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Island country, western Pacific Ocean, on an archipelago off the southeast coast of Asia.

Area: 122,121 sq mi (316,294 sq km). Population (2005 est.): 84,191,000. Capital: Manila; Quezon City is the designated centre of national government. Filipinos are predominantly of Malay descent, frequently with Chinese and sometimes American or Spanish ancestry. Languages: Pilipino and English (both official); the other main groups are Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, and Bicol. Religions: Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant, other Christians); also Islam. Currency: Philippine peso. The Philippines consist of about 7,100 islands and islets. The two principal islands are Luzon in the north and Mindanao in the south. The Visayan group is in the central Philippines, Mindoro is directly south of Luzon, and Palawan is isolated in the west. The topography is varied; inactive volcanoes and mountain ranges are the main features of most of the larger islands. The country has a predominantly market economy based largely on agriculture, light industries, and services. The Philippines is a republic with two legislative houses; its chief of state and head of government is the president. First visited by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, the islands were colonized by the Spanish, who retained control until the Philippines were ceded to the U.S. in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in 1935 to prepare the country for political and economic independence, which was delayed by World War II and the invasion of Japanese troops. The islands were liberated by U.S. forces in 1944–45, and the Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed in 1946, with a government patterned on that of the U.S. In 1965 Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. He declared martial law in 1972, which lasted until 1981. After 20 years of dictatorial rule, Marcos was driven from power in 1986. Corazon Aquino became president and instituted a period of democratic rule that continued with the elections of subsequent presidents. The government has tried to come to terms with Muslim independence fighters in the southern islands by establishing the Muslim Mindanao autonomous region in southwestern Mindanao and nearby islands.

Official name Republika ng Pilipinas (Filipino); Republic of the Philippines (English)
Form of government unitary republic with two legislative houses (Senate [24]; House of Representatives [240])
Chief of state and head of government President
Capital Manila1
Official languages Filipino; English
Official religion none
Monetary unit piso2 (₱)
Population estimate (2008) 90,227,000
Total area (sq mi) 115,831
Total area (sq km) 300,000
1Other government offices and ministries are located in Quezon City and other Manila suburbs.

2Piso in Filipino; peso in English and Spanish.


island country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7,100 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the coast of Vietnam. Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s largest city. Both are part of the National Capital Region (Metro Manila), located on Luzon, the largest island. The second largest island of the Philippines is Mindanao, in the southeast.

The Philippines takes its name from Philip II, who was king of Spain during the Spanish colonization of the islands in the 16th century. Because it was under Spanish rule for 333 years and under U.S. tutelage for a further 48 years, the Philippines has many cultural affinities with the West. It is, for example, the second most populous country (following the United States) with English as an official language and the only predominantly Roman Catholic country in Southeast Asia. Despite the prominence of such Anglo-European cultural characteristics, the peoples of the Philippines are Asian in consciousness and aspiration.

The country was wracked by political turmoil in the last quarter of the 20th century. After enduring more than a decade of authoritarian rule under Pres. Ferdinand Marcos, the broadly popular People Power movement in 1986 led a bloodless uprising against the regime. The confrontation resulted not only in the ouster and exile of Marcos but also in the restoration of democratic government to the Philippines

Contemporary Filipinos continue to grapple with a society that is replete with paradoxes, perhaps the most obvious being the presence of extreme wealth alongside tremendous poverty. Rich in resources, the Philippines has the potential to build a strong industrial economy, but the country remains largely agricultural. Especially toward the end of the 20th century, rapid industrial expansion was spurred by a high degree of domestic and foreign investment. This growth, however, simultaneously contributed to severe degradation of the environment. The Philippines also emerged as a regional leader in education during the late 20th century, with a well-established public school and university system; by the early 21st century the country had one of the highest literacy rates in Asia.

The Philippine archipelago is bounded by the Philippine Sea to the east, the Celebes Sea to the south, the Sulu Sea to the southwest, and the South China Sea to the west and north. The islands spread out in the shape of a triangle, with those south of Palawan, the Sulu Archipelago, and the island of Mindanao outlining (from west to east, respectively) its southern base and the Batan Islands to the north of Luzon forming its apex. The archipelago stretches about 1,150 miles (1,850 km) from north to south, and its widest east-west extent, at its southern base, is some 700 miles (1,130 km). The island of Taiwan lies north of the Batan group, the Malaysian portion of the island of Borneo is to the south of Palawan, and the eastern islands of Indonesia lie to the south and southeast of Mindanao. Only about two-fifths of the islands and islets have names, and only some 350 have areas of 1 square mile (2.6 square km) or more. The large islands fall into three groups: (1) the Luzon group in the north and west, consisting of Luzon, Mindoro, and Palawan, (2) the Visayas group in the centre, consisting of Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Masbate, Negros, Panay, and Samar, and (3) Mindanao in the south.

Outstanding physical features of the Philippines include the irregular configuration of the archipelago, the coastline of some 22,550 miles (36,290 km), the great extent of mountainous country, the narrow and interrupted coastal plains, the generally northward trend of the river systems, and the spectacular lakes. The islands are composed primarily of volcanic rock and coral, but all principal rock formations are present. The mountain ranges for the most part run in the same general direction as the islands themselves, approximately north to south.

The Cordillera Central, the central mountain chain of Luzon, running north to the Luzon Strait from the northern boundary of the central plain, is the most prominent range. It consists of two and in places three parallel ranges, each with an average elevation of about 5,900 feet (1,800 metres). The Sierra Madre, extending along the Pacific coast from northern to central Luzon, is the longest mountain range in the country. That range and the Cordillera Central merge in north-central Luzon to form the Caraballo Mountains. To the north of the latter, and between the two ranges, is the fertile Cagayan Valley. The narrow Ilocos, or Malayan, range, lying close along the west coast of northern Luzon, rises in places to elevations above 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) and is seldom below 3,500 feet (1,000 metres); it is largely volcanic. In the southwestern part of northern Luzon are the rugged Zambales Mountains, consisting of more or less isolated old volcanic stocks (rock formed under great heat and pressure deep beneath the Earth’s surface).

Most of the central plain of Luzon, about 150 by 50 miles (240 by 80 km), is only about 100 feet (30 metres) above sea level. The greater part of southern Luzon is occupied by isolated volcanoes and irregular masses of hills and mountains. The highest peak is Mayon Volcano (8,077 feet [2,462 metres)]), near the city of Legaspi (Legazpi) in Albay province on the island’s Bicol Peninsula in the southeast.

The island of Palawan is about 25 miles (40 km) wide and more than 250 miles (400 km) long; through it extends a range with an average elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet (1,200 to 1,500 metres). Each of the Visayan Islands except Samar and Bohol is traversed longitudinally by a single range with occasional spurs. Several peaks on Panay and Negros reach a height of 6,000 feet (1,800 metres) or more. Mount Canlaon (Canlaon Volcano), on Negros, rises to 8,086 feet (2,465 metres).

There are several important ranges on Mindanao; the Diuata (Diwata) Mountains along the eastern coast are the most prominent. To the west lies another range that stretches from the centre of the island southward. Farther west the Butig Mountains trend northwestward from the northeastern edge of the Moro Gulf. A range also runs northwest-southeast along the southwestern coast. Near Mindanao’s south-central coast is Mount Apo, which at 9,692 feet (2,954 metres) is the highest peak in the Philippines. A number of volcanic peaks surround Lake Sultan Alonto (Lake Lanao), and a low cordillera extends through the Zamboanga Peninsula in the far west.

