Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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Baburen-Bassano Bastien-Benton Berchem-Bocklin Bodegon-Braque Brassai-Byzantine



Brassai (b Brasso, Transylvania, Hungary [now Romania], 9 Sept 1899; d Nice, 8 July 1984).

French photographer, draughtsman, sculptor and writer of Hungarian birth. The son of a Hungarian professor of French literature, he lived in Paris in 1903–4 while his father was on sabbatical there, and this early experience of the city greatly impressed him. In 1917 he met the composer Béla Bartók, and from 1918 to 1919 he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. Due to the hostility between Hungary and France in World War I he was unable to study in France and so moved to Berlin in late 1920. There he became acquainted with László Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky and Kokoschka and in 1921–2 attended the Akademische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin. He was a keen draughtsman and while there produced a series of characteristic drawings of nudes executed in an angular, emphatic style. In 1924 he moved to Paris, where he quickly became involved with the artists and poets of the Montmartre and Montparnasse districts while supporting himself as a journalist. In 1925 he adopted the name Brassai, derived from that of his native town, and throughout that year he continued drawing as well as making sculptures. In 1926 he met André Kertész, who introduced him to photography. In 1930 Brassai began taking photographs of Paris at night, concentrating on its architecture and the nocturnal activities of its inhabitants. These were collected and published as Paris de nuit in 1933 and showed the night workers, cafés, brothels, theatres, streets and buildings of the capital. The artificial lighting created strong tonal contrasts, lending the images a strikingly evocative beauty. Some of his photographs were included in the exhibition Modern European Photographers at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1932, and the following year at the Arts et Métiers Graphiques in Paris he had a one-man show of his photographs of Paris, which travelled to the Batsford Gallery in London the same year.

Brauer Aric (born 1929). Austrian painter, draughtsman, printmaker, poet, dancer, singer and stage designer. He resides in Vienna and Ein-Hod Israel. Brauer is a co-founder of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, together with Ernst Fuchs, Rudolf Hausner, Wolfgang Hutter and Anton Lehmden. Erich 'Arik' Brauer is the child of Lithuanian Jewish emigrants. His post-war artistic training was in Vienna, under the supervision of Albert Paris von Gutersloh. Gütersloh promoted Brauer's work within the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism circle of artists, which had formed in the mid-1950s from a post-1946 Viennese surrealist group that had included Brauer along with Edgar Jené, Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter, Rudolf Hausner, Anton Lehmden, and Fritz Janschka. Despite the prevailing art-world taste for abstraction in the 1950s and early 60s, Brauer's work successfully blended high craftsmanship and surrealism in ways that gained him international attention. In 1982 he had breakthrough solo shows in the USA. Brauer has also designed architectural projects in Austria and Israel. The facades and interiors of his buildings are covered with fantastical mosaics, murals and painted tiles. He also designed 2002 the first United Buddy Bear for Austria. (Fantastic realism, Vienna School of Fantastic realism).

Brauner Victor (1903-66). Rumanian painter working mainly in France and associated with the Surrealist movement.

