Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 

 


The Modern Era

1789 - 1914


In Europe, the revolutionary transformation of the ruling systems and state structures began with a bang: In 1789 the French Revolution broke out in Paris, and its motto "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite"—Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood—took on an irrepressible force. A fundamental reorganization of society followed the French Revolution. The ideas behind the revolution were manifest in Napoleon's Code Civil, which he imposed on many European nations. The 19th century also experienced a transformation of society from another source: The Industrial Revolution established within society a poorer working class that stood in opposition to the merchant and trading middle class. The nascent United States was shaken by an embittered civil war. The economic growth that set in following that war was accompanied by the development of imperialist endeavors and its rise to the status of a Great Power.

 





Liberty Leading the People,
allegory of the 1830 July revolution that deposed the French monarchy,
with Marianne as the personification of liberty,
contemporary painting by Eugene Delacroix.

 

see also:

Between Two Revolutions

(From David to Delacroix)

 

 


Napoleonic Domination
 


1792 - 1814
 

 

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton

Emma, Lady Hamilton, mistress of the British naval hero Admiral Horatio Nelson.

 

 

Emma, Lady Hamilton

British mistress
original name Amy Lyon
born c. 1761, Great Neston, Cheshire, Eng.
died Jan. 15, 1815, Calais, France

Main
mistress of the British naval hero Admiral Horatio (afterward Viscount) Nelson.

The daughter of a blacksmith, she was calling herself Emily Hart when, in 1781, she began to live with Charles Francis Greville, nephew of her future husband, Sir William Hamilton, British envoy to the Kingdom of Naples. In 1786 Greville sent her to Naples to be his uncle’s mistress in return for Hamilton’s payment of Greville’s debts. On Sept. 6, 1791, she and Hamilton were married.

A beautiful woman whose portrait was frequently painted by George Romney, Lady Emma Hamilton was already a great favourite in Neapolitan society and was the diplomatic intermediary between her husband and her close friend Queen Maria Carolina of Naples. It was said that Lady Hamilton facilitated Nelson’s victory over the French in the Battle of the Nile (Aug. 1, 1798) by securing Neapolitan permission for his fleet to obtain stores and water in Sicily.

Lady Hamilton and Nelson, who had met in 1793, became lovers after his Nile triumph. In 1800, when the British government recalled Hamilton, Nelson returned with him and his wife to England, where she flaunted her control over the admiral. They had two daughters, one of whom survived infancy. After her husband’s death (April 6, 1803) she lived with Nelson at Merton, Surrey. Although she inherited money from both men (Nelson was killed at the Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21, 1805), she squandered most of it, was imprisoned for debt (1813–14), and died in impecunious exile.

Encyclopaedya Britannica
 


 


Amy Lyon (Emma Lady Hamilton)
by
Thomas Rowlandson


In A Cognocenti contemplating ye Beauties of ye Antique
(1801), James Gillray caricatured Sir William's attitude
toward the affair between Emma and Nelson. Emma is the
portrait of "Cleopatra" in the upper left, and Nelson is the
adjacent "Mark Antony".

 

 


Lady Hamilton in a Straw Hat by George Romney

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton, by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton as St Cecilia, by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton as Circe, by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton as a Vestal by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton as a Bacchante, by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton as a Bacchante, by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton, by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton as a Bacchante, by George Romney

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma in Morning Dress by George Romney

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton, in a White Turban
by George Romney

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton as Miranda by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton as Miranda by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Emma Hamilton by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton as the Magdalene by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton by George Romney

 


Lady Hamilton as the Persian Sibyl,
by Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

 


Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante, by Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

 


Lady Hamilton as Ariadne, by Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

 


Cupid Unfastens the Belt of Venus (
Emma, Lady Hamilton) by Sir Joshua Reynolds

 


Emma, Lady Hamilton by Sir
Joshua Reynolds

 

 

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