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Hogarth William (1697-1764). British painter, engraver and caricaturist whose innovations in art and genius in depicting the English national character give him an importance even beyond his great talent as an artist. H. was trained as an engraver on plate. He studied painting at the rudimentary academies then open in London but undoubtedly profited more from Ins study
of European paintings from engravings and his incredible visual memory. Later he apprenticed himself to Sir James Thornhill, marrying Thornhill's daughter in 1729 and inheriting from him the academy which was to be a forerunner of the R.A. H. won an early reputation for small groups and conversation pieces, e.g. Assembly at Wanstead House, and for brilliantly captured dramatic scenes, such as the many versions of The Beggar's Opera. In 1731 he won a far wider fame with the first of his story-series of paintings, The Harlot's Progress. This form was quite new, certainly to secular painting. The series combined the appeal of the street ballad with that of a play, having a strong plot, allusions to contemporaries and a moral none could miss. So popular were the engravings made from this series that H. was forced to defend himself by promoting a Copyright Act before issuing the later series: The Rake's Progress, Marriage a la Mode and The Industrious and Idle Apprentice. Similar in style arc the 4 electioneering paintings and the famous О the Roast Beef of Old England. H. campaigned vigorously in his engravings against cruelty, the drinking of crude spirit and the domination of English taste by foreign artists. He undoubtedly suffered as a painter from the prejudice against native-born artists and from his own popularity as a propagandist and caricaturist. In 1753 H. publ. The Analysis of Beauty. This was in part a polemic against uncritical appreciation in the arts and in part a serious contribution to aesthetics, describing a 'line of beauty' supposed to be present in all works of visual art. His history paintings, Pool of Bethesda and The Good Samaritan were ignored, his Sigismunda was abused; even the originals of his famous engravings often remained unsold or were sold for very little. More important, H.'s unusual talent as a portrait painter went unrewarded. Fine examples are Captain Coram, Graham Children, William Jones, Self-portrait with Pug, The Artist's Servants, a masterly study of contrasting character, and the vigorous, charming and technically fascinating Shrimp Girl.

see also: Hogarth William  "A Harlot's Progress"

Hohokam. Pre-historic N. American Indian culture, centred on the Gila and Salt rivers, Arizona; it fl, c. 400—1400 AD. Its colourful products include remarkable polychrome pottery, animal carvings in stone and quartzite (related in style to Anasazi sculptures) and *cire perdue copper castings.

Hokusai Katsushika (Nakajima Tet-Sujiro) (1760—1849). Extraordinarily prolific Japanese painter and graphic artist, to Europeans the most famous exponent of the colour print, which had great influence on Western painting. He produced his greatest work between  1818—30, The Wave being perhaps his best-known print.

Holbein Hans the Elder (b Augsburg, ?1460–65; d 1534). Painter and draughtsman.The date of his birth has been estimated from his earliest signed painting, the Death of the Virgin (Budapest, Mus. F.A.), which is dated 148(?). His earliest surviving dated altarpiece is the St Afra Altarpiece, produced for the church of SS Ulrich and Afra, Augsburg (1490; Eichstätt, Bischof. Pal.; Basle, Kstmus.). In 1493 he was recorded, buying a house in Augsburg, as ‘Hans Holbein the painter, citizen of Ulm’; he was then working in Ulm with the sculptor Michel Erhart on the Weingartner Altarpiece, depicting scenes from the Life of the Virgin, for the chapel of the Virgin in the Benedictine monastery at Weingarten (1493; panels, Augsburg Cathedral; carvings untraced); here the style of the paintings reveals the influence of the Netherlandish style of Rogier van der Weyden. By this date, however, Holbein had already developed stylistic traits of his own: the ability to depict individual facial characteristics, the clear and symmetrical organization of his figures within the available space (here placing them within various architectural structures, which serve both to delineate the subsidiary scenes and to unify the separate panels of the altarpiece) and the use of warm, glowing colour.

