Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 



 


 



United Nations General Assembly hall

 

 


Timor-Leste
 

 

Profile
Official name Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa’e (Tetum); República Democrática de Timor-Leste (Portuguese) (Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste)1
Form of government republic with one legislative body (National Parliament [65])
Chief of state President
Head of government Prime Minister
Capital Dili
Official languages Tetum; Portuguese2
Official religion none
Monetary unit dollar (U.S.$)
Population estimate (2008) 1,078,000
Total area (sq mi) 5,760
Total area (sq km) 14,919
1Per U.S. Board on Geographic Names: conventional short-form name is East Timor, conventional long-form name is Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.

2Indonesian and English are “working” languages.

Main

country occupying the eastern half of the island of Timor, the small nearby islands of Atauro (Kambing) and Jaco, and the enclave of Ambeno surrounding the town of Pante Makasar on the northwestern coast of Timor. It is bounded by the Timor Sea to the southeast, the Wetar Strait to the north, the Ombai Strait to the northwest, and western Timor (part of the Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur) to the southwest. Dili is the capital and largest city.

The eastern part of Timor is rugged, with the mountains rising to 9,721 feet (2,963 metres) at Mount Tatamailau (Tata Mailau) in the centre of a high plateau. The area has a dry tropical climate and moderate rainfall. Hilly areas are covered with sandalwood; scrub and grass grow in the lowlands, together with coconut palms and eucalyptus trees. There are hot springs and numerous mountain streams. Wildlife includes the cuscus (a species of marsupial), monkeys, deer, civet cats, snakes, and crocodiles. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy; chief products include copra, hides, coffee, cotton, rice, wheat, tobacco, wool, potatoes, and corn (maize), as well as pearls and sandalwood. Soap, perfumes, processed food, chemicals, and machine goods are produced, and coffee is processed. Crafts include pottery, wood and ivory carving, plaiting, coir production, and basket making. Roads run parallel to the northeastern coast and link Maubara, Manatuto, Tutuala, and Dili. Most of the people are of Papuan, Malayan, and Polynesian origin and are predominantly Christian. About 40 different Papuan and Malayan languages or dialects are spoken, dominated by Tetum; Portuguese is spoken by a small fraction of the population.

The Ambeno area has valuable sandalwood forests, coconut groves, and rice plantations. Its chief town, Pante Makasar, is a port and has an airport. The hilly offshore island of Atauro, which also has an airport, has a population occupied mainly in fishing. The currency is the U.S. dollar.

The Portuguese first settled on Timor in 1520, and the Spanish arrived in 1522. The Dutch took possession of the western portion of the island in 1613. The British governed the island in 1812–15. The Dutch and the Portuguese fought for supremacy over Timor; Portuguese sovereignty over the island’s eastern half was settled by treaties in 1860 and 1893, although the latter became effective only in 1914. Japanese forces occupied Timor during World War II. East Timor province, including the Ambeno enclave, thereafter remained in Portuguese possession until 1975, when one of the major political parties there, Fretilin (Frente Revolucionária de Timor Leste Independente [Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor]), gained control of much of the territory and declared its independence (November) as the Democratic Republic of East Timor. The area was subsequently invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces (in early December) and in 1976 was declared by Indonesia to be an integral part of Indonesia as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor).

Over the next two decades tens of thousands of East Timorese died (some observers claim as many as 200,000 perished) resisting the Indonesian occupation and annexation or as a result of famine and disease. In response to mounting international pressure, the Indonesian government authorized a referendum there (Aug. 30, 1999) to determine the future of East Timor. Almost four-fifths of the voters supported independence, and the Indonesian parliament rescinded Indonesia’s annexation of the territory. East Timor was returned to its preannexation status of independence, but as a non-self-governing territory under UN supervision. However, the transfer of power was accompanied by violence perpetrated by anti-independence militants. Hundreds were killed, and thousands fled to the western half of the island; refugees subsequently began returning home.

In April 2002 Xanana Gusmão, leader of one of the former opposition groups, was elected East Timor’s first president. The territory achieved full status as a sovereign state shortly thereafter. Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta was elected president in May 2007, succeeding Gusmão, but tensions within the country remained high. In February 2008 President Ramos-Horta was seriously injured when he was shot by militant forces in an attempted assassination.

 

 

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