Although volcanoes are a conspicuous feature of the landscape, there is relatively little volcanic activity. There are altogether about 50 volcanoes, of which more than 10 are known to be active. Mount Pinatubo on Luzon, once regarded as extinct, was in 1991 the site of one of the world’s largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. All gradations of volcanoes can be seen, from the almost perfect cone of Mayon, which has been compared to Mount Fuji in Japan, to old, worn-down volcanic stocks, the present forms of which give little indication of their origin. The several distinct volcanic areas are in south-central and southern Luzon and on the islands of Negros, Mindanao, Jolo, and elsewhere. Tremors and earthquakes are common.

The most important rivers of the Philippines are the Cagayan, Agno, Pampanga, Pasig, and Bicol on Luzon and the Mindanao (Río Grande de Mindanao) and Agusan on Mindanao. The northern plain between the Sierra Madre and the Cordillera Central is drained by the Cagayan, while the central plain is drained in the north by the Agno and in the south by the Pampanga. The Pasig, which flows through the city of Manila, was once commercially important as a nexus for interisland trade but is no longer navigable except by small craft; heavy pollution has required significant cleanup efforts. Most of the Bicol Peninsula lies in the Bicol basin. On Mindanao the Agusan drains the fertile lands of the island’s northeastern quadrant, while the Mindanao River drains the Cotabato Valley in the southwest. One of the Philippines’ most unique waterways lies underground, emerging directly into the ocean at Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park on the island of Palawan; the park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999.

The largest lake in the archipelago, with an area of 356 square miles (922 square km), is Laguna de Bay, on the island of Luzon. Also on Luzon and just to the southwest of Laguna de Bay is Taal Lake, which occupies 94 square miles (244 square km) inside a volcanic crater; a volcanic cone emerges from the lake’s centre. Lake Sultan Alonto on Mindanao is the country’s second largest lake, covering an area of 131 square miles (340 square km).

The alluvial plains and terraces of Luzon and Mindoro have dark black cracking clays, as well as younger soils that are especially suitable for rice cultivation. Much of the land of the hilly and mountainous regions consists of moist, fertile soils, often with a significant concentration of volcanic ash, that support fruit trees and pineapples. Oil palms, vegetables, and other crops are grown in the peatlike areas, as well as in the younger, sand-based soils of the coastal plains, marshes, and lake regions. The dark, organic, mineral-rich soils of the undulating terrain of the Bicol Peninsula, much of the Visayas, and the northwest tip of Luzon are used to grow coffee, bananas, and other crops. Highly weathered, often red or yellow soils are prominent in the central and southern Philippines and are typically planted with cassava (manioc) and sugarcane; these soils also support forests for timber harvesting. The poor, precipitation-leached soils of Palawan and the eastern mountains of Luzon are largely covered with shrubs, bushes, and other secondary growth that typically emerges in areas that have been cleared of their original forest cover.

The climate of the Philippines is tropical and strongly monsoonal (i.e., wet-dry). In general, rain-bearing winds blow from the southwest from approximately May to October, and drier winds come from the northeast from November to February. Thus, temperatures remain relatively constant from north to south during the year, and seasons consist of periods of wet and dry. Throughout the country, however, there are considerable variations in the frequency and amount of precipitation. The western shores facing the South China Sea have the most marked dry and wet seasons. The dry season generally begins in December and ends in May, the first three months being cool and the second three hot; the rest of the year constitutes the wet season. The dry season shortens progressively to the east until it ceases to occur. During the wet season, rainfall is heavy in all parts of the archipelago except for an area extending southward through the centre of the Visayan group to central Mindanao and then southwestward through the Sulu Archipelago; rain is heaviest along the eastern shores facing the Pacific Ocean.

From June to December tropical cyclones (typhoons) often strike the Philippines. Most of these storms come from the southeast, their frequency generally increasing from south to north; in some years the number of cyclones reaches 25 or more. Typhoons are heaviest in Samar, Leyte, south-central Luzon, and the Batan Islands, and, when accompanied by floods or high winds, they may cause great loss of life and property. Mindanao is generally free from such storms.

November through February constitutes the most agreeable season; the air is cool and invigorating at night, and the days are pleasant and sunny. During the hot part of the dry season in most places—especially in the cities of Cebu, Davao, and Manila—the temperature sometimes rises as high as 100 °F (38 °C). Overall temperatures decline with elevation, however, and cities and towns located at higher elevations—such as Baguio in northern Luzon, Majayjay and Lucban south of Manila, and Malaybalay in central Mindanao—experience a pleasant climate throughout the year; at times the temperature in those places dips close to 40 °F (4 °C).

Plant and animal life
Although many of the mountain regions and some of the lowlands remain heavily forested, the country’s forests have been shrinking rapidly for decades. Between the mid-20th century and the early 21st century, the country’s forestland was reduced by more than half—largely a result of logging, mining, and farming activities—and now accounts for less than one-fourth of the country’s total land area. Where forests remain in northern Luzon, the principal mountain tree is pine. In other areas, lauan (Philippine mahogany) often predominates.

Most of the Philippines’ vegetation is indigenous and largely resembles that of Malaysia; the plants and trees of the coastal areas, including the mangrove swamps, are practically identical with those of similar regions throughout the Malay Archipelago. Himalayan elements occur in the mountains of northern Luzon, while a few Australian types are found at various altitudes. The islands are home to thousands of species of flowering plants and ferns, including hundreds of species of orchids, some of which are extremely rare. Tall, coarse grasses such as cogon (genus Imperata) have arisen in many places where the forests have been burned away.

The Philippines are inhabited by more than 200 species of mammals, including water buffalo (carabao), goats, horses, hogs, cats, dogs, monkeys, squirrels, lemurs, mice, pangolins (scaly anteaters), chevrotains (mouse deer), mongooses, civet cats, and red and brown deer, among others. The tamarau (Anoa mindorensis), a species of small water buffalo, is found only on Mindoro. Of more than 50 species of bats, many are peculiar to the Philippines. Fossil remains show that elephants once lived on the islands.

Hundreds of species of birds live in the Philippines, either for all or part of the year. Prominent birdlife includes jungle fowl, pigeons, peacocks, pheasants, doves, parrots, hornbills, kingfishers, sunbirds, tailorbirds, weaverbirds, herons, and quails. Many species are endemic to the island of Palawan. The endangered Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is limited mainly to isolated areas on Mindanao and in the Sierra Madre on Luzon.

The seas surrounding the islands and the inland lakes, rivers, estuaries, and ponds are inhabited by no fewer than 2,000 varieties of fish. The Tubbataha Reefs in the Sulu Sea were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1993 in recognition of their abundance and diversity of marine life; in 2009 the boundaries of the World Heritage site were extended to triple its original size. The milkfish, a popular food fish and the national fish of the Philippines, is plentiful in brackish and marine waters. Sea horses are common in the reefs of the Visayan Islands.

