Dictionary of


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  Fabriano-Florence Floris-Fyt  
 

Fabriano Gentile da (born c. 1370, Fabriano, Papal States, Italy died 1427, Rome) original name Niccolo Di Giovanni Di Massio foremost painter of centralItaly at the beginning of the 15th century, whose few surviving works are among the finest examples of the International Gothic style.
An early signed work by Gentile has stylistic affinities with Lombard painting and suggests that he was trained in the Lombard school. In 1409 Gentile was commissioned to decorate the Doges' Palace inVenice with historical frescoes, which were later completed by Il Pisanello. In 1414–19 Gentile was in Brescia working for Pandolfo III Malatesta. His final important cycle of frescoes was begun in Rome in the Church of St. John Lateranshortly before his death. As with the frescoes in Venice, they were completed by Il Pisanello.
His surviving masterpiece, the “Adoration of the Magi,” was completed in 1423 for the Church of Santa Trinità, in Florence. Its graceful figures are clothed in velvets and rich brocades, and the Magi are attended by Oriental retainers, who look after such exotic animals as lions and camels. Its delicate linearity and vibrant colours enhance the effect of rich exoticism. The decorativeness of its elegant, courtly style continued to influence Florentine artists throughout the century and presented a counterattraction to the austererealism introduced by Masaccio. Gentile also produced a number of Madonnas, such as the altarpiece known as the Quaratesi Polyptych (1425), which show the Mother and Child, regally clad, sitting on the ground in a garden.

Fabritius Carel. Name used by Carel Pietersz (1623—54), Dutch painter, killed in the explosion of the powder-magazine at Delft, which probably also destroyed many of his paintings. The few surviving pictures show him to have been technically very accomplished. He was the pupil of Rembrandt and the master of Vermeer. One of his most interesting paintings is the small View of Delft in which the unique planned perspective shows F.'s interest in creating optical illusions. Other works are: Man in a Fur Cap, the strong Self-portrait and the popular Goldfinch.

Fabro Luciano (1936— ). Italian artist of the *Arte Povera circle who was influenced in certain respects by *Manzoni, *Klein and, closer at hand, L. *Fontana. His objects and installations operate as metaphors. As with other European artists with post-*Minimalist tendencies after the late 1960s, F.'s work is suggestive of theoretical concerns, ideological disillusionment and memories o{ the collective imagination, as in the 'Italia' series (1968—75), e.g. Golden Italy (1971), Cristo-Buddha-Zaratustra (198 1) and La Dialettica (1985).

Fabry Emile (b Verviers, 30 Dec 1865; d Woluwe-Saint-Pierre-lez-Bruxelles, 1966). Belgian painter and designer. He studied at the Acadйmie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels under Jean-Franзois Portaels, and worked with the designer Cir Jacques. His early Symbolist work, influenced by Maurice Maeterlinck (1862–1949), expresses anguish through its depiction of wild-eyed and deformed figures. He described this as his ‘nightmare period’, exemplified by The Offering (1894; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). In 1892 Fabry took part in the first exhibition of the group ‘Pour l’Art’, which he founded with Jean Delville, and in 1893 and 1895 exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, established by Josйphin Pйladan. In the late 1890s he began to work with the Art Nouveau architects Victor Horta and Paul Hankar. At this point his work became more serene and increasingly monumental. He designed the interior of the sculptor Philippe Wolfers’s villa, built by Hankar, and also the interior of Horta’s mansion Aubecq.


Falconet Etienne-Maurice (1716—91). French sculptor. He was a pupil of *Lemoyne and director of sculpture at Sevres (1757—66). For Sevres biscuitware he produced many graceful Rococo models. His masterpiece was a monumental equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Baroque tradition.

Falk Robert (1886—1958). Russian painter and a founder of the Muscovite *Knave of Diamonds group. Cezanne was the most important influence on F., although during the 1920s he gradually evolved a more personal vision and technique. Still-life, portrait and landscape subjects predominate. As a teacher in Moscow he was important to less academic young artists.

