Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 




The Early Modern Period

16th - 18th century


 


The smooth transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age is conventionally fixed on such events as the Reformation and the discovery of the "New World," which brought about the emergence of a new image of man and his world. Humanism, which spread out of Italy, also made an essential contribution to this with its promotion of a critical awareness of Christianity and the Church. The Reformation eventually broke the all-embracing power of the Church. After the Thirty Years' War, the concept of a universal empire was also nullified. The era of the nation-state began, bringing with it the desire to build up political and economic power far beyond Europe. The Americas, Africa, and Asia provided regions of expansion for the Europeans.
 



Proportions of the Human Figure by Leonardo da Vinci (drawing, ca. 1490)
is a prime example of the new approach of Renaissance
artists and scientists to the anatomy of the human body.

 

 


Russia's Rise as a Great Power
 


1613-1801
 

 

The rule of the Romanov dynasty which began with the election of Michael Romanov in 1613 stabilized the turbulent political conditions in Russia following the "Time of Troubles." Supported by an absolute authority, Czar Peter the Great could push through an authoritative and broad modernization of the Empire in all fields. His successors continued this modernization and, particularly under Catherine the Great, carried out aggressive Russian expansion policies, particularly against Poland and the Ottoman Empire. Catherine ruled as one of the most powerful "Enlightened monarchs" of the eighteenth century.

 


Russia under the First Romanovs
 

The ruling Romanov dynasty reintroduced the autocracy of the czars and began to reconquer the lands lost to Poland and Sweden under previous rulers.

 

The election of 1, 2 Michael Romanov as Russian czar in 1613 , ended the "Time of Troubles" (Smuta).

His father Fyodor, the Orthodox patriarch of Moscow, stood behind his election. Another relative, the patriarch Philaret, governed Russia jointly with the czar until 1633.

Czar Michael I made peace with Sweden and Poland in 1617-1618, whereby Novgorod was brought back into the empire. The Church reforms led to the Great Schism.

Michael's son 3 Alexis curtailed the rights of the aristocracy and the Church further.


1 Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich


2 The Election of Michael Romanov to Czar, watercolor painting, 19th century

 

 


3 Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich


Young Tsar Alexis Praying Before the Relics of Metropolitan Philip in the
Presence of Patriarch Nikon, by Alexander Litovchenko

The serfdom of the peasants was definitively laid down in law at this time. As a result of the support of the Cossack leader Bogdan Chmelnizkij, Russia won back parts of Ukraine with the old Russian capital of Kiev in 1654-1667, leading to conflicts with the Ottomans and the khans of the Crimea in the Ukrainian south.

After Alexis' death in 1676, his children from two marriages fought for succession. His son Fyodor III became czar but died six years later.

Fyodor's sister 4 Sophia then served as regent for her mentally deficient brother Ivan V and underage half-brother Peter; in 1686 she allied with Poland and joined the Holy League against the Ottomans.


Tsarevna Sophia Alexeevna in the Novodevitchy Convent,
painting by
Ilya Repin, 1879








see collection:



Ilya Repin

 
   


4 Princess Sophia Alekseyevna, regent at russian
tsars Petr I and Ivan V in 1682—89

Sophia

regent of Russia
Russian in full Sofya Alekseyevna
born September 17 [September 27, New Style], 1657, Moscow
died July 3 [July 14], 1704, Moscow

The eldest daughter of Tsar Alexis (ruled 1645–76) and his first wife, Mariya Miloslavskaya, Sophia was tutored by the Belorussian monk Simeon Polotsky, from whom she received an exceptionally good education. When her brother Fyodor III died (April 27 [May 7], 1682), her half brother Peter, son of Alexis and his second wife, Natalya Naryshkina, was proclaimed tsar. Sophia, as leader of the Miloslavsky family, however, objected to a government dominated by the Naryshkins and incited the discontented streltsy (household troops) to riot. After several members of the Naryshkin family were murdered, Sophia calmed the streltsy by arranging for her younger brother Ivan V to be proclaimed coruler with Peter; she assumed the role of regent (May 29 [June 8], 1682).
Ruling under the guidance of her chief adviser and lover, Prince Vasily V. Golitsyn, Sophia took steps to consolidate her regime. To prevent the unreliable streltsy from reversing their position and removing her, she replaced their commander, Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky (who was executed for treason), with one of her favourites, Fyodor Leontyevich Shaklovity. In addition, she transferred 12 of the 19 Moscow regiments from the city to guard the frontier and revoked many of the privileges she had granted the troops when she seized power.
Sophia also promoted the development of industry and encouraged foreign craftsmen to settle in Russia. Despite Golitsyn’s numerous plans for domestic reform, however, the regent failed to meet discontent among the peasants and religious dissidents. She also overruled several of her advisers and approved Golitsyn’s plan to conclude a permanent peace with Poland (1686; which confirmed a truce of 1667), by which Russia obtained Kiev and the territory east of the Dnieper River in exchange for a promise to join a European coalition against the Turks; in 1687 and 1689 she sponsored two disastrous military campaigns, led by Golitsyn, against the vassals of the Turks, the Crimean Tatars. Although her government also concluded the favourable Treaty of Nerchinsk with China (1689), setting Russia’s eastern border at the Amur River, Golitsyn’s failures reinforced the increasing dissatisfaction among both the Naryshkins and the general population with her rule. Recognizing this and hoping to eliminate Peter, the figurehead of her rivals, Sophia tried once more to incite the streltsy against the Naryshkins (August 1689); many of the streltsy colonels, however, supported Peter, who overthrew Sophia and forced her to enter the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow (September 1689).