A number of species of marine turtles, including the leatherback turtle, are protected, as are the Philippine crocodile and saltwater crocodile. The islands are home to a diverse array of reptiles and amphibians. Water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator) of various sorts have been prized for their skins. Skinks, geckos, and snakes are abundant, and more than 100 species are endemic to the Philippines. The country is also host to many types of frogs, including several flying varieties; most are endemic to the islands.

Ethnic groups
The ethnically diverse people of the Philippines collectively are called Filipinos. The ancestors of the vast majority of the population were of Malay descent and came from the Southeast Asian mainland as well as from what is now Indonesia. Contemporary Filipino society consists of nearly 100 culturally and linguistically distinct ethnic groups. Of these, the largest are the Tagalog of Luzon and the Cebuano of the Visayan Islands, each of which constitutes about one-fifth of the country’s total population. Other prominent groups include the Ilocano of northern Luzon and the Hiligaynon of the Visayan islands of Panay and Negros, comprising roughly one-tenth of the population each. The Samaran (Waray) of the islands of Samar and Leyte in the Visayas and the Bicol (Bikol) of the Bicol Peninsula together account for another one-tenth. Filipino mestizos and the Pampango (Pampangan, or Kampampangan) of south-central Luzon each make up small proportions of the population.

Many smaller groups of indigenous and immigrant peoples account for the remainder of the Philippines’ population. The aboriginal inhabitants of the islands were the Negritos, a term referring collectively to numerous peoples of dark skin and small stature, including the Aeta, Baluga, Ita, Agta, and others. Those communities now constitute only a tiny percentage of the total population. From the 10th century, contacts with China resulted in a group of mixed Filipino-Chinese descent, who also account for a minority of the population. Small numbers of resident Chinese nationals, emigrants from the Indian subcontinent, U.S. nationals, and Spanish add to the population’s ethnic and cultural diversity.

Estimates of the total number of native languages and dialects spoken in the Philippines differ, but scholarly studies suggest that there are some 150. Most of the country’s languages are closely related, belonging to one of several subfamilies of Austronesian—more specifically, Western Malayo-Polynesian—languages. The major languages of the country generally correspond to the largest ethnic groups. Tagalog is the most widespread language of the Central Philippine subfamily, with the bulk of its native speakers concentrated in Manila, central and south-central Luzon, and the islands of Mindoro and Marinduque. The national language of the Philippines, Pilipino (also called Filipino), is based on Tagalog and shares a place with English (the lingua franca) as an official language and medium of instruction. Tagalog (including Pilipino) has the most extensive written literature of all Philippine languages. Cebuano, also a Central Philippine language, is used widely in Cebu, Bohol, eastern Negros, western Leyte, and parts of Mindanao. Ilocano is the most commonly spoken language of the Northern Luzon subfamily, and its speakers constitute the third largest language community of the Philippines.

Other prominent languages of the Central Philippine group include Hiligaynon (Ilongo) and Waray, both spoken in the Visayas, as well as several varieties of Bicol, spoken in southern Luzon. Tausug is widespread in Palawan and the Sulu Archipelago. Pampango and Pangasinan, both Northern Philippine languages, have many speakers in central Luzon. Notable languages of the Southern Philippine subfamily are Magindanao and Maranao, which are spoken in parts of Mindanao.

Some four-fifths of Filipinos profess Roman Catholicism. During the 20th century the religion gained strength through growth in the number of Filipinos in the church hierarchy, construction of seminaries, and, especially after 1970, increased involvement of the church in the political and social life of the country. Jaime Cardinal Sin, archbishop of Manila, was one of the country’s most politically outspoken spiritual leaders of the late 20th century.

Adherents of other denominations of Christianity constitute roughly one-tenth of the population. The Philippine Independent Church (the Aglipayans), established in 1902 in protest against Spanish control of the Roman Catholic Church, has several million members. The indigenous Protestant sect called Iglesia ni Kristo, also founded in the early 20th century, has a smaller but nonetheless significant following.

Islam was brought to the southern Philippines in the 15th century from Brunei (on Borneo), to the west. The religion was already well established in the Sulu Archipelago and Mindanao by the time of European contact, and it had a growing following around Manila. Contemporary Muslim Filipino communities, collectively known as Moros, are largely limited to the southern islands and account for about 5 percent of the population.

Small numbers of Filipinos practice Buddhism or local religions. Buddhism is associated primarily with communities of Chinese descent. Local religions are maintained by some of the rural indigenous peoples.

Settlement patterns
The plains lying amid the mountains—for example, the central plain of Luzon and the central plain of Panay—have long had the greatest density of population in the islands, except Cebu, where the people have lived mostly on the coastal plain because of the island’s high and rugged interior. In the nonindustrialized areas of these regions, the cultivation of rice or corn (maize) and fishing provide basic subsistence.

In the rural areas, houses are often small, consisting of just one or two rooms, and are elevated on piles. The open spaces below the structures are used to store tools and other household belongings, as well as live chickens and other smaller farm animals. Especially in the fishing communities of coastal regions, houses are typically raised above the ocean, river, or floodplain to accommodate boat traffic and the ebb and flow of the tides. There are often elevated networks of walkways that connect the houses within the community.

In addition to many smaller settlement units, there are a number of major cities. Some of these, including Manila, Cebu, Jaro, Vigan, and Nueva Caceres (now called Naga), were granted charters by the Spanish colonial government. More chartered cities were founded under U.S. administration and since independence in 1946. Metropolitan (Metro) Manila—an agglomeration consisting of Quezon City, Manila, Pasay, Caloocan, and several other cities and municipalities in southern Luzon—is by far the largest urban area in the country. Other principal cities include Davao on Mindanao and Cebu in the Visayas.

In the urban areas, the wealthier residents typically live in two- or three-story single-family homes. However, a significant proportion of city dwellers live in poverty, often occupying any vacant piece of land and building their homes from bamboo, wood, sheet metal, and other scavenged items. The people in such communities usually do not have regular access to running water and electricity or to sanitary services.

Demographic trends
The population density of the Philippines is high, but the distribution of the population is uneven. Parts of Metro Manila have a population density that is more than 100 times that of some outlying areas such as the mountainous area of northern Luzon. The country’s birth rate remains significantly higher than the world average, as well as the average for the Southeast Asian region. Efforts since the mid-20th century to slow the overall growth rate have had limited success, in part because reductions in the birth rate have been offset to some degree by reductions in the death rate.

Especially since World War II, population has tended to move from rural areas to towns and cities. At the beginning of the 20th century, more than four-fifths of the population was rural, but by the early 21st century that proportion had dropped to roughly two-fifths. There is a considerable amount of Filipino emigration, particularly of manual labourers and professionals. Many emigrants have gone to the United States, Okinawa, Guam, and Canada; in addition, a large number of skilled and semiskilled workers have taken temporary overseas assignments, mainly in the Middle East and, increasingly, in East and Southeast Asia.

The Philippines is largely an agricultural country. Its economy is based on free enterprise; individuals and nongovernmental entities are free to participate in its development and management, sometimes with the aid of government credit.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
The agricultural sector is a major component of the Philippine economy, although it contributes only about one-seventh of gross domestic product (GDP). Crops can be grown throughout the year in the country’s rich and fertile soils, and the sector employs nearly one-third of the total workforce. The principal farm products are sugarcane, rice, coconuts, bananas, corn (maize), and pineapples. Additional products include mangoes, citrus, papayas, and other tropical fruits; coffee and tobacco; and various fibres such as abaca (Manila hemp) and maguey, which are used mainly to make rope. A wide variety of vegetables are raised for domestic consumption.