Bravo Claudio. Born in Chile, November 8, 1936 in the town of Valparaíso, Claudio Bravo has lived and worked in Tangier, Morocco since 1972.
In 1945 he joined the Colegio San Ignacio in Santiago, Chile and studied art in the studio of Miguel Venegas Cienfuentes in Santiago. In 1954 he had his first exhibition at "Salón 13" in Santiago at the age of 17. 1955 He danced professionally with the Compańía de Ballet de Chile and worked for Teatro de Ensayo of the Universidad Católica de Chile.
Later he established himself in Madrid in the 1960s as a society portraitist, gaining recognition for his astounding ability to create verisimilitude. His ability to depict complex objects and shapes is reminiscent of Velázquez.
In 1968 Bravo received an invitation from President Marcos of the Philippines to come and paint him and his wife, Imelda Marcos as well as members of the high society.
In 1970 he had his first exhibition at the Staempfli Gallery in New York which received rave reviews from renowned New York Times art critic John Canaday. Years later, when Bravo's work reflected the hippie movement, Canaday would refer to Bravo's work as "cheap and vulgar".
Bravo moved to Tangier in 1972 where he purchased a 19th century three story mansion. He had many of the walls removed and the remaining walls were painted white to encourage the Mediterranean light so present in his paintings.
Bravo has painted many prominent figures in society including dictator Franco of Spain, President Ferdinand Marcos and First Lady Imelda Marcos of the Philippines and Malcolm Forbes.
Works by Claudio Bravo are included in the collections of the Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile; Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico; Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York; Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany; The Palmer Museum of Art, State College, Pennsylvania; and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Bregno Andrea (b Osteno, nr Lugano, 1418; d Rome, Sept 1503). Italian architect and sculptor. Nothing is known of Bregno’s activity until his arrival in Rome in the 1460s, although his early works betray a Lombard training. During the pontificate of Sixtus IV he became the most popular and prolific sculptor of his day, with a large and well-organized bottega. He worked mainly on the decoration of tombs of prelates and dignitaries of the papal court. Bregno became famous in his lifetime and was mentioned, together with Verrocchio, by Giovanni Santi in La vita e le geste di Federico di Montefeltro duca d’Urbino, written between 1484 and 1487. The writer of a funeral epitaph actually compared him with Polykleitos. Bregno’s work is characterized by great refinement and technical skill. Although he was often not particularly inventive, he was certainly a fine sculptor of grotesques and other forms of ornamentation. He soon fell under the influence of Tuscan models, probably as a result of his contact with Mino da Fiesole, with whom he worked in Rome. There his style became more classical and its design more compact, with precise references to antique sculpture: documents show that he possessed a collection of antique objects recovered from excavations. He was also a friend of Platina, who held him in high esteem, as he wrote in a letter to Lorenzo the Magnificent.

Bremer Uwe
was born in Erfurt in 1940 in Germany, studied art in Hamburg from 1957 to 1960. Since then he has taught art classes, illustrated books, and exhibited his art
work. He is also a writer in his own right. Der dreibeinige Doktor - Die dunkle Lebensgeschichte eines Landarztes is his most recent publication. The excerpt in Vol. 1 No. 1 (January 1994) presents the initial traumatic experience of Dr. McRode, whose life unfolds on the 300 pages of the novel in the tradition of horror stories and black humor.

Bresdin Rodolphe (France, 1825-1885).

Breton Andre (1896-1966). French poet, leader and principal theorist of Surrealism. He publ. 3 Surrealist manifestos (1924, 1930, 1934) and founded Surrealist research laboratories which employed Freudian techniques in studying the subconscious. His works include: the poetry colls Mom de piele (1919), Les Pas perdus (1924) and Pocnies (1948); he also wrote the partly autobiographical 'novel' Natlja (1928).

Breton Jules (b Courričres, Pas-de-Calais, 1 May 1827; d Paris, 5 July 1906). French painter and writer. After the death of his mother he was brought up in the village of Courričres by his father, grandmother and uncle. The last instilled in him respect for tradition and a commitment to the philosophical ideas of the 18th century. Breton’s father, as supervisor of the lands of the Duc de Duras, encouraged him to develop a deep knowledge of and affection for his native region and its heritage, which remained central to his art.

Breu Jorg
the Elder (c. 1475 – 1537) of Augsburg was a painter of the German Danube school. He was the son of a weaver.
He journeyed to Austria and created several multi-panel altarpieces there in 1500–02, such as the Melk Altar (1502). He returned to Augsburg in 1502 where he became a master. He travelled to Italy twice, in ca. 1508 and in 1514/15.
After his death in 1537, his son, Jörg Breu the Younger continued to lead his Augsburg workshop until his own death 10 years later. 

Breuning Olaf (Swiss, 1970). Find works of art, auction results & sale prices of artist Olaf Breuning at galleries and auctions worldwide.