Fang. A populous complex of African tribal peoples living in the region of the Northern Gabon; their carvers and sculptors are considered among the finest in Africa. They are especially noted for mortuary heads and figures, possibly representing primeval ancestors, given a dark finish and carved in a powerfully geometric style.

Fantastic Realism. The work of a group of Austrian artists, among them Erich Bramer, *Ernst Fuchs and *Rudolph Hausner, who came together in the 1940s. It combines Surrealism with elements borrowed from late medieval fantastic art and iyth-c. academicism.

see also:
From Surrealism to Fantastic Art 

Fantin-Latour Ignace-Henri-Jean-Theodore (1836—1904). French painter, especially of flowers and a few large group portraits. F.-L. studied under his father and under Courbet. In his Homage to Manet (1899) and Homage to Delacroix (1864) he included many of the leading artists of his day and he repeated this formula for group portraits or writers and musicians. F.-L. was friendly with a number of the most advanced contemporary artists. Of his many studies of flowers Bouquet of Dahlias is typical.

Fantuzzi Antonio (b ?Bologna; fl Fontainebleau, 1537–50). Italian painter and printmaker. He was one of Francesco Primaticcio’s main assistants at Fontainebleau. Although no painted work or drawing by him can be identified, he is recorded as having designed some of the grotesques for the vault of the Galerie d’Ulysse. From 1542 to 1545 he was one of the principal etchers of the Fontainebleau school, producing more than 100 etchings in that short time. Around 1542–3 he reproduced many drawings by Giulio Romano and Rosso Fiorentino, recording many of the latter’s compositions for the palace of Francis I. Because he always worked from preparatory drawings rather than from the frescoes themselves, Fantuzzi’s etchings are an invaluable source of information about lost drawings by Rosso. Later he worked from Primaticcio’s designs, especially his drawings after antique statues. While Fantuzzi’s earlier etchings are violent in their handling and light effects (e.g. his etching after Rosso’s The Sacrifice; see Zerner (1969), no. 27), his maniera later became more careful and softer (e.g. Apollo and Marsyas, after Parmigianino; see Zerner (1969), no. 77). Fantuzzi has often been mistakenly identified with Antonio da Trento. 

Fautrier Jean (French Painter, 1898-1964)

Fauvism. A style of painting in which colours are the all-important theme of the work. The art critic Louis Vauxcelles described a room at the 190s. Salon d'Automne in which a sculpture in a classical style by Albert Marque was surrounded by paintings of *Matisse, Derail) and others as 'Donalello parmi les fauivs' (i.e. 'Donatello among the beasts'). A Divisiomst style gave way to flat patterns and free, bold handling of colour (influenced by the work of Van Gogh). The most important members of the group were Matisse (the leader), *Derain, Van *Dougen, *Dufy, *Friesz, *Marquet, *Vlaminck and for a short time *Braque; *Rouault, friendly with the group, worked in a markedly different style. F. gave way to *Cubism after a few years.

Faydherbe Lucas (b Mechelen, 19 Jan 1617; d Mechelen, 31 Dec 1697). Flemish sculptor and architect. His father, Hendrik Faydherbe (1574–1629), a painter and sculptor, died when Lucas Faydherbe was 12, so it was his stepfather, Maximiliaan Labbé (d 1675), who between 1631 and 1634 trained him as a sculptor. Faydherbe then travelled to Antwerp to continue his training in the studio of Peter Paul Rubens, under whose guidance he executed a number of ivory-carvings, such as Leda and the Swan (Paris, Louvre). Abandoning a planned trip to Italy, Faydherbe in 1640 married and settled in Mechelen.

Fayum, Faiyum, portraits. Fayuni, a region of Upper Egypt. Portrait paintings found on the faces of mummies in Roman cemeteries in Ancient Egypt, dating from the 1st с. BC to the 3rd с AD. The medium can be either tempera or *encaustic. Bold but remarkably naturalistic in style, the paintings seem most usually to have been made during the subjects' lifetimes.

