Visual History of the World
The Early Modern Period
16th - 18th century
The smooth transition from
the Middle Ages to the Modern Age is conventionally fixed on such
events as the Reformation and the discovery of the "New World,"
which brought about the emergence of a new image of man and his
world. Humanism, which spread out of Italy, also made an essential
contribution to this with its promotion of a critical awareness of
Christianity and the Church. The Reformation eventually broke the
all-embracing power of the Church. After the Thirty Years' War, the
concept of a universal empire was also nullified. The era of the
nation-state began, bringing with it the desire to build up
political and economic power far beyond Europe. The Americas,
Africa, and Asia provided regions of expansion for the Europeans.
Proportions of the Human Figure by Leonardo da Vinci (drawing, ca.
is a prime example of the new approach of Renaissance
artists and scientists to the anatomy of the human body.
BAROQUE AND ROCOCO ART
THE 17-18th CENTURY LITERATURE
CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance,
The Baroque Era
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Isabella d'Aragona, Duchessa di Milano e di Bari
Isabella di Aragona (October 2, 1470 –
February 11, 1524)
was born a princess of Naples, granddaughter
of King Ferdinand I of Naples and daughter of King Alphonse II
of Naples by his wife, Ippolita Maria Sforza. From 1489 to 1494
she was the Duchess Consort of Milan, and from 1499 to 1524 the
Duchess of Bari and Princess of Rossano. After her brother
Ferdinand II's death, she was the heir of the Brienne claim to
the title King of Jerusalem.
She married her first cousin Gian Galeazzo II. Maria Sforza,
who at the time was the Duke of Milan. However, his uncle
Ludovico Sforza was the de facto ruler.
In the 1970s Robert Payne was the first to suggest that
Isabella was the subject of the Mona Lisa, the portrait by
Leonardo da Vinci whose subject was traditionally thought to be
Lisa Gherardini or Lisa del Giocondo. In 2003 historian Maike
Vogt-Lüerssen concurred with Payne and argued that the subject
was a member of the House of Sforza because of the pattern on
the subject's dark green dress. The 2005 discovery of a note by
Agostino Vespucci is commonly used to diminish this theory.
However, since Vespucci does not provide any description of the
painting, it could refer to any of Leonardo's female portrait
paintings of that time.
Ginevra de' Benci by
Leonardo da Vinci
Ginevra de' Benci (Born 1457)
lady of the aristocratic class in 15th century Florence, admired
for her intelligence by Florentine contemporaries. She is the
subject of one of only about 17 existing paintings attributed to
Leonardo da Vinci. The oil-on-wood portrait was permanently
acquired by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.,
USA, in 1967 for US$5 million paid to the Princely House of
Liechtenstein, a record price at the time. This portrait is
currently the only painting by Leonardo in the Americas.
It is known from three written sources that Leonardo painted
a portrait of Ginevra de' Benci in 1474 in commemoration of her
marriage to Luigi Niccolini. The painting's imagery and the text
on the reverse of the panel support this the identification of
this picture. Directly behind the young lady in the portrait is
a juniper tree. The reverse of the portrait is decorated with a
juniper sprig encircled by a wreath of laurel and palm and is
memorialized by the phrase VIRTUTEM FORMA DECORAT ("Beauty
adorns Virtue"). The Italian word for juniper is "ginepro",
which suggests that the juniper motif has been used here be a
symbolic pun on Ginevra's name. Fittingly, juniper was also a
Renaissance symbol for chastity.
The portrait is one of the highlights of the National Gallery of
Art, and is admired by many for its portrayal of Ginevra's
temperament. Ginevra is beautiful but austere; she has no hint
of a smile and her gaze, though forward, seems indifferent to
the viewer. A strip from the bottom of the painting was removed
in the past, presumably due to damage, and Ginevra's arms and
hands were lost.
According to Giorgio Vasari, Ginevra de' Benci was also
included in the fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio of the Visitation
of Mary and Elizabeth in the church of Santa Maria Novella in
Vanozza de’ Cattanei
Vannozza dei Cattanei (Giovanna de Candia, contessa dei Cattanei) (13
July 1442 – 24 November 1518)
was one of the many mistresses of the Pope
Alexander VI (in violation of the celibacy vows the Pope takes), and
among them, the one whose relationship lasted the longest. Her parents
were Jacopo (Giacommo de Candia, conte dei Cattanei) and Mencia
Born in 1442 to Mantuan parents, she moved to Rome where she ran
several inns (Osterie), at first in Borgo, then in Campo de' Fiori.
