). All but the last of these important frescoes were destroyed during World War II. In them, and in such paintings as the St Zenо Altarpiece and ,St Sebastian, M.'s debt to Donatello is obvious: not only are the monumental qualities of sculpture reproduced but even the surface often appears to be made of metal or stone. Classical motifs are actually distracting in the „St Sebastian, and M. attempts to reproduce the effect of a Roman bas-relief in paint on canvas in such monochrome works as Judith with the Head of Holofernes. In predella panels, e.g. the superb Crucifixion, the figures are less sculptural, though the landscape is ordered with the same rigour. M. married the daughter of Jacopo Bellini in 1453, and the strengthening of his connection with the Venetians is illustrated by The Agony in the Garden, a painting based on a drawing by Bellini. In 1460 M. became court painter to the Gonzaga family, and in their palace at Mantua painted frescoes of incidents m the lives of his patrons. Most important is the ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi. An illusion of an opened roof above the spectator's head is created, with a blue sky and a circle of figures gazing down into the room. This is the first use of such effects and it was to lead directly to Correggio and the Baroque masters' exploitation of lllusionistic perspective.
At the Gonzaga court M. formed a coll. of classical works of art which was the envy of the Pope. He also executed the fine engravings on classical subjects, such as Battle of the Sea Gods and Death of Orpheus, which were to influence I Mirer and other graphic artists. For the Gonzagas he painted The Triumphs of Caesar. One of his last works was the magnificent Dead Christ.

Manuscripts Illuminated. Gothic Art

Manzoni Piero (1933-63). Italian artist, until 1956 working figuratively m a traditional style; his work then changed abruptly and radically. Many works are entitled Achrome, made of polystyrene pellets in various shapes and forms. In 1960 he made Artist's Breath, a balloon on a wooden base. With the Gruppo Nucleare he signed the 'Manifesto against style' in 1957.

Mapplethorpe Robert (1946—89). U.S. photographer noted for his black-and-white flower studies, nudes, self-portraits, and portraits of artists and celebrities, as well as for his controversial S & M depictions. His work, unlike that of many other contemporary photographers who deal with issues of sexuality, has acquired the status of high art.

see also:
Robert Mapplethorpe. Lisa Lyon, 1982

Maquette. In sculpture a small preliminary model in wax or clay.

Marc Franz (1880—1916). German *Expressionist painter born in Munich; he studied philosophy and theology at the University and then painting at the Academy. He was one of the founders of the *Blaue Reiter group in Munich in 1911. He was killed at Verdun. Working in close association with *Kandinsky, M. explored the expressive values of colour. This preoccupation with colour was partly inspired by the *Orphist paintings of *l)elaunay, whom he visited in Paris with Маске in 1912, and probably also by Goethe's Farbeulehre. Although he remained a painter of animals, paintings like Tiger (1912) are primarily expressive through their simple planes of colour; and in Fighting Forms (1914) he was Hearing a point of abstract expressionism.

Marcantonio Raimondi (1480-1534). Italian engraver; his most important works are engravings reproducing paintings by Raphael and his school, an art which he was the first to practise.

Marcks Gerhard (1889-1967). German sculptor; his work has been almost exclusively on the theme of the nude figure, in the tradition of Barlach and Lehmbruck. He taught at the *Bauhaus (1920—5), where he ran the pottery studio.

Marees Hans von (1837—87). German painter who studied in Berlin but later worked in Munich and, after 1865, in Rome. He specialized in frescoes and large landscapes, and his work influenced that of *Bocklin and *Beckmann.

