Dictionary of


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Donati Enrico (1909— ). Italian painter. In the 1930s he lived in Paris where he was associated with *Breton and other Surrealists. He settled in the U.S.A. in 1940 and developed an Abstract Expressionist style.

Dongen Kees van (1877—1968). Dutch painter who settled in Paris in 1897. He joined the *Fauves in 1905 and became an important member of the group; he also exhibited with Die *Brucke. After World War I he was successful as a society portraitist of wit and sophistication.

Donkey’s Tail [Rus. Oslinyy Khvost]. Russian group of painters active in 1911–15. It was led by Mikhail Larionov and Natal’ya Goncharova. The name was chosen by Larionov and recalled a famous artistic scandal in Paris, when a picture, painted by tying a brush to a donkey’s tail, was exhibited without comment at the Salon des Indépendants of 1905. The Donkey’s Tail group was the result of a difference in aesthetic ideology within the JACK OF DIAMONDS group. While most of their colleagues in Jack of Diamonds preferred to rely on the example of contemporary French and German painting, Larionov and Goncharova adopted the view that their art should evolve from the stylistic traditions of popular Russian art forms, such as the icon and lubok (a type of wood-engraving). A few, such as Kazimir Malevich and Alexsey Morgunov (1884–1935), shared their views and resigned in order to help found Donkey’s Tail in 1911. The official launch of the group took place in early 1912 at the Jack of Diamonds conference, when Goncharova and Larionov interrupted the proceedings and, ‘in a halo of scandal’ (Livshits), proclaimed the formation of Donkey’s Tail and their secession from Jack of Diamonds.

Dore Gustave (1832—83). French graphic artist, painter and sculptor. He visited London for a period, and for a time there was a Dore Gallery there exhibiting his ambitious but now thought unsuccessful oil paintings. D.'s best work results from the unrestrained outpouring of his fantastic imagination and gift for the grotesque; it includes ills for Dante's Divine Comedy and Cervantes's Don Quixote and plates in London, publ. by Blanchard Jerrold.

Dosso Dossi. The name used by Giovanni di Lutero (d. 1542), Italian painter of Ferrara, greatly influenced by Giorgione, Titian and Raphael, but a strongly individual painter. He borrows the theme of Giorgionc's pastoral in his best-known picture, Circe and Her Lovers in a Landscape, but replaces the poetic evocation with a sense of drama and worldly splendour. There is a second, very fine version in the N.G., Washington, in which the lovers have been turned into animals by the enchantress. Both D. and his brother Battista (d. с 1548) were employed as painters, designers and craftsmen at the Ferrarese court. D. painted a number of warriors in armour at this time.

Dou Gerrit  or Gerard (1613—75). Dutch painter of portraits and genre, and the founder of the fijnschilders ('fine-painters'). D. was first apprenticed to his father, an engraver on glass, then became a pupil or companion of the young Rembrandt. After Rembrandt left Leyden, с 1631, I), became the city's leading painter, ("lose to Rembrandt's style is A Hermit. D.'s highly finished scenes, often of dramatically lit interiors with figures, e.g. 1'he Young Mother, were very popular and had a lasting influence even outside Holland. Among D.'s pupils were F. van Miens the Elder, G. Metsu and G. Schalcken.

Doucet Jacques (1924 – 1994). French surrealist painter

Douglas Aaron (1899-1979). U.S. painter and teacher, one of the leaders of the 'Negro Renaissance' period who, from the mid-1920s, defined a modern, black approach to art, e.g. Aspiration (1936).

Drapery. In sculpture, painting and drawing the representation of the folds in a garment. Artists have used d. as an important expressive medium and different schools and periods render it in a characteristic style. Hence it is a valuable guide-to the art historian in identifying and classifying a work of art. Leonardo da Vinci, Du'rer and Grunewald are among the artists to have made fine studies of d.

Drawing. In the Western tradition the instruments used for d. have normally been charcoal, chalk, pen or pencil (however, watercolours are sometimes classified as drawing); d.s can be-merely preparatory studies for a painting or work of sculpture, or independent works entire in themselves. The importance of d. in the visual arts has been much debated since the 16th с and contrasted with the importance of colour. Florentine art, Poussin and Ingres are ranged against the Venetians, Rubens and Delacroix. In Chinese and Japanese art there is no distinction between painting and drawing, as the only instrument used is a brush, normally with ink.

Driben Peter. Pin -Up Art

Drip painting. A technique in which the paint is dripped on to the canvas which is usually laid on the floor. It was used frequently by the *Abstract Expressionists especially *Pollock.