In 1698 an unsuccessful attempt was made by her supporters among the streltsy to restore her to the throne; although Sophia did not initiate the plot, she was afterward tried by a special tribunal and compelled to take the veil (October 1698).

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 


Old Believer Priest Nikita Pustosviat Disputing with Patriarch Joachim and
Tsarevna Sophia Alexeevna on Matters of Faith.
Painting by Vasili Perov (1880).



see also collection:
Vasili Perov

 


5 Young Peter with regalia



When 5 Peter I reached maturity, Sophia tried to retain power and get rid of Peter.

However, he preempted her and took power in a coup in 1689, exiling Sophia to the Novodevichy convent.

That year, Peter, who was sole ruler after the death of Ivan, brutally put down the  streltzi uprising by a military unit of Sophia's supporters.

After his return from Western Europe, Peter I has participants in the streltzi uprising executed.
 


Streltsy

Russian military unit
(Russian: “musketeer”), Russian military corps established in the middle of the 16th century that formed the bulk of the Russian army for about 100 years, provided the tsar’s bodyguard, and, at the end of the 17th century, exercised considerable political influence. Originally composed of commoners, the streltsy had become a hereditary military caste by the mid-17th century. Living in separate settlements (slobody), they performed police and security duties in Moscow and in the border towns where they were garrisoned; they often also engaged in trades and crafts. In 1681 there were about 55,000 streltsy, 22,500 of whom were stationed in Moscow.
The streltsy became discontented and unreliable in the second half of the 17th century after the government began paying them in land instead of money and grain. They then became involved in the succession struggle begun in 1682 between rival partisans of the half brothers Peter I and Ivan V. Supporting Ivan, they staged a revolt against the Naryshkin family (the relatives of Peter’s mother, who had assumed actual power), named both Ivan and Peter tsars, and made Ivan’s sister Sophia regent. In 1698, having unsuccessfully attempted to unseat Peter I (the Great) and restore Sophia to the regency (Peter had displaced her in 1689), the streltsy were forcibly disbanded by the tsar, with hundreds of them being executed or deported. Though revived briefly by Peter to participate in the Great Northern War (1702), the corps was gradually absorbed into the regular army thereafter.

 


Morning of execution of streltsy by tsar Peter I. Painting by  Vasily Surikov



see also collection: Vasily Surikov
 

 


Peter I




Peter I the Great by Paul Delaroche

emperor of Russia
Russian in full Pyotr Alekseyevich, byname Peter the Great, Russian Pyotr Veliky

born June 9 [May 30, Old Style], 1672, Moscow, Russia
died Feb. 8 [Jan. 28, O.S.], 1725, St. Petersburg

Main
tsar of Russia, who reigned jointly with his half-brother Ivan V (1682–96) and alone thereafter (1696–1725) and who in 1721 was proclaimed emperor (imperator). He was one of his country’s greatest statesmen, organizers, and reformers.

Peter was the son of Tsar Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina. Unlike his half-brothers, sons of his father’s first wife, Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya, Peter proved a healthy child, lively and inquisitive. It is probably significant to his development that his mother’s former guardian, Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev, had raised her in an atmosphere open to progressive influences from the West.

Youth and accession
When Alexis died in 1676 Peter was only four years old. His elder half-brother, a sickly youth, then succeeded to the throne as Fyodor III; but, in fact, power fell into the hands of the Miloslavskys, relatives of Fyodor’s mother, who deliberately pushed Peter and the Naryshkin circle aside. When Fyodor died childless in 1682, a fierce struggle for power ensued between the Miloslavskys and the Naryshkins: the former wanted to put Fyodor’s brother, the delicate and feebleminded Ivan V, on the throne; the Naryshkins stood for the healthy and intelligent Peter. Representatives of the various orders of society, assembled in the Kremlin, declared themselves for Peter, who was then proclaimed tsar; but the Miloslavsky faction exploited a revolt of the Moscow streltsy, or musketeers of the sovereign’s bodyguard, who killed some of Peter’s adherents, including Matveyev. Ivan and Peter were then proclaimed joint tsars; and eventually, because of Ivan’s precarious health and Peter’s youth, Ivan’s 25-year-old sister Sophia was made regent. Clever and influential, Sophia took control of the government; excluded from public affairs, Peter lived with his mother in the village of Preobrazhenskoye, near Moscow, often fearing for his safety. All this left an ineradicable impression on the young tsar and determined his negative attitude toward the streltsy.