Briosco Benedetto (b Milan, c. 1460; d ?Milan, after April 1514). Italian sculptor. The first notice of his activity dates from 1477, when he and his brother-in-law Francesco Cazzaniga were employed as sculptors on the monument to Giovanni Borromeo and Vitaliano Borromeo (Isola Bella, Palazzo Borromeo, chapel), which was executed for S Francesco Grande, Milan. By 1482 he had begun employment for the Works of Milan Cathedral and in 1483 was paid for carving a figure of S Apollonia (untraced). Although he was a master figure sculptor at the cathedral until the middle of 1485, the other work he did there remains unknown. During 1483–4 it is likely that he assisted Francesco and Tommaso Cazzaniga in the execution of the tomb of Cristoforo and Giacomo Antonio della Torre (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie). In 1484 he and the Cazzaniga brothers began work on the tomb of Pietro Francesco Visconti di Saliceto destined for the Milanese church of S Maria del Carmine (destr.; reliefs in Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.; Kansas City, MO, Nelson-Atkins Mus. A.; and Washington, DC, N.G.A.; architectural elements in Paris, Louvre). This project was completed by Briosco and Tommaso Cazzaniga following Francesco Cazzaniga’s death at the beginning of 1486. In the same year Benedetto and Tommaso were commissioned to finish the tomb of Giovanni Francesco Brivio (Milan, S Eustorgio), designed and begun by Francesco. Briosco’s hand is virtually impossible to distinguish in these collaborative works. In 1489 the Apostolic Prothonotary and ducal councillor Ambrogio Griffo engaged Briosco to execute his funerary monument, to be installed in the church of S Pietro in Gessate, Milan. This tomb, which in its original form consisted of an effigy mounted on a high rectangular sarcophagus, appears to be Briosco’s first major independent work and represents a significant break with Lombard tradition; although its design may to some extent have been influenced by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo’s tomb to Medea Colleoni (Bergamo, Colleoni Chapel), it was free-standing and entirely secular in content. In 1490 Briosco returned to Milan Cathedral, where he was engaged to carve four life-size statues each year until he or his employers should cancel the arrangement. Although he worked at the cathedral until mid-1492, only a figure of St Agnes (Milan, Mus. Duomo) is documented from this period.

Brodahl Cris (born 1963, Ghent, Belgium) is an artist based in Ghent. Brodahl has shown internationally in exhibitions including 'Electric Blue' at Xavier Hufkens in Brussels Cut at The Approach in London, Michael Bauer, Cris Brodahl, Stef Driesen at Marc Foxx in Los Angeles and The Triumph of Painting at the Saatchi Gallery in London. She is represented by Xavier Hufkens in Brussels, [The Approach Gallery|The approach] in London and Marc Foxx in Los Angeles.

Broederlam Melchior (fl. 1381-r. 1409). Painter born at Ypres. About 1385 he became painter to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who commissioned from him 2 wings for an altar in the Carthusian monastery at Champmol (1392-9). These depict the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Presentation in the Temple and the Flight into Egypt, and are an early example of International Gothic style.

Bronze. An alloy of copper and tin, harder and more suitable for casting than copper; the qualities of an ancient b. are enhanced by the *patma which develops on it. From early times the virtues of the metal were realized and both the Greek and the Chinese sculptors achieved a standard that has never been excelled. With the fall of the Roman empire the secret of the casting of figures (*cire perdue) was largely lost but was revived at the Renaissance when working reached a new peak. Fine b.s have been found at the African centres of *Benm and *Ife.

Bronzino, II (1503-72). Florentine Mannerist painter, pupil of J. da Pontormo. B. was painter to Cosimo I de' Medici, for whom he undertook decorative works and many court portraits, e.g. those of Eleanor of Toledo and her son, and I.ucrezia Panciatichi. He used fine rich colours but portrayed his sitters with unrelaxed posture and faces of inscrutable reserve. His allegorical paintings and religious subjects, which appear devoid of deep or religious feeling, show typical Mannerist figure elongation and include (Christ ill Limbo (1552) and Venus, Cupid, ToUy and Time, remarkable for its harshly metallic flesh tones against a brilliant blue background. B. also wrote poetry.

Brouwer Adriaen (c. 1605—38). Flemish genre painter, mainly of low life, and landscape painter. He led a dissipated life and died of the plague at Antwerp. In his realistic, often dramatic, tavern scenes the vulgarities and rowdy emotions of the subjects are fully recorded. B. often used dark tones and thick, violent but economical brush-strokes; in his last years he painted sensitive impressionistic landscapes. B.'s genre pieces strongly influenced D. Teniers the Younger and A. van Ostade.

Brown Ford Madox (1821 -93). British painter, who was born m France and studied in Antwerp, Paris and Rome, where he met *Overbeck. He settled in London, and in 1848 Rossetti became his pupil and introduced him to the *Pre-Raphaehtes, who affected his work, e.g. Tlw Last of England (1855), but he was never a member of the Brotherhood. He was a partner in the firm of (William) Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co.

Brown Paul S. was born August 11, 1967 in the U.S. and currently resides in London, UK.