Before becoming Alexander's mistress, she had an alleged relationship
with Cardinal Giulio della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II.
The connection with Alexander VI began in 1470, and she bore him four
children whom he openly acknowledged as his own:
Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia (born 1474);
Cesare (born 1475);
Lucrezia (born 1480);
Gioffre (born 1481 or 1482)
Before his elevation to the papacy, Alexander VI's passion for Vannozza
somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.
Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia
Farnese, wife of an Orsini, but Alexander VI's love for his children by
Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining
factor of his whole career. He lavished vast sums on them and lauded
them with every honour.
She had four husbands. First she married Domenico d'Arignano. Her
second husband was Antonio de Brescia. In 1480 she married Giorgio della
Croce. She had a son named Ottaviano with him. When she bacame a widow
she finally married Carlo Canale.
The salacious version painted by Bartolomeo Veneto,
not certain it is actually Lucrezia (in fact it's just about certain
that it isn't).
Pinturicchio's image of Lucrezia (just maybe) as Santa
Catterina d'Alessandria disputing with the philosophers before
Emperor Maximian, in the Sala dei Santi in the Borgia apartments
of the Vatican.
Pinturicchio's image of Lucrezia (just maybe) as Santa Catterina
d'Alessandria disputing with the philosophers before Emperor
Maximian, in the Sala dei Santi in the Borgia apartments of the
Supposed portrait of Lucrezia Borgia
assumed to be by Dosso Dossi
Picture of Lucrezia Borgia by Nirvaan Ghosh
First marriage: Giovanni Sforza
Lucrezia Borgia was born at Subiaco, near Rome. By the time she was
thirteen, she had been betrothed twice, but her father called off both
After Rodrigo became Pope Alexander VI, he had Lucrezia marry
Giovanni Sforza to establish an alliance with that powerful Milanese
family. The wedding was a scandalous event but was not much more
extravagant than many other Renaissance celebrations.
Before long, the Borgia family no longer needed the Sforzas, and the
presence of Giovanni Sforza in the papal court was superfluous. The Pope
needed new, more advantageous political alliances, so he may have
covertly ordered the execution of Giovanni. The generally accepted
version is that Lucrezia was informed of this by her brother Cesare, and
she warned her husband, who fled Rome.
Possibly Pope Alexander never made such an order, and it was a plot
on the part of Cesare and Lucrezia to drive her boring husband away.
Regardless, Alexander and Cesare were pleased with the chance to arrange
another advantageous marriage for Lucrezia. But before that could occur,
they needed to get rid of Giovanni Sforza.
Alexander asked Giovanni's uncle, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, to
persuade Giovanni to agree to a divorce. Giovanni refused and accused
Lucrezia of paternal and fraternal incest. Since the marriage had
supposedly not been consummated, the Pope said that the marriage was
invalid, and offered Giovanni Lucrezia's dowry to agree. The Sforza
family threatened to withdraw their protection of Giovanni if he refused
Alexander's offer. Having no choice, Giovanni Sforza signed confessions
of impotence and documents of annulment before witnesses.
Affair with Perotto
There has been speculation that
during the prolonged process of the annulment, Lucrezia consummated a
relationship with someone, probably Alexander's messenger Perotto. The
result was that she was actually pregnant when her marriage was annulled
for non consummation, and this is one of the facts her detractors have
cited to support their derogatory view of her character. The child,
named Giovanni but known to historians as the Roman Infante, was born in
secret (1498) before Lucrezia's marriage to Alfonso of Aragon.
Some believe the child was her brother Cesare's, but that Perotto,
due to his fondness for Lucrezia, claimed that it was his. During her
pregnancy, she stayed away from Rome at a convent, so no one would know,
and Perotto would bring her messages from her father in Rome. According
to this theory, Lucrezia was worried that if news of her pregnancy
reached the citizens of Rome, they would surely know it was Cesare's
child. Cesare, at the time, was a Cardinal of the Holy Church; if he had
been sharing an illicit sexual relationship with his sister during her
marriage to Giovanni, it would have to be concealed from everyone,
especially their father (the Pope).