One result of Sophia’s overt exclusion of Peter from the government was that he did not receive the usual education of a Russian tsar; he grew up in a free atmosphere instead of being confined within the narrow bounds of a palace. While his first tutor, the former church clerk Nikita Zotov, could give little to satisfy Peter’s curiosity, the boy enjoyed noisy outdoor games and took especial interest in military matters, his favourite toys being arms of one sort or another. He also occupied himself with carpentry, joinery, blacksmith’s work, and printing.

Near Preobrazhenskoye there was a nemetskaya sloboda (“German colony”) where foreigners were allowed to reside. Acquaintance with its inhabitants aroused Peter’s interest in the life of other nations, and an English sailboat, found derelict in a shed, whetted his passion for seafaring. Mathematics, fortification, and navigation were the sciences that appealed most strongly to Peter. A model fortress was built for his amusement, and he organized his first “play” troops, from which, in 1687, the Preobrazhensky and Semyonovsky Guards regiments were formed—to become the nucleus of a new Russian Army.

Early in 1689 Natalya Naryshkina arranged Peter’s marriage to the beautiful Eudoxia (Yevdokiya Fyodorovna Lopukhina). This was obviously a political act, intended to demonstrate the fact that the 17-year-old Peter was now a grown man, with a right to rule in his own name. The marriage did not last long: Peter soon began to ignore his wife, and in 1698 he relegated her to a convent.

In August 1689 a new revolt of the streltsy took place. Sophia and her faction tried to use it to their own advantage for another coup d’état, but events this time turned decisively in Peter’s favour. He removed Sophia from power and banished her to the Novodevichy convent; she was forced to become a nun after a streltsy rebellion in 1698. Though Ivan V remained nominally joint tsar with Peter, the administration was now largely given over to Peter’s kinsmen, the Naryshkins, until Ivan’s death in 1696. Peter, meanwhile continuing his military and nautical amusements, sailed the first seaworthy ships to be built in Russia. His games proved to be good training for the tasks ahead.


External events
At the beginning of Peter’s reign, Russia was territorially a huge power, but with no access to the Black Sea, the Caspian, or to the Baltic, and to win such an outlet became the main goal of Peter’s foreign policy.



Capture of Azov 1696 by Robert Kerr Porter



External events » The Azov campaigns (1695–96)
The first steps taken in this direction were the campaigns of 1695 and 1696, with the object of capturing Azov from the Crimean Tatar vassals of Turkey. On the one hand, these Azov campaigns could be seen as fulfilling Russia’s commitments, undertaken during Sophia’s regency, to the anti-Turkish “Holy League” of 1684 (Austria, Poland, and Venice); on the other they were intended to secure the southern frontier against Tatar raids, as well as to approach the Black Sea. The first campaign ended in failure (1695), but this did not discourage Peter: he promptly built a fleet at Voronezh to sail down the Don River and in 1696 Azov was captured. To consolidate this success Taganrog was founded on the northern shore of the Don Estuary, and the building of a large navy was started.


External events » The Grand Embassy (1697–98)
Having already sent some young nobles abroad to study nautical matters, Peter, in 1697, went with the so-called Grand Embassy to western Europe. The embassy comprised about 250 people, with the “grand ambassadors” Franz Lefort, F.A. Golovin, and P.B. Voznitsyn at its head. Its chief purposes were to examine the international situation and to strengthen the anti-Turkish coalition, but it was also intended to gather information on the economic and cultural life of Europe. Travelling incognito under the name of Sgt. Pyotr Mikhaylov, Peter familiarized himself with conditions in the advanced countries of the West. For four months he studied shipbuilding, working as a ship’s carpenter in the yard of the Dutch East India Company at Saardam; after that he went to Great Britain, where he continued his study of shipbuilding, working in the Royal Navy’s dockyard at Deptford, and he also visited factories, arsenals, schools, and museums and even attended a session of Parliament. Meanwhile, the services of foreign experts were engaged for work in Russia.

On the diplomatic side of the Grand Embassy, Peter conducted negotiations with the Dutch and British governments for alliances against Turkey; but the Maritime Powers did not wish to involve themselves with him because they were preoccupied with the problems that were soon to come to a crisis, for them, in the War of the Spanish Succession.


External events » The destruction of the streltsy (1698)
From England, Peter went on to Austria; but while he was negotiating in Vienna for a continuance of the anti-Turkish alliance, he received news of a fresh revolt of the streltsy in Moscow. In the summer of 1698 he was back in Moscow, where he suppressed the revolt. Hundreds of the streltsy were executed, the rest of the rebels were exiled to distant towns, and the corps of the streltsy was disbanded.