Dry point. *engraving

Dubois Ambroise (1543-1614) Flemish born. Fontainebleau school

Du Bois Guy Pene (1884-1958) The Ashcan School.

Dubout Albert (1905—1976) was born in Marseille. After attending school at Nîmes (where he met Jean Paulhan) he studied at the fine arts school in Montpellier where he met his first wife, Renée Altier, and where his first drawings were published in the student journal L'écho des étudiants in 1923.

After moving to Paris, Éditions Kra literary director Philippe Soupault hired him to illustrate his first book, Les Embarras de Paris by Boileau. Dubout continued on to illustrate numerous editions of books by Boileau, Beaumarchais, Mérimée, Rabelais, Villon, Cervantes, Balzac, Racine, Voltaire, Rostand, Poe, and Courteline. He collaborated on numerous magazines and journals such as Le Rire, Marianne, Eclats de Rire, L'os à Moëlle, Paris-Soir, and Ici-Paris. He also created movie and theatre posters as well as theatrical sets. He worked in advertising, painted oil canvases (over 70 in total) and illustrated many book covers and record sleeves. In 1953, French president Vincent Auriol awarded him the Legion of Honour. His name also appeared that year in the Petit Larousse dictionary. In 1965, he illustrated les aventures de San-Antonio at the request of author Frédéric Dard.

In 1967 he married his second wife, Suzanne Ballivet, who was also a painter. He divided his time in this period between Mézy-sur-Seine and Palavas-les-Flots (Hérault) until his death in 1976. In 1992 a museum about Dubout was dedicated in Palavas-les-Flots.

Dubreuil Toussaint (b Paris, 1561; d Paris, 22 Nov 1602). French painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil at Fontainebleau of Ruggiero de Ruggieri (d after 1597) and was also trained by Martin Freminet’s father Mederic Freminet, a rather mediocre painter in Paris. Dubreuil became Premier Peintre to Henry IV and is usually identified as a member of the so-called second Fontainebleau school, together with Ambroise Dubois and Martin Freminet. These artists were employed by the king to decorate the royal palaces, their functions being similar to those of Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio earlier at Fontainebleau under Francis I. Dubreuil’s death meant that many of the projects in which he was involved had to be completed by assistants. Despite this and the fact that the majority of his finished work has since been lost, he is considered an important link between the Mannerism of Primaticcio and the classicism of Nicolas Poussin and his contemporaries in the following century.

Dubuffet Jean (1901—85). French painter and print maker. His works, imbued with the spirit of l'Art Brut, created an irrational, primitive world, and varied textural surfaces produced by experimenting with sand, cement, tar, lacquer, etc., gave to his work a supra-pictorial existence. In 1954 he exhibited sculptures which he called Little Statues of Precarious Life, made from ephemeral and cast-off materials such as newspaper, worn-out sponge and string. In the late 1960s D. became increasingly occupied with sculpture.

Duccio di Buonisegna (c. 1260—с 1319). Italian painter, the creator of the Sienese school as Giotto was that of the Florentine school. D.'s break with the conventions of Byzantine painting was far less revolutionary than Giotto's, and the great success with which he filled many of the old forms with the new spirit, combined with his superlative colour sense, Ins feeling for composition, and the dramatic rendering of familiar religious scenes, meant that those Sienese painters who followed him were often content to remain detached from the search for more natural forms of representation which was being pursued in Florence and elsewhere.
The documents of D.'s life tell of his frequent clashes with the government of his city. Despite this he was trusted with important commissions and rose to a position of power, wealth and influence. It may have been during a period of exile from Siena that he executed the earliest picture attributed to him. Most critics now agree that the famous Rucellai Madonna is the painting D. was commissioned to paint for the Chapter of Sta Maria Novella m 1285. While the figure of the Madonna remains a type of Byzantine art, the graceful angels and the Child arc alive with the new spirit.
The work which displays every quality of D.'s greatness is unquestionably the Maestd which D. was commissioned to paint in 1308 and which, according to tradition, was carried to the cathedral with rejoicing in 1311. Apart from the Maesta itself, there are some 44 panels on the front and back of the altarpiece representing scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints; 10 of these panels are now separated. Among these are the outstanding Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew and Annunciation.