Federal Art Project. *W.P.A.

Federation style.
Term applied to domestic designs of Australian architecture from around the turn of the 20th century, when the Commonwealth of Australia (1901) was created. It was first proposed by Professor Bernard Smith (1969) to replace the use of ‘Queen Anne’, which he argued was inappropriate and misleading in the Australian setting. The context of the original suggestion applies the name to a particular domestic picturesque idiom developed from the 1880s until c. 1914. These designs featured red bricks, turned wood ornament, half-timbering with rough-cast in the gables, shingled walls and striking terracotta tiles. Externally the designs derive from the English Domestic Revival pioneered by architects such as Richard Norman Shaw and from American sources such as the Shingle style, while internally there is an affinity with Arts and Crafts ideals. The designs developed within a ferment of discussion on the creation of an Australian style, partly as an offshoot of the English Arts and Crafts movement’s concern with the uniqueness of place, materials, climate and local culture, and partly as a response to the excitement caused by the recognition in Australia of an American style in the work of architects such as H. H. Richardson.

Feininger Lyonel (1871 —1956). Painter, born in N.Y. of German-American parents. All the early influences upon him were subsequently reflected in the subjects of his paintings: music, toy making, Manhattan skyscrapers, trains, bridges and ships. F. studied music in Berlin, then became a cartoonist, first for German, later for French and U.S. journals. In Paris he came into contact with the work of *Delaunay and the *Cubists. From 1913 he made Germany his home, associating himself with the *Blaue Reiter group under F. Marc, and later teaching at the *Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau. In 1924, F. joined W. Kandinsky, P. Klee and A. von Jawlensky in Die *Blaue Vier ('The Blue Four'). Named among the 'degenerate' artists by Hitler's government, F. returned to the U.S.A., where his teaching, writings and last water-colours were influential on the birth of * Abstract Expressionist painting.

Fellowship of St Luke [Brotherhood of St Luke; Pol. Bractwo Swietego Lukasza].
Polish group of painters that flourished in 1925–39. It emerged from the studio of Tadeusz Pruszkowski (1888–1942) at the School of Fine Arts (Sekola Sztuk Pieknych), Warsaw, and was the first post-war group in Warsaw’s largest art school. The fellowship’s 14 members, all pupils of Pruszkowski, included Boleslaw Cybis (1895–1957), Jan Gotard (1898–1943), Antoni Michalak (1902–75) and Jan Zamojski (1901–85). The fellowship modelled itself on the medieval guilds (see GUILD), and the ‘Master’ Pruszkowski ceremoniously emancipated his pupils. The leadership of the group rested with the ‘Chapter’ (Kapitula). The members of the fellowship received special diplomas of emancipation. The group’s artistic programme was also based on former models, primarily on 16th- and 17th-century Dutch painting, although the group was essentially held together by ties of friendship. The artistic character of the fellowship was largely influenced by the personality of Pruszkowski, an admirer of Frans Hals and Diego Velázquez and a colourful character in the Warsaw art world.

Fenneker Josef. (Expressionist Illustrator, 1895-1956, Germany).

Ferrara, school of. School of Italian painting which flourished in the 2nd half of the 15th с and is represented by Tura, Cossa, Ercole de' Roberti and Costa. Its marked austerity of style derived from the influence of Piero della Francesca and Mantegna.

Ferrari Gaudenzio (d. 1546). Italian painter of the Lombard school. His major works, dramatic and overcrowded with figures, are frescoes in several chapels on the Sacro Monte, Varallo; a screen depicting scenes from the life of Christ, an altarpiece and frescoes in S. Oristotoro, Vercelli; and the Choir of Angels in the dome of S. Maria dei Miracoh, Saronno.

Ferrari Gregorio de (1647-1726).