Peter I of Russia stops maraudering soldiers after taking Narva in 1704 by Nikolay Sauerweid


External events » The Northern War (1700–21)
When it became clear that Austria, no less than the Maritime Powers, was preparing to fight for the Spanish Succession and to make peace with Turkey, Peter saw that Russia could not contemplate a war without allies against the Turks, and he abandoned his plans for pushing forward from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea. By the Russo-Turkish Peace of Constantinople (Istanbul, 1700) he retained possession of Azov. He was now turning his attention to the Baltic instead, following the tradition of his predecessors.

The Swedes occupied Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia and blocked Russia’s way to the Baltic coast. To dislodge them, Peter took an active part in forming the great alliance, comprising Russia, Saxony, and Denmark–Norway, which started the Northern War in 1700. This war lasted for 21 years and was Peter’s main military enterprise. In planning it and in sustaining it he displayed iron willpower, extraordinary energy, and outstanding gifts of statesmanship, generalship, and diplomacy. Mobilizing all the resources of Russia for the triumph of his cause, constantly keeping himself abreast of events, and actively concerning himself with all important undertakings, often at his personal risk, he could be seen sometimes in a sailor’s jacket on a warship, sometimes in an officer’s uniform on the battlefield, and sometimes in a labourer’s apron and gloves with an axe in a shipyard.



Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger
 

The defeat of the Russians at Narva (1700), very early in the war, did not deter Peter and, in fact, he later described it as a blessing: “Necessity drove away sloth and forced me to work night and day.” He subsequently took part in the siege that led to the Russian capture of Narva (1704) and in the battles of Lesnaya (1708) and of Poltava (1709). At Poltava, where Charles XII of Sweden suffered a catastrophic defeat, the plan of operations was Peter’s own: it was his idea to transform the battlefield by works of his military engineers—the redoubts erected in the path of the Swedish troops to break their combat order, to split them into little groups, and to halt their onslaught. Peter also took part in the naval battle of Gangut (Hanko, or Hangö) in 1714, the first major Russian victory at sea.

The treaties concluded by Russia in the course of the war were made under Peter’s personal direction. He also travelled abroad again for diplomatic reasons—e.g., to Pomerania in 1712 and to Denmark, northern Germany, Holland, and France in 1716–17.

In 1703, on the banks of the Neva River, where it flows into the Gulf of Finland, Peter began construction of the city of St. Petersburg and established it as the new capital of Russia in 1712. By the Treaty of Nystad (September 10 [August 30, O.S.], 1721) the eastern shores of the Baltic were at last ceded to Russia, Sweden was reduced to a secondary power, and the way was opened for Russian domination over Poland.

In celebration of his triumph, the Senate on November 2 (October 22, O.S.), 1721, changed Peter’s title from tsar to that of emperor (imperator) of all the Russias.


External events » The popular revolts (1705–08)
The peasant serfs and the poorer urban workers had to bear the greatest hardships in wartime and moreover were intensively exploited in the course of Peter’s great work for the modernization and development of Russia. Their sufferings, combined with onerous taxation, provoked a number of revolts, the most important of which were that of Astrakhan (1705–06) and that led by Kondraty Afanasyevich Bulavin in the Don Basin (1707–08). These revolts were cruelly put down.



Poltava battle, fragment of mosaic, by Mikhail Lomonosov, 1717


External events » The Turkish War (1710–13)
In the middle of the Northern War, when Peter might have pressed further the advantage won at Poltava, Turkey declared war on Russia. In the summer of 1711 Peter marched against the Turks through Bessarabia into Moldavia, but he was surrounded, with all his forces, on the Prut River. Obliged to sue for peace, he was fortunate to obtain very light terms from the inept Turkish negotiators, who allowed him to retire with no greater sacrifice than the retrocession of Azov. The Turkish government soon decided to renew hostilities; but the Peace of Adrianople (Edirne) was concluded in 1713, leaving Azov to the Turks. From that time on Peter’s military effort was concentrated on winning his war against Sweden.


External events » The Tsarevich Alexis and Catherine (to 1718)
Peter had a son, the tsarevich Alexis, by his discarded wife Eudoxia. Alexis was his natural heir, but he grew up antipathetic to Peter and receptive to reactionary influences working against Peter’s reforms. Peter, meanwhile, had formed a lasting liaison with a low-born woman, the future empress Catherine I, who bore him other children and whom he married in 1712. Pressed finally to mend his ways or to become a monk in renunciation of his hereditary rights (1716), Alexis took refuge in the dominions of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, but he was induced to return to Russia in 1718. Thereupon proceedings were brought against him on charges of high treason, and after torture he was condemned to death. He died in prison, presumably by violence, before the formal execution of the sentence.