Duchamp Marcel (1887-1968). French painter, brother of Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. He studied part-time at the Academic Julian, Paris, while working as a librarian at the Bibhotheque Ste-Genevieve. He abandoned painting in the 1920s but contributed to Surrealist exhibitions in 1938 and 1947. His 1st paintings (191 1-12), influenced by the Cubists, analysed the movement of form in space. Nude Descending a Staircase No. 1 (1911) and No. г (1912) inspired, like contemporary Futurist painting, by chronophotography, attempted to create an autonomous equivalent to the moving figure, and he originally intended that the construction The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even should actually move. The 2nd version of the Nude Descending was rejected from a 1912 Cubist exhibition and became the most notorious exhibit at the famous *Armory Show (1913). The exhibition of his * readymades, e.g. Bicycle Wheel (1913), Bottle Rack (1914), In Advance of the Broken Arm (1915), Comb (1916), Fountain (1917), etc. foreshadowed the polemical 'anti-art' character of Dada. He was, with Picabia, the leader of the New York Dada and Surrealist movement — he moved permanently to the U.S.A. in 1913. D. exerted the greatest influence on the post-Abstract Expressionist generation of U.S. artists like *Rauschenberg and *Johns and determined to a large extent, and for a long period, the course of the most visible U.S. art. He remained throughout his life a legendary figure. The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even occupied him between 191 5 and 1923. From 1946 to 1966, when he was supposed to have stopped making art and seemed interested only in chess, he was secretly engaged in Etant donnes: 1. La Chute d'eau/ 2. Le Саг d'eclairage, a 3-dimensional mixed-media assemblage which is viewed through two peepholes in an old Spanish wooden door. The scene revealed is of a sun-lit landscape with a waterfall and in the foreground the realistic form of a female nude. This work is probably related to The Bride ... It is perhaps the most mysterious and certainly the most intriguing work of art in the 20th с.

Duchamp-Villon Raymond (1876—1918). French sculptor, brother of Gaston (known as Jacques Villon) and Marcel Duchamp. He took up sculpture in 1 898 after studying medicine and was first influenced by Rodin. In 1910 he joined the Cubists. Cubist sculpture reached its apogee in his Horse (1914), a masterly synthesis of organic and mechanical elements.

Dufy Raoul (1877—1953). French painter, born in Le Havre, where he met *Braque and Friesz. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Under *Matisse's influence he produced Fauve paintings around 1905 with strong colour areas and an intermittent heavy black contour — e.g. La Plage de Ste-Adresse (1904). Cubism and the influence of Cezanne prompted a monumental sense of form as in Les Trois Baignenses (1919), but after 1920 D.'s paintings of racecourses, regattas and casinos were conceived, like his remarkable textiles, as a tapestry of clear colours. His brother Jean (1888—1964) was also a painter, mainly in watercolour.

Dujardin Karel (1622-78). Dutch painter of Italianate landscapes with animals or figures, genre pieces and portraits. He was a pupil of N. Berchem and twice visited Italy.

Dulac Edmund (1882-1953). French-born British ill., watercolour painter, portraitist and designer. Some of the best known of his fantastic, intricate ills are the watercolours for The Arabian Nights, The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Sinbad the Sailor, The Tempest and many books of fairy-tales.

Dunand Jean (b Lancy, 20 May 1877; d Paris, 7 June 1947). French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, 1912) reflect Art Nouveau forms, but he quickly adopted the geometric forms of Art Deco in his work. In 1912 the Japanese artist Seizo Sugawara asked him to solve a problem concerning dinanderie, and in exchange he was given instruction in lacquering. From then on he produced vases, folding screens, doors and other furniture (e.g. Geometric Decor, black and red lacquered screen). Around 1925 he started to use egg shell on lacquer. Different effects were produced by varying the size of the pieces and by using the inside or the outside of the shell. He used this technique for both portraits and Cubist compositions (e.g. tray; Geneva, Mus. A. & Hist.). He worked closely with contemporary artists and designers, especially the furniture designer Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann and the couturiers Madeleine Vionnet and Paul Poiret. His jewellery designs demonstrate a preference for pure, geometric forms, with regular black and red lacquer dots on the metal surface.

Dupas Jean (1882-1964, French Art Deco Designer)

Dupre Jules (1811-89). French landscape painter, one of the leading members of the *Barbizon school. He visited Britain in 1831 and was greatly impressed by Constable, though his own work gave a more romanticized and introspective interpretation of nature.

Duquesnoy Francois (1 594-1643) called 'Il Fiammingo'. Flemish sculptor who settled in Rome. His major works are the marble statues St Andrew and St Susanna. In his own time he was renowned for his *putti. He represented the classical tradition in the age of Bernini's Baroque.