In 1501, two papal bulls were issued concerning the child,
Giovanni Borgia. In the first, he was recognized as Cesare's
child from an affair before his marriage. The second,
contradictory, bull recognized him as the son of Alexander VI.
Lucrezia's name is not mentioned in either, and rumours that she
was his mother have never been proven. The second bull was kept
secret for many years, and Giovanni was assumed to be Cesare's
son. This is supported by the fact that in 1502, he became Duke
of Camerino, one of Cesare's recent conquests, hence the natural
inheritance of the Duke of Romagna's oldest son. However, some
time after Alexander's death, Giovanni went to stay with
Lucrezia in Ferrara, where he was accepted as her half-brother.
Second marriage: Alfonso of Aragon (Duke of Bisceglie)
At his first meeting with Alfonso, before the marriage took
place, Cesare was very impressed by his good looks and nature.
This soon changed to jealousy and hatred. It was said that
Cesare did not like Alfonso because Lucrezia was very happy with
him and had, since her marriage to him, stopped giving Cesare as
much attention. Also, Cesare himself had a bout of syphilis and
many scars remained on his face, even after recovery. This made
him very conscious of his appearance, and so he started wearing
masks and dressing in black. His condition is said to have made
him hate Alfonso of Aragon all the more, and once when the
Prince was visiting them in Rome, Cesare's men had attacked him
during the night. To retaliate, Alfonso's men shot arrows at
Cesare one day while he strolled in the garden. This infuriated
Cesare, and he had his servant(s) strangle Alfonso while in the
recovery room. Lucrezia and Alfonso had only one child, Rodrigo,
who predeceased his mother in August 1512 at the age of
While the reason for Alfonso's murder could have been
jealousy, it did have a political background. Just like
Lucrezia's first marriage, the second one soon became a useless
alliance and a reason for embarrassment for the Pope and his
son. Cesare had just allied himself with the King Louis XII of
France, who claimed the duchy of Naples, which was in the hands
of Alfonso's family at the time. Whatever the reasons for his
murder, Lucrezia was genuinely fond of her husband and
broken–hearted upon his death.
Third marriage: Alfonso d'Este (Duke of Ferrara)
After the death of her second husband, Lucrezia's father, Pope
Alexander VI, wanted to arrange a third marriage. She then
married Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. She gave her third
husband a number of children and proved to be a respectable and
accomplished Renaissance duchess, effectively rising above her
questionable past and surviving the fall of the Borgias
following her father's death.
Neither partner was faithful: Lucrezia enjoyed a long
relationship with her bisexual brother-in-law, Francesco II
Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua as well as a love affair with the
poet Pietro Bembo. Francesco's wife was the cultured
intellectual Isabella d'Este, the sister of Alfonso, to whom
Lucrezia had made overtures of friendship to no avail. The
affair between Francesco and Lucrezia was passionate, more
sexual than sentimental as can be attested in the fevered love
letters the pair wrote one another. The affair ended when
Francesco contracted syphilis and had to perforce end sexual
relations with Lucrezia.
Lucrezia Borgia died in Ferrara on 24 June 1519 from
complications after giving birth to her eighth child. She was
buried in the convent of Corpus Domini.
Lady with unicorn (Giulia Farnese), by
Copy of destroyed fresco of
Alexander VI before Madonna (his favorite
Giulia Farnese)" decribed by Vasari.
by Pietro Facettio
The Lady and the Unicorn
(Giulia Farnese), by Luca Longhi
Giulia Farnese (1474 - 23 March 1524) was
one of the mistresses of the Pope Alexander VI. She was known as Giulia
la bella, in Italian meaning "Julia the Beautiful". Lorenzo Pucci
described her as "most lovely to behold". Cesare Borgia, the son of
Alexander VI, described her as having "dark colouring, black eyes, round
face and particular ardour".
Giulia Farnese was born at Canino, Latium, Italy, to Pier Luigi Farnese,
Signore di Montalto (1435-1487), and wife Giovanna Caetani. One earlier
member of this dynasty had been Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303). She had
four siblings. The first brother Alessandro was a notary but was
embarked on an ecclesiastical career. Her second brother Bartolomeo
Farnese, became Lord of Montalto in his place, married Iolanda
Monaldeschi and had issue. The fourth child Angelo was a lord, married
Lella Orsini and had female issue. The fifth was a sister, Girolama.