External events » The Persian campaign (1722–23)
Even during the second half of the Northern War, Peter had sent exploratory missions to the East—to the Central Asian steppes in 1714, to the Caspian region in 1715, and to Khiva in 1717. The end of the war left him free to resume a more active policy on his southeastern frontier. In 1722, hearing that the Ottoman Turks would take advantage of Persia’s weakness and invade the Caspian region, Peter himself invaded Persian territory. In 1723 Persia ceded the western and southern shores of the Caspian to Russia in return for military aid.



Peter I on his deathbed, 1725


External events » Death
The campaign along the parched shores of the Caspian obviously put a great strain on Peter’s health, already undermined by enormous exertions and also by the excesses in which he occasionally indulged himself. In the autumn of 1724, seeing some soldiers in danger of drowning from a ship aground on a sandbank in the Gulf of Finland, he characteristically plunged himself into the icy water to help them. Catching a chill, he became seriously ill in the winter but even so continued to work; indeed, it was at this time that he drew up the instructions for the expedition of Vitus Bering to Kamchatka.

When Peter died early in the following year, he left an empire that stretched from Arkhangelsk (Archangel) on the White Sea to Mazanderan on the Caspian and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Though he had in 1722 issued a decree reserving to himself the right to nominate his successor, he did not in fact nominate anyone. His widow Catherine, whom he had crowned as empress in 1724, succeeded him to the temporary exclusion of his grandson, the future Peter II.


Internal reforms
At the beginning of Peter’s reign, Russia was backward by comparison with the countries of western Europe. This backwardness inhibited foreign policy and even put Russia’s national independence in danger. Peter’s aim, therefore, was to overtake the developed countries of western Europe as soon as possible, in order both to promote the national economy and to ensure victory in his wars for access to the seas. Breaking the resistance of the boyars, or members of the ancient landed aristocracy, and of the clergy and severely punishing all other opposition to his projects, he initiated a series of reforms that affected, in the course of 25 years, every field of the national life—administration, industry, commerce, technology, and culture.


Internal reforms » The towns
At the beginning of Peter’s reign there was already some degree of economic differentiation between the various regions of Russia; and in the towns artisans were establishing small businesses, small-scale production was expanding, and industrial plants and factories were growing up, with both hired workers and serfs employed. There was thus a nascent bourgeoisie, which benefitted considerably from Peter’s plans for the development of the national industry and trade. The reform of the urban administration was particularly significant.

By a decree of 1699, townspeople (artisans and tradesmen) were released from subjection to the military governors of the provinces and were authorized to elect municipalities of their own, which would be subordinated to the Moscow municipality, or ratusha—the council of the great merchant community of the capital. This reform was carried further in 1720, with the establishment of a chief magistracy in St. Petersburg, to which the local town magistracies and the elected municipal officers of the towns (mayors, or burmistry; and councillors, or ratmany) were subordinated.

All townspeople, meanwhile, were divided between “regulars” and “commons” (inferiors). The regulars were subdivided between two guilds—the first comprising rich merchants and members of the liberal professions (doctors, actors, and artists); the second, artisans (classified according to their vocations) and small tradesmen. A merchant belonged to the first or to the second guild according to the amount of his capital; and those who were also manufacturers had special privileges, coming under the jurisdiction of the College of Manufactures and being exempt from the billeting of troops, from elective rotas of duty, and from military service. The commons were hired labourers, without the privileges of regulars.

Thanks to the reforms, the economic activity and the population of the towns increased. Anyone engaged in trade was legally permitted to settle in a town and to register himself in the appropriate category, and there was a right of “free commerce for people of every rank.”



Peter the Great in Holland by
Mstislav Dobuzhinsky


Internal reforms » The provinces and the districts
In order to create a more flexible system of control by the central power, Russia was territorially divided in 1708 into eight guberny, or governments, each under a governor appointed by the tsar and vested with administrative, military, and judicial authority. In 1719 these guberny were dissolved into 50 provintsy, or provinces, which in turn were subdivided into districts. The census of 1722, however, was followed by the substitution of a poll tax for the previous hearth tax; and this provoked a wave of popular discontent, against which Peter decided to distribute the army regiments (released from active service by the Peace of Nystad) in garrisons throughout the country and to make their maintenance obligatory on the local populations. Thus came into being the “regimental districts,” which did not coincide with the administrative. The regimental commanders, with their own sphere of jurisdiction and their own requirements, added another layer to the already complex system of local authority.



The Summer Garden in the Time of Peter the Great by Alexandre Benois



Internal reforms » The central government
In the course of Peter’s reign, medieval and obsolescent forms of government gave place to effective autocracy. In 1711 he abolished the boyarskaya duma, or boyar council, and established by decree the Senate as the supreme organ of state—to coordinate the action of the various central and local organs, to supervise the collection and expenditure of revenue, and to draft legislation in accordance with his edicts. Martial discipline was extended to civil institutions, and an officer of the guards was always on duty in the Senate. From 1722, moreover, there was a procurator general keeping watch over the daily work of the Senate and its chancellery and acting as “the eye of the sovereign.”