Brucke, Die (Ger. The Bridge). The Ist group of German *Expressionist painters, founded in Dresden in 1905 and formally dissolved in 1913. Associated with it were *Kirchner, the leading member, *Nolde, *Schmidt-Rottluff, *Pechstem, *Heckel and *Mueller. The artists shared a common studio, cultivated the medieval guild ideal and also canvassed 'bourgeois' support with a lay membership scheme. The B. painters were inspired by Cezanne, Gaugum, Van Gogh and Munch, and by African and Pacific art. Their work was at first characterized by flat, linear, rhythmical expression and by simplification of form and colour, and their extensive use of the woodcut especially in posters, made it an important 2Oth-c. medium.

Brucke, Die [Ger.: ‘the bridge’].
German group of painters and printmakers active from 1905 to 1913 and closely associated with the development of Expressionism.
The Künstlergruppe Brücke was founded on 7 June 1905 in Dresden by four architecture students: Fritz Bleyl (1880–1966), Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt (later Schmidt-Rottluff). They were joined by other German and European artists, including Max Pechstein, Cuno Amiet and Lambertus Zijl in 1906, Akseli Gallen-Kallela in 1907, Kees van Dongen and Franz Nölken in 1908, Bohumil Kubista and Otto Mueller in 1910; Emil Nolde was a temporary member (1906–7). Kirchner and Bleyl had become friends in 1901 as architecture students at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden. Heckel and Schmidt-Rottluff had met while at school in Chemnitz. Through Heckel’s brother Manfred they met Kirchner while studying architecture in Dresden c. 1904. They were united by a common aim to break new boundaries in art.

Bruegel. Family of Flemish painters flourishing in the 16th and 17th cs whose most important members are listed alphabetically below. Various spellings of the name have been used such as the later 'BreugcT and 'Brueghel'. The greatest of the family, Pieter B. the Elder, was also its founder.

Bruegel Jan the Elder (1568—1625). Flemish painter, the son of P. B. the Elder; he painted flowers, landscapes and Garden of Eden subjects in a highly finished manner which won him the nickname 'Velvet B.'

Bruegel (Brueghel, Breugel) Jan the Younger (1600/02—78). Flemish painter, the close follower of his father, Jan B. the Elder. He often painted his highly finished flower studies and landscapes on copper.

Bruegel Pieter the Elder (ft. 1551—d. 1569). The last and one of the greatest of the early Netherlandish artists. B. was named after his birthplace, but there is no general agreement which of 3 possible villages this was. Moreover, his name is variously spelt. He signed his work Bruegel and Brueghel, while he was nicknamed 'Bruegel the Droll' or 'Peasant Bruegel', by later writers on art to distinguish him from other members of the family of painters he founded. Even the date of B.'s birth is uncertain, as are details of his training. Obviously an early influence on him was the work of Bosch (d. 15 16) and it is likely B. was apprenticed to P. Coccke van Aelst, whose daughter he married in 1563. He was a master of the Antwerp Guild in 1551. Shortly afterwards B. journeyed extensively in Italy, probably as far south as Sicily, returning through the Orisons and the Tyrol. After his marriage B. moved from Antwerp to Brussels. There is much conjecture but little evidence regarding his position and attitude during the early years of the rebellion against Spanish rule, the religious controversy and the horrors of civil war. When B. died he left a family of imitators. He had established almost all the categories of later Flemish painting and his own paintings were highly priced. Yet, despite the admiration of Rubens and the fact that most of his paintings were quickly acquired for royal colls, B.'s reputation declined until the great revival of interest in his work at the beginning of the 20th c. B. earned a living for many years with drawings for engravings publ. by the humanist printseller, Hieronymus Cock. He probably painted in watercolour technique, but this work has been lost. About 40 paintings in oil and a few in tempera on linen survive. Briefly, the outstanding feature of B.'s style is its independence of Italian models at the time when most of his contemporaries in the Netherlands were already Romanists. In colour he favoured a muted palette of blue-greens, blue-greys and a wide range of browns, frequently enlivening the picture with points of clear colour, often yellow or red. He extended painting to include the countryside in all seasons, moods and weathers, following medieval Books of Hours and tapestries. He also showed much the same sympathetic but unsentimental interest in those who worked on the land. Between the labourers and their environment B. manages to establish a wholly original relationship in visual terms, e.g. between the lean hunters and the countryside locked in winter — Hunters in the Snow, the feeling of well-being won from nature — The Corn Harvest', or a steel-cold winter's day providing the background to an act of human brutality — The Massacre of the Innocents. At times the landscape almost overpowers the activities of men, as the dramatic Alpine settings do in both life Suicide of Saul and 'The Conversion of St Paul, or the turbulent water in Storm at Sea. The Peasant Dance and Peasant Wedding provide 'close-tips' of the peasants' happier hours. Throughout his life B. used everyday sayings and proverbs to draw personal and highly sophisticated morals on the condition of man. The mastery he came to achieve over his vast material, observed and imagined, can nowhere be better seen than by comparing Ins early, over-crowded Netherlandish Proverbs with the brilliantly composed late work 1 lie Blind Leading the Blind. 2 works showing the power of his imagination at its greatest are Dulle Ciriet ami The Triumph of Death. The 1st, a satanic landscape peopled by all the devils of medieval folk-lore, has been a stimulus to poets, painters and also film producers in the 20th c, while 'The Triumph of Death, with its almost mechanical destruction of human life by thousands, has appeared grimly appropriate to aspects of our times.