Marriage and relationships with Alexander VI
At the age of 15, on May 21, 1489, she married in Rome Orsino Orsini. He
was the stepson of the ambitious Adriana de Mila, who was third cousin
to Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, Vice-Chancellor of the Church (and later
Pope Alexander VI). Orsini was described as being squint eyed and was
devoid of any meaningful self confidence. According to Maria Bellonci,
it is uncertain when Alexander fell passionately in love with Giulia and
decided to make her his mistress. What is known is that Adriana de Mila,
Borgia's cousin, eventually gave her approval in order to win a higher
status for her son with the Vatican. By November 1493 Giulia was living
with Adriana de Mila and the Cardinal’s daughter Lucrezia Borgia in a
recently built palace next to the Vatican from where the Pope could
easily make his clandestine visits. The affair was widely known among
the gossips of the time, and Giulia was referred to as "the Pope's
whore" or as "the bride of Christ". Giulia and Lucrezia became close
Through her intimacy with the Pope she was able to get her brother
Alessandro created Cardinal. This earned him the title of "Cardinal of
the skirts" from Pasquino.
Giulia had a daughter whom she named Laura. It is not clear whether
Laura’s father was Orsino or Alexander. Maria Bellonci believes that
there is evidence that she did have a physical relationship with her
husband. Whatever the case may be, Giulia claimed that Laura was indeed
the Pope’s daughter, but this may have been to raise the status of the
child for future marriage considerations. In 1494 she angered the Pope
by setting off to Capodimonte to be at the deathbed of her brother
Angelo. She remained away from Rome, even after her brother’s death, at
the insistence of her husband. He eventually capitulated to papal
pressure however, and she soon set off on the journey back to her lover.
This was the same time as the French invasion of Italy under Charles
VIII. Giulia was captured by the French captain Yves d’Allegre, who
demanded from the Pope, and received, a ransom of 3,000 scudi for her
safe conduct to Rome.
She remained the Pope’s mistress until 1499 or 1500. At this time she
seems to have fallen out of his favour due to her age. Bellonci believes
that the break between the two was probably made amicably with the help
of Adriana de Mila. Her husband also died around this time. She then
moved to Carbognano, which is not too far from Rome. This town had been
given to Orsino by Alexander VI. Alexander himself died three years
Giulia returned to Rome for the wedding of her daughter Laura in 1505.
Laura was wedded to Niccolò della Rovere, who was the son of the sister
of then Pope Julius II. For Giulia, her time of love was not over. After
a series of lovers, whose names have not been recorded, in the first
years of her widowhood, she married Giovanni Capece of Bozzuto. He was a
member of the lower ranking Neapolitan nobility. In 1506 Giulia became
the governor of Carbognano. Giulia took up residence in the citadel of
the castle, on the gate of which, years later, her name was inscribed.
The chronicle of the castle states that Giulia was an able administrator
who governed in a firm and energetic manner. Giulia stayed in Carbognano
until 1522. Then she left the place and returned to Rome.
She died there, in the house of her brother, Cardinal Alessandro. She
was 50 years old. The cause of her death is unknown. Ten years later her
brother ascended the papal throne as Pope Paul III. Laura and Niccolò
had three sons, who inherited the possessions of the Orsini family.
Virgin and Unicorn (Giulia Farnese),
A portrait by
Domenico Veneziano identified as
Lucrezia Landriani (born
was the mistress of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke
of Milan, and the mother of his renowned illegitimate
daughter, Caterina Sforza, Lady of Imola, Countess of
Forlì.Lucrezia had three other children by the Duke, and
two by her husband.