When Peter came to power the central departments of state were the prikazy, or offices, of which there were about 80, functioning in a confused and fragmented way. To replace most of this outmoded system, Peter in 1718 instituted 9 “colleges” (kollegy), or boards, the number of which was by 1722 expanded to 13. Their activities were controlled, on the one hand, by the General Regulation and, on the other, by particular regulations for individual colleges, and indeed there were strict regulations for every branch of the state administration. Crimes against the state came under the jurisdiction of the Preobrazhensky Office, responsible immediately to the tsar.



Peter l Taking a Walk in the Summer Garden by
Alexandre Benois
 


Internal reforms » Industry
A secondary purpose of Peter’s Grand Embassy to western Europe in 1697 (see above The Grand Embassy) had been to obtain firsthand acquaintance with advanced industrial techniques, and the exigencies of his great war against Sweden, from 1700, made industrial development an urgent matter. In order to provide armaments and to build his navy (Russia had virtually no warships at all), metallurgical and manufacturing industries on a grand scale had to be created; and Peter devoted himself tirelessly to meeting these needs. Large capital investments were made, and numerous privileges were accorded to businessmen and industrialists. These privileges included the right to buy peasant serfs for labour in workshops, with the result that a class of “enlisted” serfs came into existence, living in specified areas and bound to the factories. The methods of other countries were further studied, and foreign experts were invited to Russia. The overall result was satisfactory: the army and the navy were supplied with their material needs; a great number of manufacturing establishments were founded (mainly with serf labour); the metallurgical industry was so far advanced that by the middle of the 18th century Russia led Europe in this field; and the foreign-trade turnover was increased sevenfold in the course of the reign.



Internal reforms » The armed forces
Peter established a regular army on completely modern lines for Russia in the place of the unreliable streltsy and the militia of the gentry. While he drew his officers from the nobility, he conscripted peasants and townspeople into the other ranks. Service was for life. The troops were equipped with flintlock firearms and bayonets of Russian make; uniforms were provided; and regular drilling was introduced. For the artillery, obsolete cannons were replaced with new mortars and guns designed by Russian specialists or even by Peter himself (he drew up projects of his own for multicannon warships, fortresses, and ordnance). The Army Regulations of 1716 were particularly important; they required officers to teach their men “how to act in battle,” “to know the soldier’s business from first principles and not to cling blindly to rules,” and to show initiative in the face of the enemy. For the navy, Peter’s reign saw the construction, within a few years, of 52 battleships and hundreds of galleys and other craft; thus a powerful Baltic fleet was brought into being. Several special schools prepared their pupils for military or naval service and finally enabled Peter to dispense with foreign experts.



Peter I
Riding with Hounds by Valentin Serov



Internal reforms » Cultural and educational measures
From January 1, 1700, Peter introduced a new chronology, making the Russian calendar conform to European usage with regard to the year, which in Russia had hitherto been numbered “from the Creation of the World” and had begun on September 1 (he adhered however to the Julian Old Style as opposed to the Gregorian New Style for the days of the month). In 1710 the Old Church Slavonic alphabet was modernized into a secular script.

Peter was the first ruler of Russia to sponsor education on secular lines and to bring an element of state control into that field. Various secular schools were opened; and since too few pupils came from the nobility, the children of soldiers, officials, and churchmen were admitted to them. In many cases, compulsory service to the state was preceded by compulsory education for it. Russians were also permitted to go abroad for their education and indeed were often compelled to do so (at the state’s expense). The translation of books from western European languages was actively promoted. The first Russian newspaper, Vedomosti (“Records”), appeared in 1703. The Russian Academy of Sciences was instituted in 1724.

Beside his useful measures, Peter often enforced superficial Europeanization rather brutally; for example, when he decreed that beards should be shorn off and Western dress worn. He personally cut the beards of his boyars and the skirts of their long coats (kaftany). The Raskolniki (Old Believers) and merchants who insisted on keeping their beards had to pay a special tax, but peasants and the Orthodox clergy were allowed to remain bearded.



Peter I in "Mon Plaisir" by
Valentin Serov


Internal reforms » The church
In 1721, in order to subject the Orthodox Church of Russia to the state, Peter abolished the Patriarchate of Moscow. Thenceforward the patriarch’s place as head of the church was taken by a spiritual college, namely the Holy Synod, consisting of representatives of the hierarchy obedient to the tsar’s will. A secular official—the ober-prokuror, or chief procurator—was appointed by the tsar to supervise the Holy Synod’s activities. The Holy Synod ferociously persecuted all dissenters and conducted a censorship of all publications.

Priests officiating in churches were obliged by Peter to deliver sermons and exhortations that were intended to make the peasantry “listen to reason” and to teach such prayers to children that everyone would grow up “in fear of God” and in awe of the tsar. The regular clergy were forbidden to allow men under 30 years old or serfs to take vows as monks.