Rice, the principal staple crop, is grown especially in central and north-central Luzon, south-central Mindanao, western Negros, and eastern and central Panay. About one-fourth of the total farmland is used for rice growing. Since the early 1970s rice production in the Philippines has improved considerably, and in some years there has been enough of a surplus that rice can be exported. Factors contributing to this increase in output include the development and use of higher-yielding strains of rice, the construction of feeder roads and irrigation canals, and the use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Use of scientific farming techniques in the Philippines has had its drawbacks, however. The newer strains of rice have required the application of expensive chemicals that generally must be imported, and improper application of those substances has caused serious soil degradation in some areas.

The Philippines is one of the world’s largest producers of coconuts and coconut products, and these are important export commodities. The area devoted to coconut production rivals that used for rice and corn. Sugarcane is cultivated widely in central and north-central Luzon, western Negros, and on Panay. Abaca is grown extensively in eastern Mindanao, southeastern Luzon, and on Leyte and Samar. Both sugarcane and abaca are important agricultural exports.

Fish provides a significant proportion of the protein in the Filipino diet, and fisheries have been growing slowly but steadily since the early 1990s. Canned tuna is the principal fish exported. Commercial fishing is carried on primarily off Palawan, Negros, Mindanao, and Panay. Among the most important commercial fishes are milkfish (a herringlike fish), sardines, anchovies, tuna, scad, and mackerel. Fish are raised in ponds in some provinces of Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. The Sulu Archipelago is known for its pearl farms.

At one time about half of the Philippines’ total land area was covered with forests. Of this area, a large part abounded with trees of commercial value, especially lauan, narra (a species of Pterocarpus used in cabinetmaking), and other tropical hardwoods and pines. Heavy logging and inadequate reforestation measures, however, have reduced considerably the amount of forested land. A ban on the export of hardwoods has been in effect since the mid-1980s, but there is evidence that much hardwood timber continues to leave the country illegally. Trees from Philippine forests continue to provide wood for lumber, veneer, plywood, furniture, wallboard, pulp and paper, and light building materials, both for domestic and international consumption. Other notable forest products include rattan, gutta-percha, various resins, and bamboo.

Resources and power
Although the Philippines is rich in mineral resources, mining activities constitute only a small portion of GDP and employ an even smaller fraction of the population. Most of the country’s metallic minerals, including gold, iron ore, lead, zinc, chromite, and copper, are drawn from major deposits on the islands of Luzon and Mindanao. Smaller deposits of silver, nickel, mercury, molybdenum, cadmium, and manganese occur in several other locations. The Visayas are the principal source of nonmetallic minerals, including limestone for cement, marble, asphalt, salt, sulfur, asbestos, guano, gypsum, phosphate, and silica. Petroleum and natural gas are extracted from fields off the northwest coast of Palawan. Copper has remained the country’s primary mineral, although changing world market demands and investment incentives have rendered its production somewhat volatile.

Until the late 20th century, hydroelectric power supplied only a small proportion of the country’s electrical output, and thermal plants (most of which burned imported oil) supplied the major proportion. The completion of several dam projects on Luzon and the expansion of another project on Mindanao have increased the percentage of power generated by hydroelectric installations; irrigation and flood control have been additional benefits of some of the projects. Dependence on foreign oil has also been reduced by the construction of geothermal and conventional coal-fired thermal plants and, to some degree, by the exploitation of Palawan’s offshore petroleum reserves.

Much growth in manufacturing took place in the Philippines in the 20th century, particularly in the 1950s and (after a slump in the ’60s) the ’70s. Since that time the sector has remained relatively stable, contributing roughly one-fourth of GDP, though it employs less than one-tenth of the workforce. The government has assisted the private sector by exempting certain new industries from taxation for a certain period. Only nominal taxes are imposed on selected industries, and loans on favourable terms are available to others.

Many factories are licensees of foreign companies or act as subcontractors for foreign firms, turning out finished products for export from imported semifinished goods. A large segment of the manufacturing sector, however, produces goods intended for domestic consumption. Major manufactures include electronics components, garments and textile products, processed foods and beverages, chemicals, and petroleum products.

The national currency, the piso, is issued by the Central Bank of the Philippines (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas). Banking operations are also conducted by several other government institutions, including the Land Bank of the Philippines and the Development Bank of the Philippines; the Philippine National Bank, formerly government-owned, was largely privatized in the late 20th century. All these banks were originally established by the government to encourage business, agriculture, and industry.

The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the Board of Investments were created in the late 20th century to help both public and private sectors in planning further economic development.Much of the initial capital investment of many private rural banks was provided by the government, and private development banks have likewise received government assistance. Many commercial and thrift banks have been established since the mid-1990s in response to increased liberalization, privatization, and the lifting of a ban on foreign banks. The Philippine Stock Exchange, though still relatively small, has been growing rapidly since weathering the Asian economic crisis at the end of the 20th century.

The Philippine government plans national economic development through the NEDA and other agencies. In so doing, it has sought to increase economic independence. In 1979 the government signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) rather than renewing a preferential trade agreement with the United States that had ultimately hindered Philippine economic development. The Philippines became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. Although the United States and Japan have continued to be the Philippines’ top trading partners, a number of new markets have been emerging, especially in China, Singapore, and other countries of East and Southeast Asia. The Philippines’ principal exports include electronic equipment, garments and accessories, coconuts and coconut products, and minerals (copper, gold, and iron ore). The principal imports are machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals and chemical products, and food.

The service sector is the principal single component of the Philippine economy, contributing more than two-fifths of GDP and employing more than one-third of the country’s labour force. Trade and hospitality services together constitute the largest employer in the sector. Public administration and defense account for less than one-tenth of GDP and an even smaller portion of employment. However, the government engages in business in its own right, owning such enterprises as the National Development Company, the Philippine Ports Authority, the Philippine National Railways, and many other entities. With ongoing privatization, however, the number of corporations owned and controlled by the government has been decreasing.

Tourism has been growing steadily. Most international visitors come from South Korea, the United States, and Japan, but the number of Malaysians, Singaporeans, and residents of other Asian countries is increasing. Metro Manila and Cebu are among the most popular destinations, as are such resort areas as Boracay Island, just off the northern tip of Panay.

Labour and taxation
The trade union movement is well established in Manila and in most other towns and cities. Farmers and tenants are also organized, as are teachers and government employees. Although they do not have a special union, women are well represented in the workforce; they are permitted to work in virtually any field, and they are legally protected against discrimination in employment. The right of all workers to organize unions has been recognized in the constitution promulgated in 1987. Management, for its part, has organized company unions. Relations between trade unions and the employers’ union generally have been untroubled. The Bureau of Labor Relations settles disputes between labour and management through special labour arbiters; the National Labor Relations Commission hears appeals of the arbiters’ decisions.

The government derives its revenue from three major sources: taxation, earnings and other credits, and extraordinary income, including the transfer from special funds (i.e., funds derived primarily from unexpended balances in the budget that are deposited as savings accounts). Revenue is collected principally through the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the Bureau of Customs. Income taxes constitute the single largest portion of government revenue, followed by taxes on domestic goods and services and on international trade. Legislation enacted by the central government since the early 1990s has transferred some powers of taxation to local governments.