Lucrezia was the wife of Count Gian Piero Landriani, a
courtier at the ducal court and a close friend of
Galeazzo Maria Sforza (24 January 1444- 26 December
1476), son of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan and Bianca
Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan. Galeazzo Maria would
become Duke of Milan upon the death of his father on 8
Lucrezia was born in Milan around 1440; nothing
further, however, is known of her early years, or her
parentage. A contemporary portrait of Lucrezia painted
by Domenico Veneziano, shows her to have been quite
beautiful, with blonde hair, blue eyes, a high forehead,
and fine features. She bore her husband Gian Piero
two children, a son Piero Landriani, who later became
castellan of the fortress of Forlimpopoli; and a
daughter, Bianca Landriani, who married Tommaso Feo,
castellan of Ravaldino Castle and the brother-in-law of
Caterina Sforza. Lucrezia became Galeazzo Maria's
mistress sometime around 1460, when he was sixteen years
She bore Galeazzo Maria at least four children:
Carlo Sforza, Count of Magenta (1461- 9 May 1483),
married Bianca Simonetta (died 1487), by whom he had two
daughters, Angela Sforza (1479- 1497), and Ippolita
Sforza (1481- 1520).The latter married Alessandro Bentivoglio by whom she had issue, including a daughter
Violante, who became the wife of condottiero Giovanni
Paolo I Sforza, an illegitimate son of Ludovico il Moro
Sforza by Lucrezia Crivelli.
Caterina Sforza, Lady of Imola, Countess of Forli
(early 1463- 28 May 1509), married three times.
Chiara Sforza (1467- 1531), married firstly, Pietro,
Count dal Verme di Sanguinetto, Lord of Vigevano , and
secondly, Fregosino Fregoso, Lord of Novi, by whom she
Alessandro Sforza, Lord of Francavilla (1465-1523),
married Barbara dei Conti Balbiani di Valchiavenna, by
whom he had a daughter, Camilla.
Lucrezia's children were legitimised and raised at the
ducal court, alongside Galeazzo's legitimate
children by his second wife Bona of Savoy. They were,
however, entrusted into the care of their paternal
grandmother, Bianca Maria Visconti. The most gifted, and
remarkable child of Galeazzo and Lucrezia was Caterina,
who was instructed in the arts of diplomacy and warfare
by her grandmother. These were necessary skills in the
political ambience of 15th century Italy, which was
marked by intrigue, treachery, assassinations, and
continuous strife, caused by the intense rivalry of the
city-states and their rulers.
On 26 December 1476, Galeazzo Maria Sforza was
stabbed to death inside the church of San Stefano in
Milan. His only legitimate son by Bona of Savoy, Gian
Galeazzo Sforza, succeeded him as Duke of Milan.
Lucrezia Landriani died on an unknown date.
La dama dei gelsomini by Lorenzo di Credi.
Portrait of Caterina Sforza
Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì (early 1463 – 28 May, 1509), was the
illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and
Lucrezia Landriani, the wife of the courtier Gian Piero Landriani, a
close friend of the Duke.
Raised in the refined Milanese court, which in the 15th century was
admired by all of Europe, Caterina later held the titles of Lady of
Imola and Countess of Forlì, by her marriage to Girolamo Riario. She was
also the Regent for her first-born son, Octaviano.
The descendant of a dynasty of famous condottieri, Caterina, at an
early age, distinguished herself by her bold and impetuous actions that
were instigated to safeguard her possessions from possible usurpers, and
to uphold the military defense of her states, when they were involved in
the myriad political intrigues that were a distinguishing feature of
15th century Italy.
In her private life Caterina was devoted to various activities, among
which were "experiments" in alchemy and a love of hunting and dancing.
She was a devoted mother as well as a dedicated teacher to her many
children, from whom only the youngest, the famous captain Giovanni dalle
Bande Nere, inherited the forceful, militant character of his mother.
Following a heroic resistance on her part, she had to face the
vindictive fury of Cesare Borgia, who took Caterina as his prisoner.
Upon regaining her liberty following her imprisonment in Rome, she led a
quiet life in Florence.
In the final years of her life, she confided to a monk: "If I were to
write the story of my life, I would shock the world".
La belle ferronnière, painted by by
Leonardo da Vinci
Lucrezia Crivelli was a
mistress of Ludovico Sforza, il Moro, Duke of Milan (27
July 1452- 27 May 1508).
