Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Dada-Delacroix Delaroche-Donatello Donati-Dyck  

Delaroche Paul (properly Hippolyte) (1797— 1856). French painter of historical subjects of romantic or sentimental interest derived from works by Sir Walter Scott. Shakespeare and others. Pictures painted with extreme naturalism such as Children of Edward (the Princes in the Tower), 1830, were popular and widely used in history textbooks.

Delaunay Robert (1885-1941). French painter and the originator of *Orphism, which extended the Cubist practice of fragmentation into the held of colour. He started painting r. 1904. His works of 1905—7 are painted in a brilliantly coloured *Divisionist technique. In 1907, under the influence of Cezanne, his palette was temporarily subdued, and during his military service (1908) he began his study of optics. He met *Leger in 1909, and their sombre-coloured paintings pursued a parallel search for structural organization. In the Saint-Severiti and The Eiffel Tower series (1909—10) he returned to his highly coloured palette and by 19т2, m the Fenetre Sitmdtane paintings, he had isolated pure-colour areas from the motif. In Orphist paintings, D. writes, 'the breaking up of form by light creates coloured planes; these are the structure for description but a pretext'. He saw Orphism as a logical development of Impressionism and Neo-impressionism, but his transition to pure abstraction was probably inspired by *Kupka (c 1911—12). D. was visited in 19T2 by Marc, Маске and Klee, who later trs. his essay On Light. His influence upon the *Blaue Reiter group was considerable and by 1914 he was probably the most influential artist in Paris. His later work, like Leger's, attempted to reconcile his innovations with more traditional forms. 

Delaunay Sonia (nee Terk) (1885-1979). Russian painter who settled in Paris (1905), married *Delaunay (1910) and with him was a pioneer of abstract painting (*Orphism). After World War I she concentrated on textile and fashion design but returned to painting in the late 1930s. She exhibited regularly from the early T950S and held retrospectives in Paris (1967) and Lisbon (1972). She designed costumes and decor for Stravinsky's ballet Dances Concertantes (1968).
Delft school. Term applied to conservative Dutch architects associated with the Technische Hogeschool, Delft, in the 1920s and 1930s, and by extension to anti-progressive architecture in Holland in the 1940s and 1950s. It was probably first used in 1946 in an article entitled ‘De dictatuur van de Delftse school’ by the critic J. J. Vriend (1896–1975) in the journal De Groene Amsterdammer. Vriend, an adherent of Nieuwe Zakelijkheid, opposed the traditionalist tendency that dominated post-war reconstruction in the Netherlands outside Rotterdam. He traced its origins to the group of architects led by the architect and urban planner MARINUS JAN GRANPRÉ MOLIÈRE and their followers. Granpré Molière, a charismatic personality and able teacher, became professor of architecture at the Technische Hogeschool, Delft, in 1924. Unhappy with the ‘unprincipled’ architecture of the time, he sought clear values and norms for the art of building. In contrast to the Functionalism that was increasingly prominent in the 1920s and which took its norms and values from industrial processes and forms, Granpré Molière found his convictions in medieval scholastic philosophy. He was strongly influenced by the ideas of Thomas Aquinas, as interpreted by the French neo-Thomist Jacques Maritain, and particularly the Thomist notions of ‘perfection, proportion and radiance’. Architecture was conceived as a hierarchical entity, in which age-old values, symbolism and the building’s location were important. In construction preference was given to natural materials and traditional techniques, but the past also had symbolic value in a visual sense, and consequently modern technology and the architecture associated with it were avoided.

Della Robbia Luca (b ?Florence, July 1399–July 1400; d Florence, 20 Feb 1482). He was the son of Simone di Marco della Robbia, a member of the Arte della Lana, the wool-workers’ guild. According to Vasari, Luca was apprenticed to the goldsmith Leonardo di Ser Giovanni and at about the age of 15 was taken to Rimini where he made bas-reliefs for Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta; however this information is partly contradicted by chronology. Gaurico also indicated that Luca was trained as a goldsmith, and it is possible that he worked on the Adriatic with a Florentine master such as Niccolo di Piero Lamberti, who went to Venice in 1416. It has also been suggested that he was apprenticed to Nanni di Banco, with whom he may have worked (c. 1420) on the decoration of the Porta della Mandorla in Florence Cathedral (Bellosi, 1981).