Transportation and telecommunications
Hundreds of thousands of miles of roads—a great majority of which are unpaved—link the towns on the archipelago’s many islands. Hard-surfaced roads and highways are largely confined to the Metro Manila region, but paved expressways extend to Laoag in the extreme north, to Sorsogon in the distant south, to Baguio on the western coast, and to Luzon’s more heavily populated southern and western provinces. Thousands of miles of roads of various types have also been constructed on Mindanao, Mindoro, and Palawan and in the Visayas. A major achievement in road construction in the country is the Pan-Philippine Highway (also called the Maharlika Highway), a system of paved roads, bridges, and ferries that connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao.

Railways once served both Luzon and Panay; since the late 20th century, however, rail transport has been limited to Luzon. A light-rail system of mass transit has operated in Metro Manila since 1984. Freight and passenger lines run between Caloocan (in northern Metro Manila) and Legaspi on the Bicol Peninsula.

The country’s most important port is Manila. Manila North Harbor handles domestic trade, while Manila South Harbor handles shipping from abroad. Other major ports include Cebu and Iloilo City in the Visayas and Cagayan de Oro, Zamboanga, General Santos, Cotabato (Polloc), and Davao City in Mindanao.

The international airport at Manila, like those at Hong Kong and Singapore, is a focal point for air routes. One terminal is reserved for all flights of the country’s flagship carrier, Philippine Airlines; other terminals are designated for either domestic or international traffic. The country has several other international airports, the most important being Clark International Airport and Subic Bay International Airport (at the former U.S. military bases on Luzon) and the international airport on Mactan Island near Cebu. Numerous other airports handle domestic flights and most have service to and from Manila.

The National Telecommunications Commission oversees all public and private telecommunications enterprises in the Philippines. The government-owned Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commands the largest share of the telecommunications market; until the end of the 20th century it also had a monopoly on all international calling. Many private telecommunications companies have commenced operations since the mid-1990s, most offering mobile telephone service. While the number of wired standard phone lines has risen only slightly since the turn of the 21st century, the number of cellular phone subscriptions has increased by tens of millions. Since its arrival in the Philippines in the mid-1990s, the Internet has spread relatively slowly, hindered largely by the high cost of access.

Government and society
Constitutional framework
The Philippines has been governed under three constitutions, the first of which was promulgated in 1935, during the period of U.S. administration. It was closely modeled on the U.S. Constitution and included provisions for a bicameral legislative branch, an executive branch headed by a president, and an independent judiciary. During the period of martial law (1972–81) under Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos, the old constitution was abolished and replaced by a new document (adopted in January 1973) that changed the Philippine government from a U.S.-style presidential system to a parliamentary form; the president became head of state, and executive power was vested in a prime minister and cabinet. President Marcos, however, also served (until 1981) as prime minister and ruled by decree. Subsequent amendments and modifications of that constitution replaced the former bicameral legislature with a unicameral body and gave the president even more powers, including the ability to dissolve the legislature and (from 1981) to appoint a prime minister from among members of the legislature.

After the downfall of Marcos in 1986, a new constitution similar to the 1935 document was drafted and was ratified in a popular referendum held in February 1987. Its key provision was a return to a bicameral legislature, called the Congress of the Philippines, consisting of a House of Representatives (with more than 200 members) and a much smaller Senate (some two dozen members). House members are elected from districts, although a number of them are appointed; they can serve no more than three consecutive three-year terms. Senators, elected at large, can serve a maximum of two six-year terms. The first legislative election under the new constitution was held in May 1987. The president, the head of state, can be elected to only a single six-year term and the vice president to two consecutive six-year terms. The president appoints the cabinet, which consists of the heads of the various ministries responsible for running the day-to-day business of the government. Most presidential appointments are subject to the approval of a Commission of Appointments, which consists of equal numbers of senators and representatives.

Local government
Before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, most people lived in small independent villages called barangays, each ruled by a local king called a datu. The Spanish later founded many small towns, which they called poblaciones, and from those centres roads or trails were built in four to six directions, like the spokes of a wheel. Along the roadsides arose numerous new villages, designated barrios under the Spanish, that were further subdivided into smaller neighbourhood units called sitios.

Elements of both Spanish and indigenous local settlement structures have persisted into the early 21st century. The country is divided administratively into several dozen provinces, which are grouped into a number of larger regions. The National Capital Region (Metro Manila) has special status. Each province is headed by an elected governor. The provinces collectively embrace more than 100 cities and some 1,500 municipalities. The poblaciones are now the central business and administrative districts of larger municipalities. Although contemporary rural and urban settlement revolves around the poblaciones, the population is typically concentrated in the surrounding barangays, reinstated during the Marcos regime as the basic units of government (replacing the barrios). The barangays, which number in the tens of thousands, consist of communities of fewer than 1,000 residents that fall within the boundaries of a larger municipality or city. Cities, municipalities, and barangays all have elected officials.

The constitution of 1987, which reestablished the independence of the judiciary after the Marcos regime, provides for a Supreme Court with a chief justice and 14 associate justices. Supreme Court justices are appointed by the president from a list submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until they reach the age of 70. Lower courts include the Court of Appeals; regional, metropolitan, and municipal trial courts; and special courts, including the Court of Tax Appeals, Shariʿa (Sharīʿah) district and circuit courts of Islamic law, and the Sandiganbayan, a court for trying cases of corruption. Because justices and judges enjoy fixed tenure and moderate compensation, the judiciary has generally been less criticized than other branches of the government. However, the system remains challenged by lack of fiscal autonomy and an extremely low budget that long has amounted to just a tiny fraction of total government spending.

In order to reduce the load of the lower courts, local committees of citizens called Pacification Committees (Lupon Tagapamayapa) have been organized to effect extrajudicial settlement of minor cases between barangay residents. In each lupon (committee) there is a Conciliation Body (Pangkat Tagapagkasundo), the main function of which is to bring opposing parties together and effect amicable settlement of differences. The committee cannot impose punishment, but otherwise its decisions are binding.

Political process
Partisan political activity was vigorous until 1972, when martial law restrictions under Marcos all but eliminated partisan politics. Where the principal rivals had been the Nacionalista and Liberal parties, Marcos’s New Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), an organization created from elements of the Nacionalista Party and other supporters, emerged as predominant. Organized political opposition was revived for legislative elections held in 1978; and, since the downfall of Marcos, partisan politics has returned to its pre-1972 level, with a large number of political parties emerging.

Among the most prominent parties in the early 21st century were the Alliance of Free Filipinos (known as Kampi), the Democratic Filipino Struggle, the National Union of Christian Democrats (known as Lakas), the Nacionalista Party, and the Nationalist People’s Coalition. Many smaller parties are splinters from the larger organizations or are associated with particular regional interests; political victories are often achieved through party coalition. Certain armed political organizations also operate within the country, the principal ones being the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a Muslim separatist group that officially accepted Mindanao’s status as an autonomous region in the late 20th century but, in so doing, spawned splinter groups that have remained committed to achieving a separate Islamic state; the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which more aggressively seeks an independent Islamic state for Muslim Filipinos (Moros); the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), a local fundamentalist Muslim organization that has gained notoriety though its kidnap-for-ransom activities and alleged links with international terrorism; and the National Democratic Front (NDF), a communist-led insurgency movement.