Ferrata Ercole (b Pelsoto [now Pellio Inferiore], nr Como, 1610; d Rome, 11 April 1686). Italian sculptor. He was apprenticed at an early age to the sculptor Tommaso Orsolino ( fl 1616–?1674) of Genoa and was in Naples by 1637, when he is recorded as a marble-worker in the Corporazione di Scultori e Marmori. He remained in Naples for about nine years, during which time he carved several statues, including life-size ones of St Andrew, St Thomas and two members of the D’Aquino family kneeling in prayer (1641–6; S Maria la Nova, chapel of S Giacomo della Marca) as well as decorative and garden sculpture for villas of the nobility. Some of this work was done in collaboration with Cosimo Fanzago.

Ferstel Heinrich von (b Vienna, 7 July 1828; d Vienna, 14 July 1883). Austrian architect. He was a member of the second generation of historicist architects in Vienna, who continued and developed the pioneering work of such architects as Karl Rösner, Eduard Van der Null and August von Siccardsburg. These three, who represented the Romantic period of early historicism in Austria, were Ferstel’s teachers from 1848 to 1850 at the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Vienna, and VAN DER NÜLL & SICCARDSBURG in particular were important early influences. After leaving the academy, Ferstel joined the architectural firm of his uncle Friedrich Stache (1814–95), whom he assisted until 1853 in building castles and country houses for the high nobility in Bohemia. Domestic architecture continued to play an important part in his work. Before long, however, he was winning major architectural competitions, such as the international competition (1855) for the Votivkirche (1856–79) in Vienna.

Fete champetre. French term used to describe a type of painting in which a group of townspeople is depicted relaxing in rural surroundings. Giorgione's Concert Champetre is an example.

Fete galante. French term used to describe a French 18th-c. genre of painting in which members of the court amuse themselves in love making, dancing and music in a park, garden or rural setting. It is a particular form of the *fete champetre and was practised most notably by *Watteau but also by J.-B.-J. Pater, Lancret and others. The term was first used in 1717 when Watteati was admitted to the French Academy and described as a painter of f.s g.s.


Fetti Domenico (1589-1623). Italian painter, trained in Rome. He was court painter at Mantua (1613-21) but settled in Venice in 1622. Characteristic works such as The Good Samaritan are richly coloured, broadly executed cabinet pictures of biblical subjects as genre. In these he was influenced by A. Elsheimer, Rubens and the Venetian school.

Feuerbach Anselm (1829-80). German painter of classical subjects and portraits whose painting marked the end of German academic classicism. He was influenced by *Couture in Paris and spent many years in Italy. His best work, e.g. the portrait Nanna (1861) and Orpheus and Eurydice (1860) is majestic and controlled, his inferior work sombre and artificial.

Fibre art.
Collective term, coined in the 1970s, for creative, experimental fibre objects. A wide range of techniques is used, often in combinations that encompass both traditional (e.g. felting, knotting) and modern (e.g. photographic transfer) practices. The eclectic range of materials includes many not previously associated with textiles, such as paper, wood, iridescent film, nylon mesh and wire.

Field Erastus Salisbury (1805—1900). U.S. primitive artist, noted for his remarkable architectural fantasy. Historical Monument of the American Republic (c. 1876).

Figini Luigi. The New Architecture.

Figuration libre. *Neo-Expressionism

Filiger Charles (b Thann, Alsace, 28 Nov 1863; d Brest, 11 Jan 1928.) French painter and engraver. He studied in Paris at the Acadйmie Colarossi. He settled in Brittany in 1889, where he was associated with Gauguin and his circle at Pont-Aven, but he remained a mystic and a recluse. The Breton setting, with its stark landscape and devout peasant inhabitants, provided fertile ground for the development of Filiger’s mystical imagery and deliberate archaisms. Filiger’s friend, the painter Emile Bernard, characterized Filiger’s style as an amalgam of Byzantine and Breton popular art forms. The hieratic, geometric quality and the expressionless faces in his gouaches of sacred subjects such as Virgin and Child (1892; New York, A. G. Altschul priv. col.)   reveal Filiger’s love of early Italian painting and the Byzantine tradition. Evident too in the heavy outlines and flat colours of his work are the cloisonnism of the Pont-Aven school and the influence of Breton and Epinal popular prints. Filiger’s landscapes, such as Breton Shore (1893; New York, A. G. Altschul priv. col.), share with Gauguin’s paintings an abstract, decorative quality and rigorous simplification.