Delvaux Paul (1897-1994). Belgian painter, leading member of Belgian *Surrealist movement since 1935, although he was never an official member of the Surrealist group. He studied first architecture, then painting at the Brussels Acadenne Royale des Beaux-Arts, and in his early work followed the Expressionists Permeke and De Smet. In the 1930s he came under the influence of Magritte, De Chinco and the Surrealists, though never wholeheartedly adhering to their programme. In characteristic works such as Venus Asleep (1944), The Hands (1941) and Le Corte (1963), he places female nudes, juxtaposed with clothed figures, in incongruous architectural settings, imbuing the whole with the mysterious, disquieting inconsequentiality of a dream, reminiscent of De Chirico's 'metaphysical' painting.

Delville Jean
(b Leuven, 19 Jan 1867; d Brussels, 19 Jan 1953). Belgian painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, with Jean-François Portaels and the Belgian painter Joseph Stallaert (1825–1903). Among his fellow students were Eugène Laermans, Victor Rousseau and Victor Horta. From 1887 he exhibited at L’Essor, where in 1888 Mother (untraced), which depicts a woman writhing in labour, caused a scandal. Although his drawings of the metallurgists working in the Cockerill factories near Charleroi were naturalistic, from 1887 he veered towards Symbolism: the drawing of Tristan and Isolde (1887; Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.), in its lyrical fusion of the two bodies, reveals the influence of Richard Wagner. Circle of the Passions (1889), inspired by Dante Alighieri’s Divina commedia, was burnt c. 1914; only drawings remain (Brussels, Musées Royaux B.-A.). Jef Lambeaux copied it for his relief Human Passions (1890–1900; Brussels, Parc Cinquantenaire). Delville became associated with Joséphin Péladan, went to live in Paris and exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, created there by Péladan (1892–5). A devoted disciple of Péladan, he had his tragedies performed in Brussels and in 1895 painted his portrait (untraced). He exhibited Dead Orpheus (1893; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), an idealized head, floating on his lyre towards reincarnation, and Angel of Splendour (1894; Brussels, Gillion-Crowet priv. col.), a painting of great subtlety.

Demuth Charles (1883-1935). U.S. painter, with *Sheeler the most important exponent of Cubist-Realism (or Precisionism), and also an ill. His preferred subject matter was colonial and industrial architecture, which he treated with exceptional clarity and delicacy of line and colour. His early paintings, many in watercolour, included vaudeville subjects and flower pieces. *Magic Realism.

Denis Maurice (1870-1943). French painter who followed various styles. He was a leader of the *Nabis and made the famous statement 'A picture — before being a horse, a nude or an anecdotal subject — is essentially a flat surface covered with colours arranged in a certain order.' His picture Homage to Cezanne (1900) shows members of the Nabis admiring a still-life by Cezanne. He painted decorative murals and biblical subjects in modern settings.

De Nittis Giuseppe  (b Barletta, Puglia, 25 Feb 1846; d Saint-Germain-en-Laye, nr Paris, 21 Aug 1884). Italian painter, pastellist and printmaker. Throughout his career he was committed to a plein-air aesthetic and was particularly interested in rendering varying light effects, a concern that brought him into contact with the Impressionists. He was also acquainted with the members of the Macchiaioli, for whom his work was influential. In addition to oils, he experimented with printmaking and made innovative use of pastels. Practising a restrained, and therefore ‘acceptable’, form of Impressionism, he achieved great success in his lifetime, both nationally and internationally.

De Nuncques Degouve
William (b Monthermé, France, 28 Feb 1867; d Stavelot, 1 March 1935). Belgian painter of French birth. After the Franco-Prussian war (1870–71), his parents settled in Belgium. Although self-taught, he was advised by Jan Toorop, with whom he shared a studio, and later lived with Henry de Groux. In 1894 he married Juliette Massin, a painter and Emile Verhaeren’s sister-in-law, who introduced him to the circle of Symbolist poets. His art, which bears the influence of poetry, transfigures reality in the sense that it affords a view of the invisible. Degouve de Nuncques belonged to the avant-garde group Les XX and later exhibited at the Libre Esthétique. He travelled widely and painted views of Italy, Austria and France, often of parks at night. He excelled in the use of pastel. Two works, in particular, demonstrate the magical quality of his work: Pink House (1892; Otterlo, Kröller–Müller) and Peacocks (1896; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.).