The Philippines has universal suffrage for citizens who are at least 18 years old and have lived in the country for at least one year. Suffrage was granted to women in 1937. Since that time women have become prominent leaders at all levels of government, including the presidency.

The Department of National Defense is divided into three services: the army, the navy, and the air force. The army is the largest division. Service in the military is voluntary and is open to both men and women. The commander in chief of the armed forces (the president of the Philippines) is a civilian.

The armed forces are responsible for external defense. However, they also work with the Philippine National Police (PNP) to contain the antigovernment military actions of the NDF, the MILF, the MNLF, and other domestic militant organizations. Both the military and the police participate in international peacekeeping efforts of the United Nations; Philippine forces have been deployed in such a capacity to Afghanistan, East Timor (Timor-Leste), The Sudan, and other sites of conflict. The armed forces additionally engage in nonmilitary activities, such as providing disaster relief, constructing roads and bridges, and participating in literacy campaigns.

Under a series of agreements reached in 1947, shortly after Philippine independence, the United States continued to maintain several bases in the Philippines and to provide the Philippines with military equipment and training. Revision of the agreements in 1978 recognized Philippine sovereignty over the bases. All installations subsequently raised the Philippine flag and were placed under Filipino command.

When the revised treaties expired in 1991, the U.S. military presence on the bases ended. However, the two countries have remained military allies, carrying out joint military exercises and engaging in mutual military assistance. Following the September 11 terrorist attacks against the United States in 2001, the Philippines joined the U.S.-led global coalition against terrorism. In so doing, the Philippines aimed to upgrade the effectiveness of its armed forces in combating terrorist activity, not only in the international arena but also within its own borders.

The PNP falls under the supervision of the Department of the Interior and Local Government and is organized into regional and provincial commands. There are also numerous private armies organized by landowners and local politicians. Unsuccessful attempts have been made by various administrations to disband these civilian forces.

Health and welfare
Health and welfare are the responsibilities of the Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). The DOH maintains general, specialized, and research hospitals in urban centres throughout the country. There are also government-operated regional health centres and rural units, as well as private hospitals. Incorporated into the DSWD are several government agencies that address the needs of children, youths, women, families, and people with disabilities. A number of nongovernmental organizations and private social welfare agencies also cooperate with the department.

The rate of mortality has dropped significantly since the last decades of the 20th century, particularly among infants, children under the age of five years, and mothers. There has also been a steady increase in average life expectancy. The improvement in health is credited to better prenatal care and the services of more trained midwives, doctors, and nurses; improved housing, sanitation, and social security benefits; the provision of health services to government employees; the increasing number of medical and nursing school graduates; and the requirement that a medical graduate render rural service. Nonetheless, the demand for health care continues to outstrip available resources; a large number of trained medical professionals emigrate, particularly to the United States, and many of the poorest people still rely on the services of practitioners of traditional medicine and unlicensed midwives.

There is a serious housing shortage everywhere, although it is especially acute in Manila. In many places, people live in their own dwellings, but the houses are often substandard and lack elementary facilities for health and sanitation. To help meet this problem, the government has relocated thousands of “informal settlers” (i.e., squatters) in Manila to resettlement areas in nearby provinces. Assorted housing schemes also have been instituted by various administrations since the Marcos era. Such projects have generally consisted of model communities that provide residents with hygienic dwellings, a number of amenities, and facilities for raising livestock and for pursuing cottage industries and other means of making a living. Other important programs have included converting vacant government lands into housing sites for low-income individuals, as well as providing mortgage programs that allow needy families to acquire tracts of land for housing construction and improvement through membership in a specific development community.

The Department of Education ensures that all school-age children and youths receive a basic high-quality education that will allow them to function as productive, socially responsible citizens. Elementary education in the Philippines starts at age seven, is compulsory, and lasts for six years. Secondary education begins at age 13 and lasts for four years; undergraduate college instruction typically is four years. Vocational schools offer specialized training for one to two years, some in collaboration with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, an organization formed through the merger of several government agencies in the mid-1990s. The Bureau of Alternative Learning System offers opportunities to attain a basic education outside of the formal school system.

There are dozens of state-run universities and colleges, a large portion of them in Metro Manila, as well as a number of private institutions. The University of Santo Tomas, the oldest university in the Philippines, was founded in 1611. Other prominent tertiary institutions include the University of the Philippines (1908), which has numerous campuses and is the only national university in the country, and the Philippine Women’s University (1932), a private institution (coeducational since the late 20th century) that has campuses in Manila, Quezon City, and Davao. Many technical institutions and community colleges serve the provinces.

Pilipino is the medium of instruction in all elementary school subjects except science, mathematics, and the English language, which are taught in English. The medium of instruction at the secondary and tertiary levels typically is English. A chronic shortage of supplies and facilities has been partially remedied by a textbook program begun in the mid-1970s and the large-scale manufacture of prefabricated classrooms.

Cultural life
Cultural milieu
Philippine society is a unique blend of diversity and homogeneity. Although geographically part of Southeast Asia, the country is culturally strongly Euro-American. Forces of assimilation have constantly worked to overcome cultural differences between the various ethnic groups that are scattered—sometimes in relative isolation—throughout the archipelago. Nearly four centuries of Western rule, however, have left an indelible imprint on the Philippines, serving as a conduit for the introduction of Western culture and as the catalyst for the emergence of a sense of Philippine political and cultural unity. While the Christian churches built by the Spanish and the mosques built by the Muslims provided a spiritual anchor, the educational system established by the United States and expanded by the Filipinos has become emblematic of cultural unity and socioeconomic progress. Nonetheless, through the persistence of strong family ties, the revival of the barangay as the smallest unit of government, increased attention to Asian history and literature, and subsequent revival of dormant traditions, the Philippines has strengthened its Asian heritage without abandoning its Western cultural acquisitions.

Daily life and social customs
Life in the Philippines generally revolves around the extended family, including parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins (up to several times removed), and other relatives. For Catholic families, godparents—those to whom care of children is entrusted should the parents die or otherwise be incapacitated—also figure prominently in the kinship network. Members of extended families typically gather for major life events such as baptisms and confirmations (for Catholic Filipinos), circumcisions (for Muslim Filipinos), and marriages, as well as for major religious and other national holidays. Among the religious holidays officially observed in the Philippines are Christmas and Easter, as well as Eid al-Fitr, which marks the end of the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. Other major holidays include New Year’s Day, Labor Day (May 1), and Independence Day (June 12).

Whether festival fare or everyday food, major meals in most Filipino societies are built around boiled or steamed rice or rice noodles. Small amounts of meat, including chicken, pork (in non-Muslim communities), goat, or fish complement the rice or noodle core, along with an assortment of fruits and cooked vegetables. Assorted alcoholic drinks are made from coconut sap, sugarcane, and rice. Balut, a parboiled embryonic duck still in the egg, is a popular street food in the Manila area.

Although slacks, shirts, skirts, and dresses based on European designs are common throughout the Philippines, some garments are unique to particular groups or regions. The malong, a colourful woven tube of cloth that can be worn in a variety of ways by both men and women, is characteristic of Muslim communities in Mindanao. In the urban areas, many men wear an intricately embroidered shirt, the barong, for casual and formal events. On special occasions, urban women may wear the terno, a long dress characterized by broad “butterfly” sleeves that rise slightly at the shoulders and extend about to the elbow. Many of the smaller ethnic groups have characteristic attire for events of special cultural significance.