The church was thus transformed into a pillar of the absolutist regime. Partly in the interests of the nobility, the extent of land owned by the church was restricted; Peter disposed of ecclesiastical and monastic property and revenues at his own discretion, for state purposes.



Peter the Great by
Valentin Serov


Internal reforms » The nobility
Peter’s internal policy served to protect the interest of Russia’s ruling class—the landowners and the nascent bourgeoisie. The material position of the landed nobility was strengthened considerably under Peter. Almost 100,000 acres of land and 175,000 serfs were allotted to it in the first half of the reign alone. Moreover, a decree of 1714 that instituted succession by primogeniture and so prevented the breaking up of large properties also removed the old distinction between pomestya (lands granted by the tsar to the nobility in return for service) and votchiny (patrimonial or allodial lands) so that all such property became hereditary.

Moreover, the status of the nobility was modified by Peter’s Table of Ranks (1722). This replaced the old system of promotion in the state services, which had been according to ancestry, by one of promotion according to services actually rendered. It classified all functionaries—military, naval, and civilian alike—in 14 categories, the 14th being the lowest and the 1st the highest; and admission to the 8th category conferred hereditary nobility. Factory owners and others who had risen to officer’s rank could accede to the nobility, which thus received new blood. The predominance of the boyars ended.


The Grand Eagle Cup
(Peter I) by
Valentin Serov



Personality and achievement
Peter was of enormous height, more than six and one-half feet (two metres) tall; he was handsome and of unusual physical strength. Unlike all earlier Russian tsars, whose Byzantine splendours he repudiated, he was very simple in his manners; for example, he enjoyed conversation over a mug of beer with shipwrights and sailors from the foreign ships visiting St. Petersburg. Restless, energetic, and impulsive, he did not like splendid clothes that hindered his movements; often he appeared in worn-out shoes and an old hat, still more often in military or naval uniform. He was fond of merrymaking and knew how to conduct it, though his jokes were frequently crude; and he sometimes drank heavily and forced his guests to do so too. A just man who did not tolerate dishonesty, he was terrible in his anger and could be cruel when he encountered opposition: in such moments only his intimates could soothe him—best of all his beloved second wife, Catherine, whom people frequently asked to intercede with him for them. Sometimes Peter would beat his high officials with his stick, from which even Prince A.D. Menshikov, his closest friend, received many a stroke. One of Peter’s great gifts of statesmanship was the ability to pick talented collaborators for the highest appointments, whether from the foremost families of the nobility or from far lower levels of society.

As a ruler, Peter often used the methods of a despotic landlord—the whip and arbitrary rule. He always acted as an autocrat, convinced of the wonder-working power of compulsion by the state. Yet with his insatiable capacity for work he saw himself as the state’s servant, and whenever he put himself in a subordinate position he would perform his duties with the same conscientiousness that he demanded of others. He began his own army service in the lowest rank and required others likewise to master their profession from its elements upward and to expect promotion only for services of real value.

Peter’s personality left its imprint on the whole history of Russia. A man of original and shrewd intellect, exuberant, courageous, industrious, and iron-willed, he could soberly appraise complex and changeable situations so as to uphold consistently the general interests of Russia and his own particular designs. He did not completely bridge the gulf between Russia and the Western countries, but he achieved considerable progress in development of the national economy and trade, education, science and culture, and foreign policy. Russia became a great power, without whose concurrence no important European problem could thenceforth be settled. His internal reforms achieved progress to an extent that no earlier innovator could have envisaged.

Leonid Alekseyevich Nikiforov
 

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

 

 


Yevdokiya Lopukhina

Eudoxia

tsarina of Russia
Russian in full Yevdokiya Fyodorovna Lopukhina
born Aug. 9 [July 30, Old Style], 1669, Moscow, Russia
died Sept. 7 [Aug. 27], 1731, Moscow

Tsarina and first wife of Peter I the Great of Russia.

In 1689 she was given in marriage to Peter, a bridegroom of only 17. Endowed with beauty but lacking intelligence and ambition, she had little in common with the young tsar, whose chief interest was the mechanics of war.

In 1698 Peter sent her to a monastery. There she took vows (1699) but left after six months and resumed life as a laywoman. Following the trial of her son, Tsarevich Alexis, for treason (1718), she was kept in confinement at a fortress east of St. Petersburg on Lake Ladoga. Upon the accession (1727) of her grandson Peter II, she was released and later installed at the Voznesensky Convent in Moscow and provided with a generous allowance. After the death of Peter II (1730), she made a feeble, unsuccessful attempt to succeed him.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

 

 

Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich


Peter the Great Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof. Painted by Nikolai Ge in 1871.

prince of Russia [1690-1718]
Russian in full Aleksey Petrovich
born Feb. 18 [Feb. 28, New Style], 1690, Moscow, Russia
died June 26 [July 7], 1718, St. Petersburg

Main
heir to the throne of Russia, who was accused of trying to overthrow his father, Peter I the Great.