De Pisis Filippo (b Ferrara, 8 May 1896; d Milan, 2 April 1956). Italian painter, poet and writer. He was born into the nobility, and he particularly identified with a 12th-century ancestor, Filippo, a condottiere. De Pisis shared his romantic view of his ancestry with his sister, Ernesta Tibertelli (1895–?1973), who was a distinguished illustrator with libertarian views, and who probably introduced De Pisis to mystical writings and possibly collaborated with him on poems and paintings. De Pisis spent his childhood studying literature, drawing, collecting butterflies and wild flowers and preparing herbaria (now U. Padua). He enrolled at the University of Bologna, where he studied literature and philosophy, in 1914. The following year he met the poet Corrado Govoni and the literary scholars Salvator Gotta and Giuseppe De Robertis. De Pisis maintained an interest in Futurism through the periodicals Lacerba and La voce.

Derain Andre (1880-1954). French painter, who studied at the Academie Carriere. D. was one of the most original of the *Fauve painters, working at first with *Vlaminck at Chatou and then at Collioure with *Matisse. The Pool of London (1906) shows him using a Neo-Impressionist technique with a freedom inspired by Matisse. Between 1906 and 1909 he was working along parallel lines to *13raque and *Picasso, whom he had met, and even preceded them in his fusion of African and Cezannesque forms, e.g. Baigneuses (1906); but he never wholly responded to *Cubism and after about 1919 withdrew from the avant-garde.

d'Erte  Romain de Tirtoff (pseudonym Erté, a French pronunciation of initials R.T.) (November 23, 1892 – April 21, 1990) was a Russian born, French artist and designer. Tirtoff was born as Roman Petrov de Tyrtov (Роман Петрович Тыртов) in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire in a very distinguished family with roots traced back to 1548. His father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov was a Fleet Admiral. In 1910-1912 Romain moved to Paris to pursue a career as a designer. This decision was made over strong objections of his father, who wanted Romain to continue a family tradition and to become a naval officer. Romain assumed the pseudonym to avoid disgracing the family. In 1915 he got his first significant contract with Harper's Bazaar magazine, and he went on to an illustrious career that included designing costumes and stage sets.
Erté is perhaps most famous for his elegant fashion designs which capture the art deco period in which he worked. His delicate figures and sophisticated, glamorous designs are instantly recognizable, and his ideas and art influence fashion into the 21st century. His costumes and sets were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923, many productions of the Folies Bergère, and George White's Scandals. In 1925, Louis B. Mayer brought him to Hollywood to design sets and costumes for a film called Paris. There were many script problems so Erte was given other assignments to keep him busy. He designed for such films as Ben-Hur, The Mystic, Time, the Comedian, Dance Madness and La bohème.
By far his best known image is Symphony in Black, depicting a tall, slender woman draped in black holding a thin black dog. The influential image has been reproduced and copied countless times.
Erté continued working throughout his life designing revues, ballets and operas. He had a major rejuvenation and much lauded interest in his career during the 1960s with the art deco revival. He branched out into the realm of limited edition prints, bronzes and art to wear. Museums around the world purchased dozens of his paintings for their collections.
A sizeable collection of work by Erté can be found at Museum 1999 in Tokyo.
See also:
(Cards and Posters)

Descomps Joseph
. Art Deco Sculptor

Desiderio da Settignano (c. 1430—с 1464). Florentine sculptor. Born into a family of stonemasons and carvers, D. was greatly influenced by Donatello, of whom he may have been a pupil. Many ot D.'s studies of the Madonna and Child and busts of Florentine women and children have an unsentimental grace and great beauty, e.g. Bust of a Woman. His 2 major works are the tomb of the humanist scholar Carlo Marsuppini and the Tabernacle of the Sacrament.

Desiderio Vincent (b. 1955) is an American realist painter. He is currently the senior critic at the New York Academy of Art and lives and works in New York City. Desiderio was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Desiderio received a BA in fine art and art history from Haverford College in 1977. He subsequently studied for one year at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, Italy (77-78), and for four years at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (79-83) at the same time as film-maker David Lynch, Wade Schuman, and many others. His paintings and drawings have been exhibited widely, most recently in solo exhibitions at the Marlborough Gallery in New York. He is a recipient of a Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant, two National Endowment for the Arts Grants, the Everson Museum of Art Purchase Prize, a Rome Grant from the Creative Artists Network and a Cresson Traveling Scholarship from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1996, he became the first American artist to receive the International Contemporary Art Prize awarded by the Prince Pierre Foundation of the Principality of Monaco. His works are included in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Denver Art Museum, the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, New York, Galerie Sammlung Ludwig in Aachen, Germany, the Greenville County Museum of Art in South Carolina and the Indiana University Museum of Art in Indiana, Pennsylvania.