The arts
Early Spanish chroniclers testified that the Filipinos carved the images of their anitos (gods and goddesses) and ancestors in wood. They also played a variety of musical instruments, including end-blown flutes, nose flutes, jew’s harps, gongs, drums, and lutes, among others. Various seasonal celebrations (e.g., harvest) and life rituals (e.g., courtship and marriage) called for certain instrumental music, songs, and dances. For instance, in some of the Muslim communities of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, the kulintang ensemble, consisting of a set of gongs suspended horizontally and vertically and a single-headed drum, can still be heard at festive events.

Although the community of practitioners of rural performing arts has been diminishing, efforts have been under way to revive as well as recontextualize some of the indigenous traditions so that they resonate with an increasingly cosmopolitan Philippine society. Some of the local dance traditions have been preserved or reinterpreted by contemporary performing groups such as Bayanihan (the national folk dance company of the Philippines), established in the mid-20th century, as well as by the Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group and Ballet Philippines. A growing number of world music artists, such as Joey Ayala, have been creating innovative syntheses of indigenous Philippine traditions—such as kulintang—and popular music form.

Many Filipino musicians have risen to prominence in the Western classical music tradition, including the composer and conductor Antonio J. Molina, the composer Felipe P. de Leon (known for his nationalistic themes), and the opera singer Jovita Fuentes. The Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Folk Arts Theater, and the restored Manila Metropolitan Theatre (all in Manila) provide homes for the performing arts, featuring local and foreign opera and ballet. To encourage the development of arts, the government gives awards of recognition and maintains a National Arts Center (established 1976), which includes the Philippine High School for the Arts in Los Baños, south of Manila.

Filipino painters have included Juan Luna, whose agitated works helped inspire a sense of Filipino nationalism in the late 19th century; Fernando Amorsolo, who is known for his traditional rural scenes; the muralists Carlos V. Francisco and Vicente Manansala; and the modernists Victorio Edades and Arturo Rogerio Luz. Among sculptors, Guillermo Tolentino and Napoleon Abueva are prominent. Rural artists from mountainous regions in northern Luzon and craftsmen living northwest of Manila and in Paete on the eastern shore of Laguna de Bay are known for wood carvings. Romblon and other nearby islands are noted for their marble sculptures. Notable Filipino architects include Juan F. Nakpil, Otilio Arellano, Fernando Ocampo, Leandro Locsin, Juan Arellano, Carlos Arguelles, and Tomas Mapua.

The outspoken political novels of nationalist leader José Rizal were Philippine literary landmarks of the late 19th century, and the work of Nick Joaquin has been among the most highly acclaimed Philippine literature since the mid-20th century. The diverse cultural heritage of the country not only animates most of Joaquin’s fiction writing, but it is also central to his nonfiction work. Among the most celebrated of Joaquin’s works are his play A Portrait of an Artist as a Filipino (1966) and his biography of assassinated presidential candidate Benigno Aquino, The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History as Three Generations (1983). Spanish was the prinicipal literary medium until the end of the 19th century, before yielding to English after U.S. occupation. Since independence an increasing number of writers have been composing their works in Filipino or Tagalog.

Filipinos have a tradition rich in local and regional lore. Myths and legends deal with such subjects as the origin of the world, the first man and woman on earth, why the sky is high, why the sea is salty, and why there are different races. Other tales are associated with the Spanish conquest. On the island of Mindanao an epic known as the Darangen (“To Narrate in Song”) depicts the historical and mythological world of the Maranao community, while in northern Luzon the Ilocano epic Biag ni Lam-ang (“Life of Lam-ang”) recounts the exploits of a traditional folk hero.

The Philippines has produced a handful of internationally acclaimed films, including Himala (1982), which recounts the adventures of a young miracle worker; Oro, Plata, Mata (1982), the story of two noble families on the island of Negros during World War II; and Small Voices (2002), the tale of a teacher in an impoverished rural community who, through music, inspires her students to shed their cynicism. Despite its successes, the film industry in the Philippines has remained small, its growth hindered by escalating production costs, high taxes, uncontrolled piracy of videotapes and CDs, and the popularity of foreign films over local productions.

Cultural institutions
The National Museum in Manila, which houses a substantial ethnographic collection, is the principal government vehicle for preservation and conservation of the country’s tangible and intangible cultural property. Many of the provinces have established their own museums dedicated to local history and tradition. A few institutions of higher education—such as the University of Santo Tomas, Silliman University in eastern Negros, Mindanao State University in Lanao del Sur, and the University of the Philippines at Diliman—likewise have added museums to their campuses. The National Library serves as a repository for Philippine literary materials and supervises public libraries throughout the country.

A number of locations in the Philippines have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. These include four 16th-century churches built by the Spanish in Manila, Santa Maria, Paoay, and Miag-ao (collectively designated in 1993), the 16th-century trading town of Vigan (1999) in northwestern Luzon, and the ancient rice terraces of the northern Luzon cordilleras (1995). Local nongovernmental organizations such as the Heritage Conservation Society and some historical groups have also sought to preserve the local heritage.

Sports and recreation
A number of sports introduced by the Americans in the early 20th century enjoy great popularity in the Philippines. Basketball is particularly prominent, with amateur games occurring regularly in neighbourhoods throughout the country. The Philippines has also fielded formidable national teams for the World Basketball Championships. Tennis, golf, and various aquatic sports such as diving and windsurfing are widely practiced.

Filipinos have excelled in various internationally competitive martial arts, including boxing, wushu, and tae kwon do, while local Filipino martial arts traditions have experienced a resurgence since the end of the 20th century. The country has produced champion boxers in competitions hosted by the World Boxing Association, and the Philippines has taken several medals in martial arts in the Asian and Southeast Asian Games.

The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924 and in the Winter Games since 1972. Filipino athletes generally have been most successful in swimming, boxing, and track and field events.

Cockfighting (sabong), an age-old pastime in the Philippines, has retained a passionate following. It is a popular form of gambling, with many spectators betting on the outcome of the fights. Although practiced throughout the country, cockfighting is most strongly associated with Cebu.

Media and publishing
A highly independent press developed in the Philippines under U.S. administration, but many newspapers ceased publication during the period of martial law under the Marcos regime. Limited press freedom was granted in the early 1980s, and full freedoms returned after the change of government in 1986. Newspapers are published in English, Pilipino, and many of the country’s vernacular languages. The major English-language dailies—all published in Manila—include the Manila Bulletin, Philippine Daily Inquirer, and Manila Times. Some newspapers have English and Pilipino editions, as well as online circulation. The operators of radio and television stations belong to a national organization called the Association of Broadcasters in the Philippines that regulates the broadcasting industry.