Bruegel (Brueghel, Breugel) Pieter the Younger (c. 1564—1638). Flemish painter, the son of Pieter B. the Elder, he imitated the fantasy subjects of his father, earning the nickname 'Hell B.'. *Snyders was his pupil and his son, Pieter B. Ill, was also a painter.

Brueghel Abraham (Antwerp 1631 - Naples 1690)

Brullov Karl Pavlovitch (born Dec. 12 [Dec. 23, Old Style], 1799, St. Petersburg, Russia
died June 11 [June 23], 1852, Marsciano, near Rome, Papal States [Italy] )original name Charles Bruleau , Bryullov also spelled Briullov, Bryulov, Brulov, Brullov , or Brulow Russian painter who combined technical proficiency and classical academic training with a Romantic spontaneity to produce some of the liveliest examples of Russian art of the period. Bryullov was descended from French Huguenots, and his father was a sculptor. (The family name was Russified in 1821.) Bryullov was educated at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts (1809–21). He studied in Italy from 1823, painting his best-known work, the monumental “Last Day of Pompeii” (1830–33), while there; it brought him an international reputation. Though he painted other large canvases with historical subjects, none was as successful as“ Pompeii.” Much of his continuing reputation rests on his more intimate portraits and his watercolours and travel sketches.

Brunelleschi Filippo (b. 1377, Firenze, d. 1446, Firenze) Italian sculptor

Bruno di Majo was born in 1944 by italian parents in Tripoli, Lybia. He lives and works in Tuscany, Italy. (Fantastic realism, Vienna School of Fantastic realism).

Brushwork. The way a painter handles his brush, e.g. with thick broad strokes or short stabs at the canvas or with smooth control, has since the late Renaissance been frequently a distinguishing characteristic of individual artists' styles. Academic painters generally strive for a finish so fine that the individual brushstrokes cannot be distinguished; other painters exploit methods of putting brush to canvas, for various effects.

Brus Gunter
(born September 27, 1938, Ardning, Styria) is an Austrian painter, graphic artist and writer. (Happenings, Performance art, Fluxus).

Bruskin Grisha was born in 1945 in Moscow. Like the majority of Jews of his generation in the Soviet Union he was growing up in complete ignorance of his Jewish heritage until he started studying Jewish tradition in the 70s. Until today the myth of Judaism and the myth of communism have remained his two central topics which he treats in series of paintings and sculptures. Bruskin is ranking among the most celebrated contemporary Russian artists, since his works achieved sensational results at the 1988 auction of Sotheby's in Moscow.
Parallel to painting (his most renown works are the Alefbet and Fundamental Lexicon series and the monumental triptych Life Over All in the Berlin Reichstag) Bruskin develops traditional arts and crafts techniques as artistic media. In the style of Soviet chinaware (which was often employed to convey propagandistic statements) he created for instance the cycles Alphabetic Truths (34 porcelain plates, 1998) or Life is Everywhere (25 porcelain sculptures, 1998-99). With On the Edge his present series of bronze sculptures Bruskin returns to larger sculptures. By pursuing motives from Soviet monuments, which were omni-present during his youth and had already inspired paintings from the late 70s on, he investigates with subtle irony the complex implications of depiction and deliverance.
Bruskin's complex work does not only scrutinize the significant myths of Judaism and the Soviet Union but also refers to the problem of alienation of the individual from the society and his vulnerability to the catastrophe and transitoriness of cultural contexts.