De Stijl. A group of artists, among them the Dutch abstract painter *Mondrian, who took the name from a magazine ed. by Van *Doesburg, painter and theoretician, from 1917.
De S. advocated the use in art of basic forms, particularly cubes, verticals and horizontals: in an essay entitled Neo-Plasticis (1920), Mondrian suggested that such an abstract art best expresses spiritual values. Architects such as Rietveld and J. J. Oud were connected with the group, which became international with the adherence of artists like H. *Richter, *Lissitzky and *Brancusi. De S. ideas influenced the *Bauhaus (where Van Doesburg lectured) and geometric abstract art of the 1930s. The group had split up by Van Doesburg's death in 1931.
Deutsche Gartenstadtgesellschaft. German association of architects, urban planners and writers. Founded in 1902 and active until the 1930s, it was modelled on the English Garden Cities Association. In contrast to the English precursor, however, which was grounded on Ebenezer Howard’s practical theories of economic decentralization, the Deutsche Gartenstadtgesellschaft had literary roots. Its direct predecessors were the communes established by literati seeking to re-establish contact with the land, which flourished in the countryside around Berlin at the turn of the century. Among its founder-members were the writers Heinrich Hart (1855–1906) and Julius Hart (1859–1930), Bruno Wille (1860–1928) and Wilhelm Bölsche (1861–1939), and the literary tendencies of the group were clearly stated in the founding manifesto: ‘The Deutsche Gartenstadtgesellschaft is a propaganda society. It sees the winning over of the public to the garden city cause as its principal aim’ (quoted from Founding Statutes of Deutsche Gartenstadtgesellschaft, article 1, in Hartmann, p. 161). Practical skills were brought to the group by the cousins Bernhard (b 1867) and Hans (b 1876) Kampffmeyer, who had both trained as landscape architects and were active in literary and socialist circles in both Berlin and Paris.

Deutscher Werkbund. German organization founded in 1907 to promote progressive ideas and better-quality design in architecture and in industry.
Deutscher Werkbund.

German association of architects, designers and industrialists. It was active from 1907 to 1934 and then from 1950. It was founded in Munich, prompted by the artistic success of the third Deutsche Kunstgewerbeausstellung, held in Dresden in 1906, and by the then current, very acrimonious debate about the goals of applied art in Germany. Its founder-members included Hermann Muthesius, Peter Behrens, Heinrich Tessenow, Fritz Schumacher and Theodor Fischer, who served as its first president.

Deveria Achille
Achille Jacques-Jean-Marie Devéria (6 February 1800 – 23 December 1857) was a French painter and lithographer. His father was a civil employee of the navy and student of Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson and Louis Lafitte (1770–1828).

In 1822, he began exhibiting at the Paris Salon. At some point, he opened an art school together with his brother Eugène, who was also a painter. By 1830 Devéria had become a successful illustrator and had published many lithographs in the form of notebooks and albums (e.g. his illustrations to Goethe's Faust, 1828) and romantic novels. He also produced many engravings of libertine contents. His experience in the art of the vignette and Mezzotint influenced his numerous lithographs, most of which were issued by his father-in-law, Charles-Etienne Motte (1785–1836). Most of his work consisted of "pseudo-historical, pious, sentimental or erotic scenes." (Wright) Since he rarely depicted tragic or grave themes, he appears less Romantic than many other artists of the time. Devéria was also known for doing portraits of artists and writers, whom he entertained in his Paris studio on Rue de l'Ouest. The list of his sitters includes Alexandre Dumas, père, Prosper Mérimée, Sir Walter Scott, David, Alfred de Musset, Sainte-Beuve, Honoré de Balzac, Gericault, Victor Hugo, Marie Dorval, Alphonse de Lamartine, Alfred de Vigny and Franz Liszt. His paintings were mainly done using watercolours. The French poet and critic Charles Baudelaire referred to his portrait series as showing "all the morals and aesthetics of the age". In 1849, Devéria was appointed director of the Bibliothèque Nationale's department of engravings and assistant curator of the Louvre's Egyptian department. In the following years, he taught drawing and lithography to his son, Théodule Devéria, and both worked on a family portrait album from 1853 until Devéria's death. They applied ink wash to several of the portraits in the album, possibly in preparation for printing lithographs from the photographs. The album photographs by Théodule Devéria are dated 1854. Devéria spent his last days traveling in Egypt making drawings and transcribing texts. He died in 1857.