Durand Asher Brown (1796-1886). U.S. landscape painter, founder, with T. Cole, of the *Hudson River school. He abandoned a successful career as an engraver to become a painter, first of portraits and biblical and anecdotal subjects, later of quiet, Romantic landscapes.

Durer Albrecht (1471 —1528). German painter, engraver, designer of woodcuts and major art theorist. D. was born in Nuremberg and trained 1 st under his father, a goldsmith. He was apprenticed (1486-90) to M. Wolgemut, in whose workshop he became familiar with the best work of contemporary German artists and with the recent technical advances in engraving and drawing for woodcuts. D. soon began to provide ills himself for his godfather, the printer A. Koberger. In 1490 he went on the 1st journeys that were so to affect his art, visiting Colmar, Basel and Strassburg. He was in Nuremberg for his marriage in 1496, but left m the autumn of that year for Italy. On this visit and during the longer stay of 1505-7, D. made a profound study of Italian painting at the very moment when it was being changed by the revolutionary ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and others. He also studied the whole intellectual background of the Italian Renaissance, the writings of the humanists and, in particular, Mantegna's attempts to re-create in engravings and paintings the classical canon of art. D. was thus able to make his own personal synthesis of the arts of the north and south, a synthesis which was to have immense importance to European art. From 1495, when D. established his workshop in Nuremberg, his success and reputation increased rapidly. Until 1499 he was engaged chiefly on engravings and designs for his books of woodcuts. Comparatively easy to reproduce in large numbers and to transport, this work made him more widely known than any but the almost legendary Italians. He was encouraged by an enthusiastic patron, the Elector of Saxony, and he became the friend of many of the chief figures of the Reformation. Though he never broke with Catholicism, D. was deeply involved in the religious controversy until his death. In 1512 he was made court painter to the Emperor Maximilian. This honour was confirmed by Charles V, and when D. visited the Netherlands in 1520 he was widely feted. In his last years he planned and partly composed a thesis on the theoretical basis of the arts.
To mention only his greatest works: The Madonna of the Rose Garlands and The Adoration of the Trinity were painted almost in competition with the Italians. His portraits are of great interest, particularly the series of self-portraits: that of 1493, of 1498, of 1500 and of 1522. Probably his major work in oils is the late Four Apostles. However, D.'s greatest single achievement and one which established him as supreme among graphic artists is his book of woodcuts, The Apocalypse (1498). Other series of woodcuts are: The Great Passion, 'The Life of the Virgin and The Lesser Passion. Single woodcuts of outstanding quality are: The Last Supper and The Men's Bath House. Of his engravings the series The Engraved Passion, and the single plates: Adam and Eve, Melancholia, Knight, Death and the Devil, The Prodigal Son, St Jerome in his Study and 57 Eustace are the finest in quality. D.'s smallest sketches are often masterpieces of draughtsmanship and feeling, e.g. Crowned Death on a Thin Horse, charcoal. His water-colours of places (often scenes done on his travels), people, animals and plants are evidence of his desire to record the world around him with the greatest precision, yet with no surrender of the passion of an artist before the objectivity of the scientist.

Dusseldorf school. U.S. painters who studied at Dusseldorf and exhibited at the Dusseldort Gal., N.Y. (1849-61); notably *Bierstadt, *Bingham and E. *Johnson. The paintings were polished and realistic in style, sentimental and anecdotal m mood.

Dyce William (1806-64). Scottish painter. Early sympathy with the *Nazarenes encountered by him in Rome (1827) made him welcome the *Pre-Raphaelites. Though his frescoes in the House of Lords and elsewhere lack inspiration, his Pegwell Bay is an admirable piece of mid-19th-c. Realism.

Dyck Anthony van (1599-1641). Flemish painter chiefly famous for portraits of the English aristocracy, though he also painted a number of large religious, allegorical and mythological subjects. D. was trained in Antwerp by H. van Balen and became the chief assistant of Rubens. He was in Britain for some months in 1620—т, then embarked on a prolonged tour of Italy, where he spent periods at Venice, Genoa and Rome, executing portraits and commissions for churches. He painted for a further period in Antwerp before he settled in Britain in 1631 as court painter. Typical of his rich but refined and elegant portrait style, which flattered almost all his sitters with a look of distinction and intelligence, are Philippe le Roy, Frans Snyders, Charles I and the more ambitious Charles I in Hunting Dress. This style set a pattern, especially for British portrait painters, for at least 200 years. Larger works include The Crucifixion of St Peter, Samson and Delilah, Rinaldo and Armida and Amarillis and Mirtille.

 

 

 

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