Filonov Pavel (1883—1941). Russian painter and graphic artist with a very individual style and vision in some ways reminiscent of Klee and the Surrealists. He was associated with the Russian *Futurist movement from the outset and designed the scenery for Mayakovsky's 1st play; F. also ill. a number of booklets of Futurist poetry. In 1925 he founded a school of analytical painting in Leningrad, dissolved in 1928, like all such private institutions in the U.S.S.R.

Fin de siecle (Fr. end of century). Used adjectivally of works, styles, etc. (particularly those of the late 19th-c. decadence) having some or all of the supposed characteristics of'the end of an era' — elaborateness, artificiality, weariness, perversity.

Finelli Giuliano (b Carrara, 13 Dec 1601 or 12 Dec 1602; d Rome, 16 Aug 1653). Italian sculptor. He received his earliest artistic training and his gift for handling marble from his uncle, a stonecutter in the quarries at Carrara. In 1611 he accompanied his uncle to Naples, and there he entered the workshop of Michelangelo Naccherino, one of the most prominent Neapolitan sculptors. In 1622 he moved to Rome and almost immediately came to the attention of Gianlorenzo Bernini, who made him one of his principal studio assistants. In that capacity Finelli participated in a number of Bernini’s most important projects of the 1620s. The young sculptor’s virtuosity in carving marble and his facility in using the drill to achieve pictorial effects are nowhere more evident than in his contributions to Bernini’s group Apollo and Daphne (1622–4; Rome, Gal. Borghese). The delicately carved twigs and roots that spring from Daphne’s hands and feet are the work of Finelli. By 1629 his association with Bernini had come to an end, and he established himself as an independent artist with his marble statue of St Cecilia (1629–30) for the choir of S Maria di Loreto, Rome. While generically akin to Bernini’s St Bibiana (1624–6; Rome, S Bibiana), Finelli’s statue departs from Bernini’s dynamic conception and is reserved and more classicizing in style, closer to Alessandro Algardi’s stucco Saints in S Silvestro al Quirinale and to Pietro da Cortona’s painted Saints in S Bibiana.

Fine manner. One of 2 classifications used by scholars of Florentine engravings of the 2nd half of the 15th c.; the engravings are classified according to whether the line is generally fine (fine manner) or bold (broad manner).

Fini Leonor (b Buenos Aires, 30 Aug 1908; d Paris, 18 Jan 1996). French painter, stage designer and illustrator of Argentine birth. She grew up in Trieste, Italy. Her first contact with art was through visits to European museums and in her uncle’s large library, where she gleaned her earliest knowledge of artists such as the Pre-Raphaelites, Aubrey Beardsley and Gustav Klimt. She had no formal training as an artist. Her first one-woman exhibition took place in Paris in 1935 and resulted in friendships with Paul Eluard, Max Ernst, René Magritte and Victor Brauner, bringing her into close contact with the Surrealists; her sense of independence and her dislike of the Surrealists’ authoritarian attitudes kept her, however, from officially joining the movement. Nevertheless her works of the late 1930s and 1940s reflect her interest in Surrealist ideas. She also participated in the major international exhibitions organized by the group.

Finsterlin Hermann (1887 - 1973)

Fischl Eric (1948- ). U.S. Neo-figurative painter, who rose to great international prominence in the late 1970s. Depicted U.S. suburbia in large-scale narratives of leisure, voyeurism and sexuality, often charged with hidden violence, e.g. Bad Boy (1981) and Digging Children (1982).