Works by Devéria are in the Louvre Museum, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Norton Simon Museum,
and the Université de Liège collections.

Deveria Eugene  (b Paris, 22 April 1805; d Pau, 3 Feb 1865). Painter, brother of Achille Devéria. He was a pupil of Anne-Louis Girodet and Guillaume Lethière but was greatly influenced by his brother. Despite differences of taste and temperament—Eugène had an official career and painted on a grand scale—the brothers remained close until Eugène went to Avignon in 1838. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1824 and had his first success with the Birth of Henry IV (1827; Paris, Louvre). He approached this well-worn subject (made fashionable by the Restoration and usually portrayed in engravings or small-scale works) with unusual panache. The ambitious scale, the crowds of people painstakingly depicted in period costume and the rich colours revealed his desire to raise the subject to the rank of history painting. With Delacroix and Louis Boulanger, Devéria was hailed as a champion of the Romantic movement and the successor to Veronese and Rubens.

Czech avant-garde group of architects, painters, sculptors, collagists, photographers, film makers, designers and writers, active 1920–31. Its name is a composite of the words ‘nine’ and ‘forces’. The group’s leader, KAREL TEIGE, advocated a reconciliation between utilitarianism and lyrical subjectivity: ‘Constructivism and Poetism’. Devetsil’s architects, including JAROMÍR KREJCAR and KAREL HONZÍK, invested the geometry of architecture with an element of poetry, while painters and photographers such as TOYEN and JINDRICH STYRSKY moved towards Surrealism, and when the group dissolved many of its members, including Teige, joined the Czech Surrealist group.

Diaper-work. A simple pattern based on small geometric or floral forms repeated uniformly over a surface. It is found m textiles, manuscripts, murals and panel painting, metalwork, sculpture and architectural detail, especially in the Middle Ages.

Diaz de la Pena Narcisse (1808-76). French painter of Spanish descent. As a landscape painter he was taught by T. *Rousseau and belonged to the *Barbizon school. He also painted mythological figure groups.

Dicksee Frank  (b London, 27 Nov 1853; d London, 17 Oct 1928). English painter and illustrator. He studied in the studio of his father, Thomas Francis Dicksee (1819–95), who painted portraits and historical genre scenes; he then entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, where he was granted a studentship in 1871. He won a silver medal for drawing from the Antique in 1872 and a gold medal in 1875 for his painting Elijah confronting Ahab and Jezebel in Naboth’s Vineyard (untraced), with which he made his début at the Royal Academy in 1876. He also began to work as an illustrator during the 1870s, contributing to Cassell’s Magazine, Cornhill Magazine, The Graphic and other periodicals. During the 1880s he was commissioned by Cassell & Co. to illustrate their editions of Longfellow’s Evangeline (1882), Shakespeare’s Othello (1890) and Romeo and Juliet (1884).

Didot. Firm of French printers founded (1713) by Francois D. (1689—1757). His son Francois Ambrose (1730—1804) completed the development of the system of standard type measure (now called after him) originated by S.-P. Fournier. His younger son Firmin (1764—1 836), one of the great type-cutters, was responsible for the introduction of the 'modern' type-face with its distinctive strictness and regularity of line; he also devised the 1st completely successful stereotype process (r. 1795). With his brother Pierre (1761 —1853) he produced many fine books.

Dine Jim (1935- ). U.S. artist. In the late 1950s and 1960s he collaborated in *Happenings with *Oldenburg and produced *Pop art works and objects. From the early 1970s D.'s oil paintings, prints (perhaps his most successful work, usually sensitive and simple depictions of tools, robes, etc.) and drawings became increasingly figurative. He collaborated with writers, e.g. series of lithographs with R. Padgett (1970).