Marey Etienne-Jules (b Beaune, 5 March 1830; d Paris, 16 May 1904). French photographer. His photographic research was primarily a tool for his work on human and animal movement. A doctor and physiologist, Marey invented, in 1888, a method of producing a series of successive images of a moving body on the same negative in order to be able to study its exact position in space at determined moments, which he called ‘chronophotographie’. He took out numerous patents and made many inventions in the field of photography, all of them concerned with his interest in capturing instants of movement. In 1882 he invented the electric photographic gun using 35 mm film, the film itself being 20 m long; this photographic gun was capable of producing 12 images per second on a turning plate, at 1/720 of a second. He began to use transparent film rather than sensitized paper in 1890 and patented a camera using roll film, working also on a film projector in 1893. He also did research into stereoscopic images. Marey’s chronophotographic studies of moving subjects were made against a black background for added precision and clarity. These studies cover human locomotion—walking, running and jumping (e.g. Successive Phases of Movement of a Running Man, 1882; see Berger and Levrault, cat. no. 95); the movement of animals—dogs, horses, cats, lizards, etc.; and the flight of birds—pelicans, herons, ducks etc. He also photographed the trajectories of objects—stones, sticks and balls—as well as liquid movement and the functioning of the heart. He had exhibitions in Paris in 1889, 1892 and 1894, and in Florence in 1887.

Margarito of Arezzo. Italian painter sometimes identified with Margantone of Magnano. According to Vasari he lived from 1236 to 131ft. He painted in a rigid, linear 'Romanesque' style, producing many paintings of St Francis.

Margo Boris (1902-1995). Ukrainian-born American Surrealist Painter and Printmaker

Mariani Carlo Maria (born in 1931)

Marinali Orazio (b Angarano, 24 Feb 1643; d Vicenza, 7 April 1720). The most celebrated member of the family, he trained in Venice with Josse de Corte, the leading sculptor in the city at that time, whose dramatic power and feeling for chiaroscural effects Orazio adopted. De Corte’s influence is to be found most clearly in Orazio’s early works, such as the marble statues of the Virgin and Child with SS Dominic and Catherine (1679), made for the altar of the Rosary in S Nicolň, Treviso, and the Virgin and Child with Saints, Angels and Putti, made for the cathedral in Bassano del Grappa. Orazio became a prolific sculptor of religious works, and he was active in towns throughout the Veneto. Most of his works are initialled ‘O.M.’. Although he collaborated with his brother Angelo on numerous occasions, Orazio remained the dominant partner. In 1681, for example, the city of Bassano del Grappa commissioned from both Marinali brothers the statue of St Bassano, the city’s patron saint, for the main square (in situ). One of Orazio’s own particularly successful projects was his decoration for the church of S Maria di Monte Berico, Vicenza, executed between 1690 and 1703. Here he provided numerous imposing statues of saints and reliefs in pietra tenera (a soft limestone from near Taranto) for the exterior and stucco figures of four prophets and marble Holy Water stoups for the interior. In 1704 he completed the high altar of S Giuliano, Vicenza, with marble figures of the Risen Christ with Saints. Nearly all the sculptures there are signed by him. He later (1715–17) executed the marble figures of the Guardian Angel and the Angel Gabriel for the altar of SS Sacramento in S Giovanni Battista, Bassano.

Marinetti Filippo Tommaso (1876—1944). Italian poet (writing in French and Italian) and novelist, remembered as the founder of *Futurism: he publ. its 1st manifesto in 1909.

Marini Marino (1901—66). Considered by some as the leading Italian sculptor since Boccioni and Rosso. He studied painting and sculpture at the Florence Academy and then sculpture in Paris (1928). His ceuvre includes paintings and prints in several media, and some of his sculpture is itself painted. His principal theme has been that of the horse and rider.

Marlin Brigid (born January 16, 1936) is a fantasy and portrait artist living in England. She paints in the Mische Technique, a medieval method revived by Austrian artist Ernst Fuchs, with whom she studied in Vienna. Her fantasy work can be classified as Fantastic Realism, i.e. using figurative elements to represent visionary and psychic subjects, often with scriptural themes. She has painted portraits, inter alia, of the Dalai Lama, J G Ballard and Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. Her portrait of J G Ballard hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London. She founded the Inscape group in 1961, which later became the Society for Art of Imagination.