Brustolon Andrea (b Belluno, 20 July 1662; d Belluno, 25 Oct 1732). Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level.

Brutalism. Term applied to the architectural style of exposed rough concrete and large modernist block forms, which flourished in the 1960s and 1970s and which derived from the architecture of Le Corbusier. The term originated from béton brut (Fr.: ‘raw concrete’) and was given overtones of cultural significance not only by Le Corbusier’s dictum ‘L’architecture, c’est avec des matičres brutes établir des rapports émouvants’ (‘Architecture is the establishing of moving relationships with raw materials’), but also by the art brut of Jean Dubuffet and others, which emphasized the material and heavily impastoed surfaces. The epitome of Brutalism in this original sense is seen in the forms and surface treatment of its first major monument, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation de Grandeur Conforme (1948–54) in Marseille. The ultimate disgrace of Brutalism in this same sense is to be seen in the innumerable blocks of flats built throughout the world that use the prestige of Le Corbusier’s béton brut as an excuse for low-cost surface treatments. In Le Corbusier’s own buildings exposed concrete is usually very carefully detailed, with particular attention to the surface patterns created by the timber shuttering, and this can be seen in the work of more conscientious followers of the mode such as Lasdun or Atelier 5.

Bruyn, Guillaume de  (1649-1719)

Brygos. Prominent Greek painter of the early 5th c. bc so called because 5 cups decorated by him have the potter's mark Brygos epoisen — 'made by Brygos'. About 170 vessels have been identified as painted by him. Stylistic characteristics are violent movement, tenseness of line in drapery folds and economy of line in depicting mule figures. His style was much imitated.

Buetti Daniele
(born 1956 in Fribourg) is a Swiss artist currently residing in Berlin and Zurich. Since the 1980s, Buetti has been working with multimedia such as tinted photographs of glamorous celebrities, brand names and lightboxes in order to create powerful, thought-provoking art. Exhibitions of his work have been featured in galleries worldwide. Daniele Buetti gets pictures airbrushed beautiful women and scars their faces to show emotion and feelings within the work.

Buffet Bernard (1928- ). French painter who trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. The expressive draughtsmanship of his early near-monochromatic paintings has become — under the pressure of his phenomenal public success — a mannerism.

Bunce Kate Elizabeth (1856-1927). The Pre-Raphaelite.

Buonarroti Michelangelo. *Michelangelo

Burgin Victor (born 1941) is an artist and a writer. Burgin was born in Sheffield in England. He studied art at the Royal College of Art, in London,from 1962 to 1965 (A.R.C.A., 1st Class, 1965) before going to the United States to study at Yale University (M.F.A. 1967). He taught at Trent Polytechnic from 1967 to 1973 and at the School of Communication, Polytechnic of Central London from 1973 to 1988. From 1988 to 2001 Burgin lived and worked in San Francisco . He taught in the History of Consciousness program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he became Professor Emeritus of History of Consciousness]. In 2000 he was Robert Gwathmey Chair in Art and Architecture, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York. In 2001, he was appointed Millard Professor of Fine Art at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Burgin has also taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. In 2005 he received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Sheffield Hallam University (Hon. DUniv). Burgin first came to attention as a conceptual artist in the late 1960s. He has worked with photography and film, calling painting "the anachronistic daubing of woven fabrics with coloured mud". His work is influenced by theorists and philosophers such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. In 1986, Burgin was nominated for the Turner Prize for his exhibitions at the Institute of Contemporary Arts and Kettle's Yard Gallery in Cambridge and for a collection of his theoretical writings (The End of Art Theory) and a monograph of his visual work (Between).

Burgkmair Hans (1473-1531). German painter of portraits and religious subjects and woodcut designer. Fie studied under his father Thomas and *Schongauer and was a friend of Durer. He was affected by Venetian painting and was one of the 1st Germans whose work showed Italian influence. He is best remembered for his striking woodcuts, e.g. the 2 series Triumph of the Emperor Maximilian I with 135 cuts and The Wise King with 337.

Burin (also called 'graver'). The principal tool used by the engraver for cutting the lines on block or plate. It is, essentially, a short steel rod usually lozenge-shaped in section and cut obliquely at the end to provide a point.