Dionisii (b c. 1440 - d after 1502–3). Russian painter. He worked in Moscow and the surrounding towns and in several northern monasteries, including those of Iosifo-Volokolamsky, Ferapontov and St Paul at Obnorsk (founded 1414). Paintings attributed to him represent the apogee of the classicizing style in Russian religious art, although by the end of his life much of his work was apparently done with the help of assistants. Various sources refer to Dionisy, but he is first mentioned in the Life of Pafnuty of Borovsk, which records that he decorated the cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin (Rozhdestvo bogoroditsy) in the Pafnut’ev Monastery in Borovsk with wall paintings (c. 1467; destr.), together with the older icon painter, Mitrofan, and their assistants. According to a chronicle source, in 1481 Dionisy, Timofey, Yarets and Konya painted a Deësis with festivals and prophets (destr.) for the cathedral of the Dormition (Uspensky) in the Moscow Kremlin and decorated two of the cathedral’s chapels with wall paintings. In 1482 Dionisy restored the Greek icon of the Virgin Hodegetria in the monastery of the Ascension (Voznesensky) in the Moscow Kremlin after it was damaged by fire. Between 1484 and 1500 the workshop of Dionisy painted an extensive series of icons for the cathedral in the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery. An inventory of 1545 compiled by a contemporary of Dionisy records that of these works 87 were by Dionisy, 37 by his sons Vladimir and Feodosy and 20 by their colleague Paisy.

Diorama. A large-scale scenic representation, parts of which are translucent, displayed in a special building which allows for lighting effects by means of which the picture can be animated.

Diptych. Two-panelled paintings (often a portrait facing the portrayal of a saint) hinged together and thus a free-standing unit when opened out. Several survive from the late Middle Ages.

Direct art. Name given by a group of Austrian artists active in the 1960s, among them *Hermann Nitsch and *Otto Muhl, to sexual, sado-masochistic *performances.

Distemper. A painting medium of powder colours mixed in water used since classical times for interior decoration. It is impermanent but was occasionally used by Renaissance artists for *cartoons.

Diveky Josef.  Art Deco.

Divisionism. An alternative term for the techniques of *Neo-lmpressionism.

Dix Otto (1891 —1969). German painter and graphic artist best known for his paintings and etchings of protest based on his experience of World War I. He became famous with a portfolio of etchings publ. in 1917. His early paintings resemble the primitive style of the Douanier Rousseau, but he later adopted the principles of the *New Objectivity and like *Grosz exposed the corruption of post-war Germany with biting satire; the Hitler era brought persecution to D. After the war he painted mainly religious subjects.
Dobell William (1899-1970). Australian painter, among the earliest to achieve wide recognition. D, was not as openly nationalistic as many of his younger contemporaries; he lived in London from 1929 to 1939, and his cruel realistic portraits owe as much to Hogarth and Rembrandt as to contemporary national or international movements.

Dobuzhinsky Mstislav. (b Novgorod, 14 Aug 1875; d New York, 20 Nov 1957).Russian graphic artist, painter and stage designer. He first studied art from 1885 to 1887 at the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, St Petersburg, and then enrolled in St Petersburg University from where he graduated in Law in 1898. Unwilling to give up his early interest in art, in 1899 he went to Munich to study under Anton Azbé and Simon Hollósy and met there the large colony of Russian artists, including Igor’ Grabar’. He also saw the work of German Jugendstil artists.

Doesburg Theo van  (real name С. Е. M. Kiipper) (1883—1931). Dutch painter, writer on art, poet; leader of the movement *De Stijl and founder of its journal. In 1916 he began to collaborate with the architects J. P. Oud andj. Wils and in 1923 with C. van Eesteren in applying the principles of De Stijl to building and interior decoration; in 1922 he taught at the *Bauhaus, Weimar. In the same year he publicized Dadaism in the Netherlands and under the pseud. 'I. K. Bonset' ed. the Dada periodical Mecatio. In 1930 he ed. a pamphlet entitled Art (lomrcl introducing this term as an alternative to 'abstract art'.

Dogon. W. African people settled in the great bend of the River Niger. Their outstanding sculpture is represented by: free-standing ancestor figures in a spindly style; softwood masks, in bold simplified forms; and decorative high-relief ancestor figures in cubistic forms, found, e.g. on granary doors. The masks may be pierced with iron hooks to counteract the life force in the wood. D. granaries are tall tubular structures of great elegance. The D. territory yields hoards of ancient cult carvings, often encrusted with sacrificial matter, called Idem.