Holbein Hans the Younger (1497/8—1543). German artist. H.'s father, Hans H., the Elder, had a large workshop in Augsburg. When this was disbanded, H. and his brother Ambrosius apprenticed themselves to a painter in Basel. H. soon won a wide reputation for his work undertaken for the Basel book printers. Besides designs for wood blocks, he was already painting portraits and commissions for churches. In his larger works a certain awkwardness and overcrowding is noticeable. In 1517 H. visited Lucerne and may have entered N. Italy. Returning to Basel, he married and quickly became a citizen of importance. At this period his fame was spread throughout Europe by the ills to the Luther Bible (1522) and the woodcuts of the famous Alphabet of Death and Dance of Death. Despite this success, H. was driven by doubts of his financial future during the disturbed conditions of the Reformation to seek work in Britain. During his 1st visit in 1526 he was patronized by the circle of Sir Thomas More. He went back to Basel for a period, but was in Britain once more in 1532. His patrons of the 1st visit were disgraced or dead. H. first painted the German merchants of the steelyard and was then introduced to the king. Until his death H. was employed by Henry VIII in a wide assortment of tasks, ranging from designing court costumes, silverware, jewellery and triumphal arches to painting the actual and prospective brides of the monarch. Outstanding among H.'s portraits are the superb Christina of Denmark, George Gisze, The Artist's Wife and 2 Children, Anne of Cleves and his 'showpiece' the double portrait, The Ambassadors. H. made many drawings for portraits and those of the court ladies are among the masterpieces of portrait drawing. Of H.'s other work, his miniature painting is important for itself, e.g. Mrs Pemberton, and for its influence on British miniature painting. H.'s outstanding early works for churches are the Dead Christ and the Madonnas of Solothurn and Darmstadt.

Holiday Henry (b London, 17 June 1839; d London, 15 April 1927). English stained-glass artist, painter and illustrator. He studied painting in London at Leigh’s Art School and the Royal Academy Schools, where he was influenced by Pre-Raphaelitism. Contact with Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s circle and the architect William Burges introduced him to the applied arts, and from 1863 he worked primarily as a stained-glass artist, particularly in collaboration with the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons and Heaton, Butler & Bayne. After visiting Italy in 1867 he abandoned his early Pre-Raphaelite style for one inspired by Classical and Renaissance art, aiming to create a ‘modern’ style of stained glass no longer dependent on medievalism. His memorial window (1868) to the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in Westminster Abbey and the complete glazing scheme (1869–75) of St Mary Magdalene, Paddington, London, illustrate the expressive figure drawing and feeling for monumental scale characteristic of all his mature work. In 1891, dissatisfied with the working methods of the commercial stained-glass firms, he established his own workshop in Hampstead, London, and experimented successfully with making pot-metal glass. Many of Holiday’s later commissions were for American churches; his windows (1898–1925) in Holy Trinity, Manhattan, New York, reveal the influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement in their emphatic leading and use of richly textured glass. As a painter Holiday is best known for his Dante and Beatrice (1883; Liverpool, Walker A.G.); his most important illustrations are those for Lewis Carroll’s The Hunting of the Snark (1876). He also produced graphics in support of such social and political causes as Dress Reform and Irish Home Rule. In 1892 he became editor of Aglaia, the journal of the Healthy and Artistic Dress Union, contributing articles and illustrations.

Holst Richard Roland (b Amsterdam, 4 Dec 1868; d Bloemendaal, 31 Dec 1938). Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebй. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (1903–6) in the headquarters of the Algemeene Nederlandsche Diamantbewerkers Bond (ANDB) he developed these principles into a severe system based on geometric foundations, which can be found in all his later work. This includes more murals in the ANDB’s headquarters (1912 and 1936–7), a number of stained-glass windows, for example in the Amsterdam Lyceum (1920–27), in the post offices of Haarlem (1923) and Utrecht (1931) and in the cathedral in Utrecht (1926 and 1934–6), and decorated marble panels in the Supreme Court in The Hague (1937–8; destr.). In addition, throughout his career he designed sober, geometric exhibition and theatre posters, book jackets, magazine covers and programmes, mostly as lithographs. He also designed books.

Homer Winslow (1836—1910). U.S. painter, pictorial journalist and ill. He covered the Civil War for Harper's Weekly and achieved recognition as a painter with Prisoners from the Front (1866). Between 1867 and 1880 his subjects were broadly treated rural genre scenes, e.g. Gloucester Farm (1874) but after a visit to Britain (1881—2) he returned to violent realistic paintings connected with the sea. e.g. The Life Line (1884). Later he adopted an Impressionistic watercolour technique.

Homme–Temoin. French group of painters who held their first exhibition as a group at the Salon des Moins de Trente Ans in June 1948. Their manifesto, which affirmed their commitment to realism and to communism, was drawn up and published by the critic Jean Bouret. In the preface to the exhibition catalogue he stated that ‘painting exists to bear witness, and nothing human can remain foreign to it’. The best-known artists associated with the group were Bernard Buffet and Bernard Lorjou (b 1908). Buffet’s style, as represented by such series as Flagellation, Resurrection (both 1952) and Horrors of War (1954), illustrates the atmosphere of ‘existential’ Angst that characterized the work of many painters associated with Homme–Témoin. Lorjou’s the Atomic Age (1950) is a tableau of post-war urban suffering, oppression and spiritual longing. The painters were obviously strongly influenced by the harsh and expressionistic styles of Francis Gruber and Chaïm Soutine. In content, their work developed almost into a pastiche of those contemporary artists who protested against war atrocities or political opposition to tyranny, such as Fautrier or Matisse.