Fischl was born in New York City and grew up on suburban Long Island; his family moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1967. His own web site describes him as growing up " against a backdrop of alcoholism and a country club culture obsessed with image over content."His art education began at Phoenix College, then a year at Arizona State University, then California Institute of the Arts in Valencia, California, where he earned his BFA in 1972. He then moved to Chicago, taking a job as a guard at the Museum of Contemporary Art.His own website recounts, "It was in Chicago that Fischl was exposed to the non-mainstream art of the Hairy Who. 'The underbelly, carnie world of Ed Paschke and the hilarious sexual vulgarity of Jim Nutt were revelatory experiences for me.'"In 1974, he took a job teaching painting at Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, where he met painter April Gornik, with whom he moved back to New York City in 1978 and later married. Fischl worked and resided in New York City, but has recently moved to Sag Harbor, Long Island, New York with his wife, landscapist April Gornik, where they share a home and matching studios.  In addition, he is a senior critic at the New York Academy of Art.
Fischl has embraced the description of himself as a painter of the suburbs, not generally considered appropriate subject matter prior to his generation.  Some of Fischl's earlier works have a theme of adolescent sexuality and voyeurism, such as Sleepwalker (1979) which depicts an adolescent boy masturbating into a children's pool. Bad Boy (1981) and Birthday Boy (1983) both depict young boys looking at older women shown in provocative poses on a bed. In Bad Boy, the subject is surreptitiously slipping his hand into a purse. In Birthday Boy, the child is depicted naked on the bed. In response to 9/11, Fischl debuted his work Tumbling Woman at Rockefeller Center in New York, creating controversy since it reminded the viewers of people falling from the World Trade Center. When asked about the controversy in an interview, Fischl still felt "confused and hurt by it. It was an absolutely sincere attempt to put feelings into form and to share them, and it was met with such anger and anxiety in a way that used to be reserved for abstract sculpture, really." Fischl felt people were mourning the building more than the people since there were so few bodies but such a high body count, which he felt was wrong. In 2002, Fischl collaborated with the Museum Haus Esters in Krefeld, Germany. Haus Esters is a 1928 home, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928 to be a private home. It now houses changing exhibitions. Fischl refurnished it as a home (though not particularly in Bauhaus style, and hired models who, for several days, pretended to be a couple who lived there. He took 2,000 photographs, which he reworked digitally and used as the basis for a series of paintings, one of which, the monumental Krefeld Project, Bedroom #6 (Surviving the Fall Meant Using You for Handholds) (2004) was purchased by Paul Allen featured in the 2006 Double Take Exhibit at Experience Music Project, where it was juxtaposed with a much smaller Degas pastel. This is by no means the first time Fischl has been compared to Degas. Twenty years earlier, reviewing a show of 28 Fischl paintings at New York's Whitney Museum, John Russell wrote in the New York Times, " Degas sets up a charged situation with his incomparable subtlety of insight and characterization, and then he goes away and leaves us to figure it out as best we can. That is the tactic of Fischl, too, though the society with which he deals has an unstructured brutality and a violence never far from release that are very different from the nicely calibrated cruelties that Degas recorded."


Fisher Harrison (American Golden Age Illustrator, 1877-1934). "The Father of A Thousand Girls", Harrison Fisher showed an early interest in drawing and from the age of six was instructed by his father, Hugh Antoine Fisher, a landscape painter. When his family moved from Brooklyn to San Francisco, Harrison studied there at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. At sixteen, Fisher had begun to make drawings for the San Francisco Call and later for the Examiner.Soon after returning to New York, Fisher sold two sketches to Puck Magazine which also hired him as a staff artist. He became noted for his ability to draw beautiful women, and his Fisher Girls became rivals to those of Gibson and Christy. The American Girl was a favorite theme for the magazine then, and Fisher did cover illustrations for most of them. For many years he was under an exclusive contract to do covers for Cosmopolitan, but eventually he restricted himself to painting portraits including many actresses and theatrical personalities.