Lucrezia was thought to be the
model Leonardo da Vinci used for La belle ferronnière,
which is now in the Louvre, in Paris. She was the mother
of Ludovico's son Giovanni Paolo I Sforza, Marquess of
Lucrezia was a lady-in-waiting to Ludovico Sforza's
wife before she became his mistress sometime before
1496. In 1497, a son was born to her, Giovanni Paolo. Ludovico's affair with Lucrezia caused much distress to
Ludovico's wife, the accomplished and cultured Beatrice
d'Este (29 June 1475- 2 January 1497), who tried without
success to have Lucrezia banished from court. Leonardo
da Vinci's painting La belle ferronnière, which is
displayed in the Louvre, is presumed to be a portrait of
Lucrezia. Leonardo had previously immortalised an
earlier mistress of Ludovico's, Cecilia Gallerani, in
his painting, Lady with an Ermine.
Her son by Ludovico, Giovanni Paolo I Sforza (March
1497- December 1535), became the first Marquess of
Caravaggio as well as a celebtated condottiero. He
married Violante Bentivoglio (1505-1550), a
granddaughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, by his mistress
Lucrezia Landriani. The marriage produced a son and a
daughter. Ludovico Sforza died in 1508. Lucrezia lived
for many years under the protection of Isabella d'Este,
in Rocca di Canneto in Mantua. Isabella was the elder
sister of Beatrice, who had died in January 1497.
Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci by
Piero di Cosimo
A posthumous portrait (c. 1476-80) of Simonetta Vespucci
A portrait (c. 1474) of Simonetta Vespucci
Simonetta Cattaneo de Vespucci
(nicknamed la bella Simonetta; ca. 1453 – 1476)
was the wife of the Italian nobleman Marco Vespucci of Florence.
She also is alleged to have been the mistress of Giuliano de'
Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent's younger brother. She was
renowned for being the greatest beauty of her age - certainly of
the city of Florence - and she is believed to have been the
model for Venus in Botticelli's The Birth of Venus as well as
the model for several other women in his paintings. She also is
depicted in Piero di Cosimo's paintings Portrait of Simonetta
Vespucci, in which she is portrayed as Cleopatra with an asp
around her neck, and The Death of Procris. Countless poems and
canvasses by many other painters were also created in her honor.
She was born Simonetta Cattaneo in 1453 or 1454. Her father
was a Genoese nobleman named Gaspare Cattaneo, and her mother
was his wife, Cattocchia.
There is some dispute as to her birthplace; some say that she
was born at Portovenere, in Liguria, where the goddess Venus was
born; the poet Politian wrote that her home was "in that stern
Ligurian district up above the seacoast, where angry Neptune
beats against the rocks. There, like Venus, she was born among
the waves." Others say that she was born at Genoa.
At age fifteen or sixteen she married Marco Vespucci, son of
Piero, who was a distant cousin of the famous Florentine
explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci.
Through the Vespucci family she was discovered by Botticelli and
other prominent painters upon arriving at Florence. Before long
every nobleman in the city was besotted with her, even the
brothers Lorenzo and Giuliano of the ruling Medici family.
Lorenzo was occupied with affairs of state, but his younger
brother was free to pursue her.
At La Giostra (a jousting tournament) in 1475, Giuliano entered
the lists bearing a banner on which was a picture of Simonetta
as a helmeted Pallas Athene painted by Botticelli himself,
beneath which was the French inscription La Sans Pareille, “The
He won the tournament and the affection of la bella Simonetta,
who was nominated “The Queen of Beauty” at that event. It is
unknown however if they actually became lovers.
Simonetta Vespucci died just one year later, on the night of
April 26-27, 1476, probably from pulmonary tuberculosis. She was
only twenty-two at the time of her death. Her husband remarried
soon afterwards. The entire city was reported to mourn at her
death and thousands followed her coffin to its burial.
Botticelli finished painting "The Birth of Venus" in
1485, nine years later. The women in many of Botticelli's
painting closely resemble Simonetta, as seen in the several
posthumous portraits that he painted of her.
This suggests that he also had fallen in love with her, a view
supported by his request to be buried at her feet in the Church
of Ognissanti - the parish church of the Vespucci - in Florence.
He was interred there at his death, in 1510, some 34 years
following her death.
The Birth of Venus by
Madonna of the Pomegranate (Madonna della Melagrana)
Madonna of the Magnificat (Madonna del Magnificat)
Venus and Mars
The Death of Procris
Piero di Cosimo