Marquet Pierre-Albert (1875-1947). French painter who studied under G. *Moreau. He subsequently became associated with the Fauvists and with *Matisse, with whom he went to Morocco in 1913. M. later frequently returned there to paint.

Mars Chris. Fantastic art.

MARS Group [Modern Architectural Research Group].

Organization of British architects, designers, engineers and journalists that was started in 1933 and dissolved in 1957. The MARS Group formed the British section of the CIAM and was established by Wells Coates with the architects E. Maxwell Fry and David Pleydell-Bouverie and the critics Philip Morton Shand, Hubert de Cronin Hastings and John Gloag. Its initial membership, mostly young architects with little experience of building, included the partners of Connell Ward and Lucas, and Tecton; the writers John Betjeman and James Richards; and Ove Arup. With c. 24 members by 1934, it grew to a peak of 120 by 1938, but the group was most significant in policy-making within the CIAM during the 1950s.

Marsh Reginald (1898-1954). U.S. painter of city scenes who worked on newspapers and studied under К. Н. Miller. His etchings of N.Y. life verge on caricature.

Martens Adrie (1944), grown up in The Haque,a town in Holland. In 1965 she married Jan (Maurice), the naive Painter.
During the period when the children grown up, she had no time and no inspiration to make paintings.
First in 1991, when her son and daughter left the house, she was able to start her painting hobby again.
Since her childhood , Adrie was always surrounded by lot of pets. In the period when she was living with her family in the country, she also kept sheeps,a goat, rabbits, ducks,chickens, cats a dog and a lot of other lovely animals.
Thats why she is inspirated by them. People with animals ,which she paint in a naďve style, are the most important objects in her paintings.
Her work is in possession of private persons, collectors and institutions.

Martincau Robert Uraithwaite (182ft—69). British genre and portrait painter, pupil ot 1 lolinan Hunt.

Martin Charles (French, ca.1812-1906). Art Deco.

Martin John (1789-1854). British Romantic painter of visionary and apocalyptic landscape and other subjects: he also painted heroic or Old Testament subjects, with hundreds of figures often in fantastic architectural settings.

Martini Alberto "Danza Macabra Europea"

Martini Arturo (b Treviso, 11 Aug 1889; d Milan, 22 March 1947). Italian sculptor. He was self-taught as a sculptor, though he started work in Treviso as an apprentice ceramist, an occupation to which he returned later in life. From 1906 to 1907 he attended the studio in Treviso of a local sculptor, A. Carlini (1859–1945), and subsequently studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice where he was taught by the Italian sculptor Urbano Nono (1849–1925). In 1909 he met Gino Rossi and with him took part in exhibitions at the Ca’ Pesaro in Venice, organized by the art critic Nino Barbantini.

Martini Simone (c. 1284—1344). Sienese painter, the pupil of Duccio, M. drew upon Duecio's colour harmonics while pursuing his own experiments in using line for decorative purposes, so that his later works become almost abstract compositions. By 1315 he was sufficiently well thought of to be commissioned to paint a Maesta for the town hall of Siena. This work makes obvious M.'s debt to Duccio, but it also shows his knowledge of the sculpture of the Pisani and of the use of line m Sienese art. I le was brought in direct contact with the court art and literature of France when he was summoned to the French kingdom of Naples by Robert of Anjou in 1317 to paint St Louis of Toulouse Crowning the King. In 1320 he was painting in Pisa and Orvieto. By 1328 he was in Siena to paint the famous portrait of Guidoriccio da Fogliano reviewing his battle-lines on horseback, and other frescoes in the town hall. He was in Florence in 1333, working with his brother-in-law *Memmi. Both artists signed the Annunciation, which is one of the masterpieces of Sienese painting. In 1339 M. was at the court of the Papacy at Avignon. Here he became the close friend of Petrarch; he is known to have painted Petrarch's Laura, but this portrait has been lost. 'Surely my friend Simone was once in paradise', Petrarch said, and it was M.'s conception of the earthly paradise as the scene of courtly love that was to influence the artists of the international Gothic style throughout Europe.

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