Honthorst Gerrit van (1590—1656). Dutch painter, trained in Utrecht, but in Rome by about 1610. H. was very popular m Italy, where he was known as 'Gherardo delle Notti' because of his dramatically lit night scenes after Caravaggio (Christ before the High Priest). H. was largely responsible for bringing the innovations of Caravaggio to Holland on his return there in 1620. Enjoying an international reputation, he was invited to the English court in 1628 ((Charles I and Henrietta Maria with the Liberal Arts) and to the Danish court in 1635. As Dutch court painter he painted the Baroque decorations at Huisten-Bosch.

Hooch Pieter de (1629—after 1683). Dutch painter, the contemporary of N. Maes and Vermeer of Delft and, like them, a recorder of scenes of middle-class life. H. is first recorded as 'painter and footman' in the household of a rich merchant. After 1654 he lived in Delft and his art declined when he moved to Amsterdam, e. 1663, and tried to portray a higher stratum of society. Like Vermeer, he was interested in optics and the fall of light. His colour harmonies are simple and very effective. Among his best works are: Courtyard in Delft, Wonan Peeling Apples, The Pantry and The Linen Cupboard.

Hood Raymond (b Pawtucket, RI, 21 March 1881; d Stamford, CT, 15 Aug 1934). American architect. The son of a prosperous box manufacturer in Rhode Island, he had a strict, religious and inhibiting upbringing that took some years to outgrow. He was educated locally, taking a first degree at Brown University, Providence, RI, before proceeding in 1899 to the architecture school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. In 1901 he joined the office of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, where he absorbed from Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue a feeling for the Gothic tradition in American architecture, which was to be an important supplement to his grounding in Beaux-Arts Classicism. In 1904 he went to study in Paris, enrolling in the Atelier Duquesne at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He spent much of the next seven years in Paris or travelling in Europe, apart from an interlude in 1906–8 when he worked in Pittsburgh and New York for his friend Henry Hornbostel (1867–1961). During this period he developed into a sharp, confident, ambitious, worldly and entertaining young architect of much potential, but with a conventional Beaux-Arts approach to style and planning. His early projects are impressive chiefly for their balance of Gothic and classical vocabularies.

Hoogstraten Samuel van (1627-78). Dutch painter of portraits, genre and religious subjects and architectural fantasies. He studied under Rembrandt in Amsterdam. He was famous for his experiments with *trompe l'aeil and perspective illusionism, e.g. his peepshow box.

Hopper Edward (1 882—1967). U.S. painter. He was a student of *Henri and showed at the *Armory Show. In the late 1930s he emerged as a major realist painter of the U.S. scene, developing a personal, severe style of depiction and going against the current of European influence and abstraction. His work is formally sharp with harsh contrasts of light and shadow, and despite its figurative content is essentially modernist in spirit, which accounts for his reputation as a master of 2Oth-c. U.S. art.


Horta Victor (born Jan. 6, 1861, Ghent - died Sept. 8, 1947, Brussels) an outstanding architect of the Art Nouveau style, who ranks with Henry van de Velde and Paul Hankar as a pioneer of modern Belgian architecture. Trained at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, 1876–81, Horta became a pupil of the Neoclassical architect Alphonse Balat. His first independent building, the four-storied Hotel Tassel in Brussels (1892–93), was among the first continental examples of Art Nouveau, although it incorporated Neo-Gothic and Neo-Rococo stylistic elements. An important feature was its octagonal hall with a staircase leading to various levels. The curved line, characteristic of the Art Nouveau style, was used on the facade and also in the interior. Other buildings in Brussels in his rich, elegant style are Hotel Solvay (1895–1900), notable for the plastic treatment of its facade, and Hotel Winssingers (1895–96), as well as his own house on the rue Americaine (1898). His chiefwork is the Maison du Peuple, Brussels (1896–99), which was the first structure in Belgium to have a largely iron and glass facade. In its auditorium the iron roof beams are both structural and decorative. After 1900 Horta simplified his style, using decoration more sparingly and eliminating exposed iron. In 1912 he became the director of the academy and designed the Palais des Beaux-Arts (1922–28) in a simple and severe classical style; his last major undertaking was the central railway station in Brussels, begun just before World War II.


Houdon Jean-Antoine (1741-1828). French sculptor who studied under J.-B. Pigalle and J.-B. Lemoyne and worked in Rome from 1764 to 1768; there he came under the influence of J. J. *Winckelmann and his circle. For some tune he followed the style of late Baroque sculpture but gradually adopted the colder manner of Neoclassicism. His best and most numerous works are portraits, which include busts of Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire and George Washington.