Fischer Johann Michael (1692-1766)

Flack Audrey (b. 1931 in New York) is an American photorealist painter, printmaker, and sculptor. Flack studied fine arts in New York from 1948 to 1953. Her early work was abstract; one such painting paid tribute to Franz Kline. But gradually, Flack became a New Realist and finally a photorealist, in reaction to the abstract art movement. She later claimed she found the photorealist movement too restricting, and now gains much of her inspiration from baroque art. The ironic kitsch themes in her early work influenced Jeff Koons. A pioneer of Photorealism and a nationally recognized painter and sculptor, Ms. Flack's work is in the collections of major museums around the world, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Museum of Modern Art, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and Whitney Museum of American Art and the National Museum of Art in Canberra, Australia. She was the first photorealist painter to have work purchased by the Museum of Modern Art.

Flandin Eugene (1809-1876).

Flandrin Hippolyte-Jean (b Lyon, 23 March 1809; d Rome, 21 March 1864). Painter and lithographer, brother of Auguste Flandrin. He was initially discouraged from fulfilling his early wish to become an artist by Auguste’s lack of success, but in 1821 the sculptor Denys Foyatier, an old family friend, persuaded both Hippolyte and Paul to train as artists. He introduced them to the sculptor Jean-François Legendre-Héral (1796–1851) and the painter André Magnin (1794–1823), with whom they worked copying engravings and plaster casts. After Magnin’s death, Legendre-Héral took the brothers to the animal and landscape painter Jean-Antoine Duclaux (1783–1868). Hippolyte and Paul had both learnt the techniques of lithography from Auguste at an early age, and between the ages of 14 and 19 Hippolyte produced a number of lithographs, which he sold to supplement the family income. Many reflected his passion for military subjects (e.g. Cossacks in a Bivouac, c. 1825; Paris, Bib. N.). In 1826 the two brothers entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, where Hippolyte studied under Pierre Révoil. Showing a precocious talent, he was soon advised to move to Paris, and having left the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon in 1829, he walked to the capital with his brother Paul; together they enrolled in the studio of Ingres. After several unsuccessful attempts, Hippolyte won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1832 with Theseus Recognized by his Father (1832; Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), despite having suffered from cholera during the competition. His success was all the more spectacular given the general hostility to Ingres; Hippolyte was the first of his pupils to be awarded this prestigious prize. Hippolyte arrived in Rome in 1833; Paul joined him there in 1834. After first working on such subjects as Virgil and Dante in Hell (1836; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), Hippolyte developed a taste for religious works during this stay. From 1836 to 1837 he worked on St Clare Healing the Blind for the cathedral in Nantes, winning a first-class medal at the 1837 Salon, and in 1838 he painted Christ Blessing the Children (Lisieux, Mus. Vieux-Lisieux), which was exhibited at the 1839 Salon.

Flaxman John (1755-1826). British Neoclassical sculptor and draughtsman who began his career as a designer of cameos and classical friezes for Josiah Wedgwood. Working in Rome (1787-94) he won a European reputation with his famous line drawings illustrating Homer, Dante and the tragedies of Aeschylus. F.'s largest sculptural commission was the memorial to Lord Mansfield, but he did many other portrait busts, bas-reliefs and monumental groups of great technical accomplishment. F. was a friend of *Blake.

Flinck Govaert (1615-60). German portrait and subject painter who settled in Amsterdam. Ik-was a pupil of Rembrandt and until the early 1640s a close imitator of his master; later he followed the more fashionable style of B. van der Heist. F. painted a portrait of Rembrandt in 1639.

Flint Sir William Russell (1880-1969). British society watercolounst, known for his Spanish gypsy subjects.

Florence, school of. The history of modern European painting is dated from the work of the Florentine artist Giotto (d. 1337) but the great period of Florence as a centre of the arts was the 15th and 16th cs. In the work of such painters as Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vmci, Michelangelo and Raphael the school reached its apogee. The Florentine preoccupation with form and line may be contrasted with the later Venetian emphasis on colour.

 

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