Burliuk the brothers David (1882-1967) and Vladimir (188?— 1917). Prominent Russian Futurists. They studied painting first in Odessa and then in Munich under Azbe. In 1907 in Moscow they came into contact with Exter, Goncharova and Larionov, with whom they organized a number of small exhibitions. In iyio they contributed to the 1st anthology of Russian Futurist poetry; they made friends with Kandinsky, subsequently contributing to *Blaue Reiter exhibitions and Almanac. In 1911 David met Mayakovsky and encouraged him to write poetry; subsequently they together devoted themselves to writing and propaganda for the 'new art'. In 1918 David left Russia and later worked in the U.S.A. in a primitivist style.

Burne-Jones Edward Coley (1833-98). British painter and decorative artist who became a painter under the influence of D. G. Rossetti and was associated with the second, 'romantic' phase of Pre-Raphaelitism. He was strongly affected by Botticelli and Mantegna when visiting Italy in 1859 and 1862. B. lacked the vigour and social ideals of the Pre-Raphaelites; based on literary themes, chiefly from Greek mythology, Chaucer and Malory, his mystic, romantic and unhistorical pictures represented a dream world of escape from 19th-c. industrialism. He worked in subdued tones and a linear manner which contributed to Art Nouveau. He made influential designs for stained glass for his friend W. *Morris, for whom he also ill. books, e.g. the Kelmscott Press Chaucer (1897).

Burr. In *engraving, the fragments of copper left on either side of the channel cut by the *burin.

Burra Edward (1905-76). British painter and theatrical designer; member of Unit I (1933). The work of Signorelli and Goya, Grosz and the Surrealists, influenced the development of his fantastic, richly imaginative art, winch also mirrored his love of Spain and Mexico. B. first specialized in scenes of the underworld, exposing the decadence and disillusionment which existed between the wars but also indulging his taste for the flamboyant and bizarre. With the Spanish Civil War and World War II his work acquired menacing and tragic overtones. Fie worked in watercolour, usually on a large scale.

Burri Alberto (1915-95). Italian painter. After medical studies he began painting while a prisoner of war in Texas — an experience which had a strong formative influence on his work and, in part, dictated his choice of such seemingly unpromising materials as torn sacking, rusty metal and burnt wood, e.g. Legno Nero e Rosso (1960).

Bury Pol
(April 26, 1922-September 28, 2005, Paris, France) was a Belgian sculptor. (Kinetic art)

Pol Bury began his artistic career as a painter, working in the Jeune Peintre Belge group and the Cobra group. In 1953, he took up sculpture and was one of the leading artists of the Kinetic sculpture movement. Four years later, Bury was incorporating electric motors into his sculptures. Later, he worked as a filmmaker and stage designer.

Bushman painting. The Bushmen are a nomad people of the Kalahari Desert, S. Africa. Their rock and cave paintings and engravings, at some 1500 sites m Namibia and S. Africa, depict human and animal figures (often in hunting scenes) in a vigorous, lifelike style reminiscent of prehistoric European art and Saharan rock painting. The B. have a rich oral tradition of mythology.

Bushongo. *Bakuba

Bust. A sculpture portrait representing the head and upper portion of the torso.

Butinone Bernardino (fl. 1484-1507). Italian painter, who worked in Treviglio and Milan. B. was early influenced by Mantegna, later by Vincenzo Foppa, but his work retains traces of Lombard Gothic. In collaboration with *Zenale he painted frescoes in S. Pietro in Gessate, Milan (r. 1489-93) and an altarpiece at Treviglio. Other work includes a triptych (1484).

Byzantine art. Art produced in and under the influence of the E. Roman or B. empire; this is conveniently dated from the founding of Constantinople in ad 330 to its conquest by the Turks in AD 1453. Examples of B. a. survive in Ravenna in Italy, the Balkans, S. Russia and other areas which once belonged to the empire, as well as in Asia Minor proper. B. artists produced wall paintings, illuminated mss, panel paintings and above all *mosaics. The brilliant shining colours of these last, their conventions of iconography and powerful mystical religiosity embody the best and most characteristic of B. a., which enjoyed its golden ages in the 6th to 7th cs and 9th to 12th cs, and in the 13th c. — a renaissance marked by an increased realism of treatment. The impact of B. a. on medieval European art was of great importance and is especially clear in the work of 13th- and I4th-c. Italian painters.
The 2 most important elements in Byzantine architecture were the Roman brick vault and the dome, which probably originated in Persia. Byzantine architects fused these with the use of mosaic as developed in early Christian art into a powerful highly individual style which found its most magnificent expression in the church of S. Sophia.



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