After his mother, Eudoxia, was forced to enter a convent (1698), Alexis was brought up by his aunts and, after 1702, was educated by the tutor Baron Heinrich von Huyssen. Although he dutifully obeyed his father—participating in the siege of Narva (1704) and directing the fortification of Moscow (1707) during the Great Northern War, studying at Dresden in Saxony (1709), and marrying Princess Sophia Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1711)—he never developed an enthusiasm for Peter’s wars and reforms and became increasingly hostile toward his father. After Peter’s second wife, Catherine, provided the tsar with another male heir in 1715, Alexis was offered the choice of either reforming his behaviour or renouncing his right of succession and becoming a monk.

When Peter later ordered Alexis to join him and the Russian army in Denmark (August 1716), Alexis fled to Vienna, where the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI gave him protection. Peter, fearing that his opponents might support Alexis as an alternative ruler, sent envoys to bring Alexis home. Promising him a full pardon, the envoys persuaded Alexis to return to Moscow (Jan. 31 [Feb. 11], 1718). He soon discovered, however, that his father’s forgiveness was contingent upon renouncing his right to the throne and denouncing those who had helped him escape.

Although Alexis accepted these terms, Peter, using extraordinarily cruel methods, conducted an investigation of Alexis’ supporters, discovered the existence of a potential movement of reaction for which Alexis might become a rallying point, and concluded that his son was involved in a treasonous conspiracy. Alexis was then forced to confess before the Senate, and a special court tried him and condemned him to death. Before his execution, however, he died in the Peter-Paul Fortress from shock and the effects of torture.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

 

 

Catherine I


Portrait of Catherine I by Jean-Marc Nattier


empress of Russia
Russian in full Yekaterina Alekseyevna, original name Marta Skowronska

born April 15 [April 5, Old Style], 1684
died May 17 [May 6], 1727, St. Petersburg, Russia

Main
peasant woman of Baltic (probably Lithuanian) birth who became the second wife of Peter I the Great (reigned 1682–1725) and empress of Russia (1725–27).

Orphaned at the age of three, Marta Skowronska was raised by a Lutheran pastor in Marienburg (modern Alūksne, Latvia). When the Russians seized Marienburg (1702) during the Great Northern War, Marta was taken prisoner. She later was handed over to a close adviser of Peter I. A short time later she and the tsar became lovers.

In 1703, after the birth of their first child, she was received into the Russian Orthodox church and rechristened Catherine (Yekaterina) Alekseyevna. Subsequently, she became Peter’s inseparable companion, and, in February 1712, his wife. On May 18 (May 7), 1724, she was crowned empress-consort of Russia.

When Peter died (Feb. 8 [Jan. 28], 1725) without naming an heir, Catherine’s candidacy for the throne was supported by the guards and by several powerful and important individuals. As a result, the Holy Synod, the Senate, and the high officials of the land almost immediately proclaimed Catherine empress of Russia. In February 1726, however, she created the Supreme Privy Council, named six of Peter’s former advisers as its members, and effectively transferred control of government affairs to it, thereby undermining the authority of the Senate and the Synod, which had been Peter’s main administrative instruments.

Shortly before her death, Catherine appointed Peter’s grandson Pyotr Alekseyevich (reigned as Peter II; 1727–30) as her heir. Later, her daughter Elizabeth (reigned 1741–62) and her grandson Pyotr Fyodorovich (reigned as Peter III; 1762) became Russia’s sovereigns.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

 

 

Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov



Aleksandr Menshikov


Russian statesman

born Nov. 16 [Nov. 6, old style], 1673, Moscow
died Nov. 23 [Nov. 12, O.S.], 1729, Berezov, Siberia, Russian Empire

Main
prominent Russian political figure during and after the reign of Peter I the Great. A gifted general and administrator, he eventually became the most powerful official in the empire, but his insatiable greed and ambition ultimately resulted in his downfall.

Of humble origins, Menshikov became an orderly for Peter I in 1686 and soon became the tsar’s favourite. As a commander during the Northern War against the Swedes after 1700, he scored a number of major victories, eventually receiving the title of field marshal. But he also gave increasing evidence of rapacity. As an administrator after 1714, he was under almost continuous investigation for corrupt practices; and, were it not for his indispensable abilities, he would likely have been stripped of power much earlier than he was.

Having fallen into disgrace toward the end of Peter’s reign, Menshikov succeeded in having his ally Catherine, Peter’s widow, named empress in 1725, at which point he became virtual ruler of Russia. When Catherine became mortally ill two years later he threw his support to Pyotr Alexeyevich, Peter the Great’s grandson, and arranged to have his daughter marry the young tsar, now Peter II. However, his enemies managed to turn Peter II against him, whereupon he was arrested, stripped of his rank and property, and sent to Siberia, where he died.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

 


Menshikov in Exile by Vasily Surikov







see also:



Vasily Surikov

 

 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy