Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 




The Contemporary World

1945 to the present


 


After World War II, a new world order came into being in which two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, played the leading roles. Their ideological differences led to the arms race of the Cold War and fears of a global nuclear conflict. The rest of the world was also drawn into the bipolar bloc system, and very few nations were able to remain truly non-aligned. The East-West conflict came to an end in 1990 with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the consequent downfall of the Eastern Bloc. Since that time, the world has been driven by the globalization of worldwide economic and political systems. The world has, however, remained divided: The rich nations of Europe, North America, and East Asia stand in contrast to the developing nations of the Third World.
 



The first moon landing made science-fiction dreams reality in the year 1969.
Space technology has made considerable progress as the search for new
possibilities of using space continues.

 

 


Yugoslavia
 


SINCE 1945
 

 


see also: United Nations member states -
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia

 

Yugoslavia, which was occupied by the German army in World War II, was liberated by a partisan army led by Tito and was not occupied by the Red Army. Tito was thus able to rebuff Stalin's intervention after 1945. He developed his own "path to Communism" and was a committed leader of the Nonaligned Movement. After his death, the state structure he had held together broke apart. The other parts of the republic set their own nationalist aspirations against the dominance of Serbia. Ŕ "nation-building war" followed and was characterized by appalling brutality.

 


Yugoslavia under Tito 1945-1980
 

Tito practiced a form of Communism independent of the Soviet Union. The country was a federation of republics and provinces, but the military was dominated by Serbia.

 

The Communist partisan army under its leader Josip Broz, widely known as 3 Tito, was the victor in the war against the Italian and German troops that had occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.

With Tito heading the National Liberation Council and then the government after 1945, Yugoslavia was given a Communist structure within a federal system, which achieved a large degree of unity. All nationalities living within Yugoslavia were promised equal rights. The king was deprived of his nationality.
Tito's government at first leaned toward the Soviet Union.

However, Stalin's attempts to assert control and ideological leadership over the Yugoslavian Communist Party were resisted by Tito, and a split resulted in 1948.

1 Yugoslavia withstood an economic embargo imposed by Stalin with the help of Western aid, but 1955 brought a measure of 5 rapprochement between the two governments.


3 Tito after the end of the war in Belgrade, 1945


1 Provisional bridge between the Croatian and Muslim parts of the city Mostar in Herzegovina, replaces the historic one which was destroyed during the civil war in the 1990s


5 Tito (right) toasts Nikita Khrushchev, 1963

In 1961, Yugoslavia was a founding member of the 4 Nonaligned Movement, an organization of states that belong to no military bloc and remained neutral in the Cold War conflict; thus the "Titoism" practiced in Yugoslavia stood for an independent form of Communism with self-governing workers and federal elements while at the same time building up good relations with 2 non-socialist states.

To accommodate the separate nationalities, Yugoslavia was divided into six republics, plus the two autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohiya. The Communist party was restructured in 1952 to become the Federation of Communist Yugoslavia, and the police were given a federal organization in 1966. Only the army remained under the central state, which was dominated by Serbia. Despite the federal structure of the country, nationalist demonstrations, such as the "Croatian Spring" between 1969 and 1971, sometimes occurred and were violently suppressed by Tito's regime.

The autonomy of the republics increased with the constitution of 1974. After Tito's death in 1980, the chairmanship of the state committee and the party was annually rotated among the nationalities—though this was not the case within the individual republics. The dissolution of the federal state became increasingly apparent, highlighting that Tito had held Yugoslavia together.


4 Conference of the Nonaligned Movement in Bandung, Indonesia, 1955


2 Head of the Yugolslav government Tito and
his wife (right) as guests of the Iranian monarch, 1971

 

 

Josip Broz Tito


Josip Broz Tito

Main
president of Yugoslavia
original name Josip Broz

born May 7, 1892, Kumrovec, near Zagreb, Croatia, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia]
died May 4, 1980, Ljubljana, Yugos. [now in Slovenia]


Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. He was secretary-general (later president) of the Communist Party (League of Communists) of Yugoslavia (1939–80), supreme commander of the Yugoslav Partisans (1941–45) and the Yugoslav People’s Army (1945–80), and marshal (1943–80), premier (1945–53), and president (1953–80) of Yugoslavia. Tito was the chief architect of the “second Yugoslavia,” a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until 1991. He was the first Communist leader in power to defy Soviet hegemony, a backer of independent roads to socialism (sometimes referred to as “national communism”), and a promoter of the policy of nonalignment between the two hostile blocs in the Cold War.

Early life
Josip Broz was born to a large peasant family in Kumrovec, northwest of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, of a Croat father and a Slovene mother. He was apprenticed to a locksmith in 1907 and completed his training in 1910, when he joined the Social Democratic Party of Croatia-Slavonia at Zagreb. After working as an itinerant metalworker in various Austro-Hungarian and German centres, he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army in 1913, completed noncommissioned-officer training, and was sent as a sergeant in the war against Serbia in 1914. Transferred to the Russian front in early 1915, he was seriously wounded and captured by the Russians in April 1915. After a long hospitalization he was sent to prisoner-of-war camps, where he became acquainted with Bolshevik propaganda. In 1917 he participated in the July Days demonstrations in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) and, after the October Revolution, joined a Red Guard unit in Omsk, Siberia. Following a White counteroffensive, he fled to Kirgiziya (now Kyrgyzstan) and subsequently returned to Omsk, where he married a Russian woman and joined the South Slav section of the Bolshevik party. In October 1920 he returned to his native Croatia (then part of the newly established Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) and soon joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY).


Communist organizer
Broz’s career as a communist militant was cut short in December 1920 by a state ban against communist activities. He lost his job in a Zagreb locksmith shop and moved to a nearby village, where he worked as a mill mechanic until 1923. Having revived his links with the underground CPY, he served as a local and regional party functionary and trade union organizer in Croatia and Serbia until 1927, when he joined the CPY committee for Zagreb, quickly becoming its organizational secretary. He promoted a campaign against party functions (the so-called Zagreb Line), thereby attracting the attention of Moscow. Rewarded by being named the Zagreb committee’s political secretary in April 1928, he led street demonstrations against the authorities following the assassination of Croat deputies in the Belgrade parliament in June 1928. His success at reviving the CPY’s vitality was cut short by arrest in August 1928. The police discovered bombs in Broz’s apartment—a testimony to his adherence to the new insurrectionary line of the Comintern, the Soviet-sponsored organization of international communism. During his trial, which ended with sentencing to a five-year term, Broz defended himself with exceptional courage and gained further credit with the party authorities.

Broz’s prison term coincided with the establishment of the royal Yugoslav dictatorship, which was promulgated by King Alexander I in order to stem the nationalistic movements of disaffected non-Serbs. In an attempt to break the modest influence of the CPY, the government arrested most of the party cadre, sentencing many of its members to terms far harsher than Broz’s. Despite these blows, at the time of Broz’s release in March 1934, the CPY was slowly recuperating under the agile leadership in exile of Milan Gorkić. Gorkić summoned Broz to the CPY’s Vienna headquarters, where he attempted to secure his cooperation by bringing him into the CPY Politburo. It was at this time that Broz assumed the pseudonym Tito, one of many that he used in underground party work. From February 1935 to October 1936, Tito was in the Soviet Union, where he worked in the Comintern apparatus.

By 1937 Tito was increasingly involved in the CPY’s underground work in Yugoslavia, where he established ties with a new generation of militants. In 1937–38, Joseph Stalin’s purges devastated the CPY leadership, claiming the lives of Gorkić and most of the other topmost veterans. Tito profited from (and probably was an accomplice in) the repression, gaining the Comintern’s mandate to replenish the CPY’s leadership councils with his hand-picked lieutenants—Edvard Kardelj, Alexander Ranković, Milovan Djilas, and Ivo Lola Ribar. He was the Comintern’s choice for the CPY’s new secretary-general, a position he formally assumed in 1939. At the Fifth Land Conference of the CPY, an underground minicongress held in Zagreb in October 1940, Tito sketched the CPY’s leftist strategy, which focused the party on armed insurrection and on a Soviet-style federalist solution to Yugoslavia’s nationality conflict. At that time the CPY had some 7,000 members, not counting the additional 17,200 members of the Young Communist League.
 


Yugoslav partisan leaders Josip Broz Tito (left) and Mosa Pijade (right).
Pijade was a Jewish partisan with the Communist resistance.
Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1944.


Partisan leader
An opportunity for armed insurgency presented itself after the Axis powers, led by Germany and Italy, occupied and partitioned Yugoslavia in April 1941. The CPY remained the only organized political group ready and capable of contending with the occupiers and their collaborators throughout the territory of the defunct Yugoslav state. This meant that the communist-dominated Partisan units were not simply auxiliaries of the Allied war effort but an offensive force in their own right. Their ultimate aim, carefully concealed in the rhetoric of “national liberation struggle,” was the seizure of power. To this end, in Partisan-held territories they established “liberation committees,” communist-dominated administrative organs that prefigured the future federal republics. As a result, Tito’s Partisans became a threat not only to the occupiers and collaborators but also to the royal government-in-exile and its domestic exponents, the Serbian Chetniks of Dragoljub Mihailović. In time, Communist pressure drove the Chetniks into tactical alliances with the Axis, thereby precipitating their isolation and defeat.

In 1943, after Tito’s headquarters survived bruising Axis operations from January to June (particularly in the battles of Neretva and Sutjeska), the Western Allies recognized him as the leader of the Yugoslav resistance and obliged the London government-in-exile to come to terms with him. In June 1944 the royal premier, Ivan Šubašić, met Tito on the island of Vis and agreed to coordinate the activities of the exiled government with Tito. The Soviet army, aided by Tito’s Partisans, liberated Serbia in October 1944, thereby sealing the fate of the Yugoslav dynasty, which had the strongest following in this largest of the Yugoslav lands. There ensued a series of mop-up operations that strengthened Communist control of the whole of Yugoslavia by May 1945. In the process the Yugoslav frontiers extended to take in Istria and portions of the Julian Alps, where reprisals against fleeing Croat and Slovene collaborationists were especially brutal.


The conflict with Stalin
Tito consolidated his power in the summer and fall of 1945 by purging his government of noncommunists and by holding fraudulent elections that legitimated the jettisoning of the monarchy. The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed under a new constitution in November 1945. Trials of captured collaborationists, Catholic prelates, opposition figures, and even distrusted communists were conducted in order to fashion Yugoslavia in the Soviet mold. Tito’s excesses in imitation eventually became as irritating to Moscow as did his independent manner—especially in foreign policy, where Tito pursued risky aims in Albania and Greece at a time when Stalin advised caution. In the spring of 1948, Stalin initiated a series of moves to purge the Yugoslav leadership. This effort was unsuccessful, as Tito maintained his control over the CPY, the Yugoslav army, and the secret police. Stalin then opted for a public condemnation of Tito and for the expulsion of the CPY from the Cominform, the European organization of mainly ruling communist parties. In the ensuing war of words, economic boycotts, and occasional armed provocations (during which Stalin briefly considered military intervention), Yugoslavia was cut off from the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites and steadily drew closer to the West.
 


Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito greeted by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and
Anthony Eden in London



The policy of nonalignment
The West smoothed Yugoslavia’s course by offering aid and military assistance. By 1953 military aid had evolved into an informal association with NATO via a tripartite pact with Greece and Turkey that included a provision for mutual defense. After the changes in the Soviet Union following Stalin’s death in 1953, Tito was faced with a choice: either continue the Westward course and give up one-party dictatorship (an idea promoted by Milovan Djilas but rejected by Tito in January 1954) or seek reconciliation with a somewhat reformed new Soviet leadership. The latter course became increasingly possible after a conciliatory state visit by Nikita Khrushchev to Belgrade in May 1955. The Belgrade declaration, adopted at that time, committed Soviet leaders to equality in relations with the communist-ruled countries—at least in the case of Yugoslavia. However, the limits of reconciliation became obvious after the Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956; this was followed by a new Soviet campaign against Tito, aimed at blaming the Yugoslavs for inspiring the Hungarian insurgents. Yugoslav-Soviet relations went through similar cool periods in the 1960s (following the invasion of Czechoslovakia) and thereafter.

Nevertheless, Stalin’s departure lessened the pressures for greater integration with the West, and Tito came to conceive of his internal and foreign policy as being equidistant from both blocs. Seeking like-minded statesmen elsewhere, he found them in the leaders of the developing countries. Negotiations with Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Jawaharlal Nehru of India in June 1956 led to a closer cooperation among states that were “nonengaged” in the East-West confrontation. From nonengagement evolved the concept of “active nonalignment”—that is, the promotion of alternatives to bloc politics, as opposed to mere neutrality. The first meeting of nonaligned states took place in Belgrade under Tito’s sponsorship in 1961. The movement continued thereafter, but by the end of his life Tito had been eclipsed by new member states, such as Cuba, that conceived of nonalignment as anti-Westernism.


Self-management and decentralization
The break with the Soviet Union also inspired a search for a new model of socialism in Yugoslavia. In this area Tito, never a theoretician, depended on the ideological formulations of his lieutenants, notably Edvard Kardelj. But he supported the notion of workers’ management of production, embodied in the formation of the first workers’ councils in 1950. In the process, Soviet-style central planning was abandoned and central agencies were trimmed.

Workers’ self-management had important consequences for internal relations in multinational Yugoslavia. As power steadily shifted from the federation to the republics, conservative centralist forces fought back, opening cleavages within the communist elite between 1963 and 1972. During this period Tito purged first the Serbian centralists (notably, Alexander Ranković in 1966) and then the leaders of the decentralizing and liberal forces in Croatia (1971) and Serbia (1972). The Croatian purge had a further effect of destabilizing Tito’s rule in Yugoslavia’s most industrially advanced republic.
 