Hours, Book of. *Book of Hours

Hoysala. Medieval Indian dynasty of Mysore (c. 1110—1327). The Keshava temple at Somnathpur (late 13th c.) is characteristic of H. architecture with star-shaped plan, fine filigree sculptural decoration and flat roofs. Other classic sites are at Belur and Halebid. H. sculpture includes a renowned stele (stone slab) of the elephant-headed Hindu god Ganesha and sculptures of the sun god Surya and of Durga.

Huaxte. Mexican *Pre-Columbian culture fl. AD 900—1519. The H. produced large limestone sculptures and pottery decorated with black designs on a cream base.

Hudson River school. Name loosely applied to a number of I9th-c. U.S. Romantic landscape painters who worked mainly, though not exclusively, in the vicinity of the Catskill Mountains and the Hudson River. They were never an organized group but shared a sense of wonderment at the grandeur of the newly discovered U.S. landscape. Painstaking attention to detail is a common feature of their style. *Bierstadt, *Church, *Cole and *Doughty are among the many representatives of the school.

Hughes Arthur (1832-1915). British painter of the later phase of *Pre-Raphaelitism. His best-known paintings date from the 1850s and include April Love and 'The Eve of St Agnes (both 1856). H. also completed book ills for Christina Rossetti's Sing Song (1872); he died a recluse.

Hughes Edward Robert (1851-1914) is a well known Pre-Raphaelite English painter. Some of his best known works are Midsummer Eve and Night With Her Train of Stars. Hughes was the nephew of Arthur Hughes. He was also an assistant to William Holman Hunt. He helped Hunt with the version of The Light of the World now in St. Paul's Cathedral. He often used watercolor/gouache.

Hugnet Georges (French, 1904-1974)

Hugo Jean (French, 1894-1984)

Hugo Valentine (French Painter, 1887-1968)

Huguet Jaume (b Valls, c. 1415; d Barcelona, before 4 May 1492). Spanish painter. He is thought to have spent time in Saragossa in his youth (c. 1435–45), and he subsequently worked in Tarragona before establishing himself in Barcelona in 1448. He must, however, have had contact with painting from Barcelona before he moved there, because the centre panel of an early retable dedicated to the Virgin (Barcelona, Mus. A. Catalunya) from Vallmoll, near Tarragona, shows his awareness of the style of Bernat Martorell in the profiles of the two foreground angels, and of Lluís Dalmau’s Virgin of the Councillors (Barcelona, Mus. A. Catalunya) in the illusionistic painting of the Virgin’s jewel-trimmed garments. In other early works, such as the Annunciation and Crucifixion from a small retable (Vic, Mus. Episc.), Huguet demonstrated an interest in atmospheric perspective, but he abandoned this in his later works.

Hunt William Holman (1827-1910). British painter who, with D. G. Rossetti and J. E. Millars, founded the *Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and alone remained faithful to its principles. He visited Palestine to obtain the correct settings for The Scapegoat (1856). H. painted the famous The Light of the World (1854). His unpretentious portraits and small landscapes have considerable realistic force.

Hutter Wolfgang (born 1928, Vienna, Austria) is a painter, draughtsman, printmaker and stage designer. Hutter's imagery is characterised by an artificial paradise of gardens and fantastical fairytale-like scenes.The son of A. P. von Gutersloh, Hutter studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Professor Robin C. Andersen and then under his father. Together with Ernst Fuchs, Rudolf Hausner, Anton Lehmden and Arik Brauer, he is one of the main representatives and founding members of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. Hutter was awarded the UNESCO Prize at the Venice Biennale in 1954. In 1966, he was appointed a professorship at the Hochschule fur angewandte Kunst in Vienna.

Huyssens Pieter (1577-1637). Architect.

Hyper Realism. *Super Realism

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. One of the world's most remarkable books; written (1467) by F. Colonna. The 1st ed., using F. Criffo's ]rd roman fount, was printed in 1499 by Aldus Manutius in Venice, with 200 woodcuts by an unknown artist, and is in itself the most famous illustrated incunabuluni. It is an obscure allegorical narrative, written in a mixture of languages including Italian, Creek, Latin and Hebrew, and telling of a dream journey through the realms of Art and Free Will. The numerous detailed architectural descriptions are partly fantasy and partly derived from a knowledge of classical architecture. Colonna particularly delighted in the descriptions of ruins and decay, symbols of the impermanence of human life. These imaginary monuments were an endless source of themes to Renaissance painters, sculptors and engravers.

 
 

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