Domenichino Domenico Zampieri called (1581 — 1641). Bolognese painter, pupil and assistant of the Carracci. He worked in Rome, becoming the leading exponent of the Bolognese school there; in 1630 he moved to Naples. His frescoes in Rome included Scourging of St Andrew (1608) and Scenes from the life of St Cecilia (1615—17); the latter marked the peak of classicism in his painting. A tendency towards the Baroque in his work in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome (1624-8), was further developed in his frescoes (1630-41) in Naples cathedral.

Domenico Veneziano (d. 1461). Italian painter of the Florentine school (although he was probably born in Venice: his work shows a stronger sense of colour than that of most of his Florentine contemporaries). He is known to have been in Perugia in 1438 and in Florence between 1439 and 1445. The story in Vasan of D.V.'s murder by Castagno is disproved by the fact that he died after Castagno. D.V.'s work has recently been critically revalued and his influence traced in the painting of Piero della Francesca. D.V.'s surviving masterpiece is the signed ,St Lucy Altarpiece, consisting of the central panel, Madonna and Child with Four Saints, 2 very fine predella panels, The Miracle of St Zenobius and Annunciation, and the panels St John in the Wilderness and St Francis Receiving the Stigmata and The Martyrdom of St Lucy.

Dominguez Oscar (1906-58). Spanish Surrealist painter and sculptor, living in Paris from 1934. He evolved *decalcomania, his own style of * Automatism in painting; later works introduced technological imagery. His sculptures used *readymades.

Dominicis Gino De (1947-1998).De Dominicis was a controversial and mystifying figure in Italian art. Even the news of his death was suspect, for years earlier he had reported his own demise in the mock conclusion to a biographical essay.His first show was at Rome's Galleria L'Attico in 1969. He was collaborating with Emilio Mazzoli in Modena, where he had his last show in 1998. De Dominicis first appearance in the Venice Biennale in 1972 included a young man with Down's syndrome as an element in an installation; in 1993 he announced that his tempera-and-gold-on-panel paintings could not be considered for Biennale prizes; in 1995 he publicly declined to appear at all. His work has influenced a lot of younger italian artists such as Maurizio Cattelan and Paola Pivi.

Donatello (c. 1386-1466). Italian sculptor of the Florentine school. Probably no artist so shaped the whole artistic expression of the Italian Renaissance. In himself he found the whole range of that expression, from the lyrical joy of the dancing cherubs, orputti, to the high tragedy and the extremes of religious passion given daring expression in works such as the Magdalen. At the same time, in the bronze David, St Ccoige and the Cattamelata, D, demonstrates that enormous confidence in himself and his destiny which marks the man of the Renaissance.
Little is known about D.'s life. He was trained as a goldsmith and in other crafts, entered the workshop of L. Ghiberti at 17 and was probably taught to carve marble by Nanni di Banco, with whom he collaborated on figures for Or San Michele. His earliest work is probably the marble David. D. is first mentioned in records of artists working on Florence cathedral in 1406 and he executed commissions for the cathedral throughout his life. In this early period he became a friend of Brunelleschi. Critics now believe the traditional account of a trip to Rome taken by D. and Brunelleschi together, but differ on the date. Classical motifs and conceptions become important in the work of both artists from the 1420s. Other of D.'s major works include: the figures for Or San Michele, Florence, which include St George and the plaque St George Slaying the Dragon, important because it creates a scene in depth for the 1st time and the illusion of perspective in carved relief; the figures for the cathedral; the wall tombs executed with Michelozzo, such as the tomb of the Antipope John XXIII; the Crucifix; the carvings on the Siena font, including the scene Herod's Feast; Judith and Holofernes; the important panel in low relief, Ascension; the bronze David, the singing gallery or Cantoria of Florence cathedral, and in Padua, the equestrian statue Gattamelata and the high altar of the Santo; finally the influential and enormously powerful carving in wood, the Magdalen.
D.'s influence is traceable in the work of every Florence artist, notably the painters Masaccio and Castagna, Botticelli to some extent, and, to the greatest degree of all, Michelangelo. The Paduan artists under Mantegna and even the Venetians drew upon the enormous technical and spiritual wealth inherent m his work. Almost all later schools have made use of some aspects of D.'s work, e.g. the putti in the Rococo period, the 'rediscovery' of D.'s values m sculpture by Rodin and the way in which emotional tension is reproduced in much contemporary sculpture.



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