US President John F. Kennedy greeting Josip Broz Tito
during his visit to the US



Retrenchment of the 1970s
Tito’s response to the crises of the 1960s and early ’70s was to fashion a system of “symmetrical federalism,” in which various internal rules and rituals (including a rotating presidency to lead Yugoslavia after Tito’s death) were supposed to formalize equality among the six republics and Serbia’s two autonomous provinces (Kosovo and the Vojvodina). This system, enshrined in the constitution of 1974, promoted the weaker and smaller federal units at the expense of the big two—Serbia and Croatia. Serbia’s displeasure at the independent role assigned to its autonomous provinces and the promotion of minority identity (especially that of the Albanians in Kosovo) was felt already in Tito’s last years, but it became radicalized after his death in 1980. Serb resentment provided the opening for Slobodan Milošević and other promoters of recentralization, who contributed greatly to the undoing of Tito’s federal system during the following decade.


Assessment
The irony of Tito’s remarkable life is that he created the conditions for the eventual destruction of his lifelong effort. Instead of allowing the process of democratization to establish its own limits, he constantly upset the work of reformers while failing to satisfy their adversaries. He created a federal state, yet he constantly fretted over the pitfalls of decentralization. He knew that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and others could not be integrated within some new supranation, nor would they willingly accept the hegemony of any of their number; yet his supranational Yugoslavism frequently smacked of unitarism. He promoted self-management but never gave up on the party’s monopoly of power. He permitted broad freedoms in science, art, and culture that were unheard of in the Soviet bloc, but he kept excoriating the West. He preached peaceful coexistence but built an army that, in 1991, delivered the coup de grâce to the dying Yugoslav state. At his death, the state treasury was empty and political opportunists unchecked. He died too late for constructive change, too early to prevent chaos.

Ivo Banac

Encyclopaedia Britannica
 

 

 


The Breakup of Yugoslavia, 1980 to the Present
 

Almost all of the Yugoslav republics declared their independence after the collapse of the Communist central state, which was accompanied by the bloody expulsion of minorities.

 

After 1945, the Albanian minority in Kosovo increased to a majority of 90 percent. Disturbances began in the region in 1981.

6
Slobodan Milosevic, later to become president, made himself the spokesman for the Serbian minority.

In 1986, he rose to become first secretary of the Yugoslav Communist party, later renamed the Serbian Socialist party. Milosevic annulled Kosovo's autonomy in 1989 and replaced the Albanian elite with Serbs.

At the end of the 1980s, nationalists took over power in all of the republics. Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence on June 26,1991. The Yugoslav army marched into both countries but soon withdrew from Slovenia. A third of Croatia, however, remained occupied; the Serbian minority living there proclaimed the Republic of Krajina.

The elections in November 1990 in Bosnia showed a majority for the Muslim Party of Democratic Action under 8 Alija Izetbegovic, who declared the country's independence in 1991.


6 Slobodan Milosevic (center) and his wife, 1997


8 Alija Izetbegovic presents a map of the
regions in Bosnia where genocide took place,
1993

The reaction by the Bosnian Serb minority was the proclamation of a Serbian republic under Radovan Karadzic. The Serbs were able to occupy two-thirds of Bosnia with the help of the Yugoslav army. Brutal "ethnic cleansing" through expulsion and genocide took place. The violence only ended when NATO finally intervened in 1995. By that time.

2.2 million people had 7 fled and 200,000 had been cruelly 11 murdered.

The country was divided under UN supervision into a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serbian republic which together constituted a common state.

In 1995 Croatian forces retook Krajina. The Serbian population fled or was expelled, some into Kosovo. There, in 1992, the Albanians had proclaimed the Republic of Kosovo under Ibrahim Rugova.


7 Many thousands of Muslim Bosnians, also known as Bosniaks, flee from areas held by the Bosnian Serbs, 1995


11 Examination of a mass grave in Bosnia, 2002


Escalating violence between the 9 Kosovo Liberation Army and Serbian police led to the launch of a major 10 Serbian offensive.

NATO then intervened with air strikes against Serbia and the occupation of Kosovo.

Macedonia also declared its independence in 1991. The Albanian minority in Macedonia proclaimed the Republic of Illyria and created a liberation army in 2000. About 250,000 refugees from Kosovo further increased the tension. The presence of NATO and UN troops prevented the outbreak of another war.


9 Kosovo Liberation Army soldiers with an Albanian flag, 1999


10 Albanian Kosovars killed and brutally
mutilated by Serbs, 1999

 

 

The War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (JCTY) was set up in 1993, as an auxiliary body of the UN Security Council. It deals with the prosecution of war crimes informer Yugoslavia.

The Serbian leader Milosevic's trial began in February 2002 and continues today. Others such as Bosnian Serb leader Karadzic and Croat
general Gotovina have not been apprehended. As of 2000,14 prison sentences had been handed down.



Radovan Karadzic, the Bosnian Serb leader,
who has been indicted for war crimes, 1993

 
 


see also: United Nations member states -
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia

 

 

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