Gregorio C. Borlaza
Carolina G. Hernandez



The Philippines is the only country in Southeast Asia that was subjected to Western colonization before it had the opportunity to develop either a centralized government ruling over a large territory or a dominant culture. In ancient times the inhabitants of the Philippines were a diverse agglomeration of peoples who arrived in various waves of immigration from the Asian mainland and who maintained little contact with each other. Contact with Chinese traders was recorded in 982, and some cultural influences from South Asia, such as a Sanskrit-based writing system, were carried to the islands by the Indonesian empires of Srivijaya (7th–13th century) and Majapahit (13th–16th century); but in comparison with other parts of the region, the influence of both China and India on the Philippines was of little importance. The peoples of the Philippine archipelago, unlike most of the other peoples of Southeast Asia, never adopted Hinduism or Buddhism.

Pre-Spanish history
According to what can be inferred from somewhat later accounts, the Filipinos of the 15th century must have engaged primarily in shifting cultivation, hunting, and fishing. Sedentary cultivation was the exception. Only in the mountains of northern Luzon, where elaborate rice terraces were built some 2,000 years ago, were livelihood and social organization linked to a fixed territory. The lowland peoples lived in extended kinship groups known as barangays, each under the leadership of a datu, or chieftain. The barangay, which ordinarily numbered no more than a few hundred individuals, was usually the largest stable economic and political unit.

Within the barangay the status system, though not rigid, appears to have consisted of three broad classes: the datu and his family and the nobility, freeholders, and “dependents.” This third category consisted of three levels—sharecroppers, debt peons, and war captives—the last two levels being termed “slaves” by Spanish observers. The slave status was inherited but, through manumission and interclass marriage, seldom extended over more than two generations. The fluidity of the social system was in part the consequence of a bilateral kinship system in which lineage was reckoned equally through the male and female lines. Marriage was apparently stable, though divorce was socially acceptable under certain circumstances.

Early Filipinos followed various local religions, a mixture of monotheism and polytheism in which the latter dominated. The propitiation of spirits required numerous rituals, but there was no obvious religious hierarchy. In religion, as in social structure and economic activity, there was considerable variation between—and even within—islands.

This pattern began to change in the 15th century, however, when Islam was introduced to Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago through Brunei on the island of Borneo. Along with changes in religious beliefs and practices came new political and social institutions. By the mid-16th century two sultanates had been established, bringing under their sway a number of barangays. A powerful datu as far north as Manila embraced Islam. It was in the midst of this wave of Islamic proselytism that the Spanish arrived. Had the Spanish come a century later or had their motives been strictly commercial, Filipinos today might be a predominantly Muslim people.

The Spanish period
Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago.

The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March 1521; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan. After King Philip II (for whom the islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions that ended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, who established the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain.

Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos (collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly.

Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. He dominated the Audiencia, or high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit.

Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. The galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila’s commercial primacy as well. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries.

Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants.

The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb. Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed.

Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangays largely persisted. Nevertheless, the datu’s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment.

Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars. The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct. These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government.

The 19th century

By the late 18th century, political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect Spain and, thus, the Philippines. Important as a stimulus to trade was the gradual elimination of the monopoly enjoyed by the galleon to Acapulco. The last galleon arrived in Manila in 1815, and by the mid-1830s Manila was open to foreign merchants almost without restriction. The demand for Philippine sugar and abaca (hemp) grew apace, and the volume of exports to Europe expanded even further after the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869.

The growth of commercial agriculture resulted in the appearance of a new class. Alongside the landholdings of the church and the rice estates of the pre-Spanish nobility there arose haciendas of coffee, hemp, and sugar, often the property of enterprising Chinese-Filipino mestizos. Some of the families that gained prominence in the 19th century have continued to play an important role in Philippine economics and politics.

Not until 1863 was there public education in the Philippines, and even then the church controlled the curriculum. Less than one-fifth of those who went to school could read and write Spanish, and far fewer could speak it properly. The limited higher education in the colony was entirely under clerical direction, but by the 1880s many sons of the wealthy were sent to Europe to study. There, nationalism and a passion for reform blossomed in the liberal atmosphere. Out of this talented group of overseas Filipino students arose what came to be known as the Propaganda Movement. Magazines, poetry, and pamphleteering flourished. José Rizal, this movement’s most brilliant figure, produced two political novels—Noli me tangere (1886; Touch Me Not) and El filibusterismo (1891; The Reign of Greed)—which had a wide impact in the Philippines. In 1892 Rizal returned home and formed the Liga Filipina, a modest reform-minded society, loyal to Spain, that breathed no word of independence. But Rizal was quickly arrested by the overly fearful Spanish, exiled to a remote island in the south, and finally executed in 1896. Meanwhile, within the Philippines there had developed a firm commitment to independence among a somewhat less privileged class.

Shocked by the arrest of Rizal in 1892, these activists quickly formed the Katipunan under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio, a self-educated warehouseman. The Katipunan was dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish from the islands, and preparations were made for armed revolt. Filipino rebels had been numerous in the history of Spanish rule, but now for the first time they were inspired by nationalist ambitions and possessed the education needed to make success a real possibility.

The Philippine Revolution
In August 1896, Spanish friars uncovered evidence of the Katipunan’s plans, and its leaders were forced into premature action. Revolts broke out in several provinces around Manila. After months of fighting, severe Spanish retaliation forced the revolutionary armies to retreat to the hills. In December 1897 a truce was concluded with the Spanish. Emilio Aguinaldo, a municipal mayor and commander of the rebel forces, was paid a large sum and was allowed to go to Hong Kong with other leaders; the Spanish promised reforms as well. But reforms were slow in coming, and small bands of rebels, distrustful of Spanish promises, kept their arms; clashes grew more frequent.

Meanwhile, war had broken out between Spain and the United States (the Spanish-American War). After the U.S. naval victory in the Battle of Manila Bay in May 1898, Aguinaldo and his entourage returned to the Philippines with the help of Adm. George Dewey. Confident of U.S. support, Aguinaldo reorganized his forces and soon liberated several towns south of Manila. Independence was declared on June 12 (now celebrated as Independence Day). In September a constitutional congress met in Malolos, north of Manila, which drew up a fundamental law derived from European and Latin American precedents. A government was formed on the basis of that constitution in January 1899, with Aguinaldo as president of the new country, popularly known as the “Malolos Republic.”

Meanwhile, U.S. troops had landed in Manila and, with important Filipino help, forced the capitulation in August 1898 of the Spanish commander there. The Americans, however, would not let Filipino forces enter the city. It was soon apparent to Aguinaldo and his advisers that earlier expressions of sympathy for Filipino independence by Dewey and U.S. consular officials in Hong Kong had little significance. They felt betrayed.

U.S. commissioners to the peace negotiations in Paris had been instructed to demand from Spain the cession of the Philippines to the United States; such cession was confirmed with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on Dec. 10, 1898. Ratification followed in the U.S. Senate in February 1899, but with only one vote more than the required two-thirds. Arguments of “manifest destiny” could not overwhelm a determined anti-imperialist minority.

By the time the treaty was ratified, hostilities had already broken out between U.S. and Filipino forces. Since Filipino leaders did not recognize U.S. sovereignty over the islands and U.S. commanders gave no weight to Filipino claims of independence, the conflict was inevitable. It took two years of counterinsurgency warfare and some wise conciliatory moves in the political arena to break the back of the nationalist resistance. Aguinaldo was captured in March 1901 and shortly thereafter appealed to his countrymen to accept U.S. rule.

The Filipino revolutionary movement had two goals, national and social. The first goal, independence, though realized briefly, was frustrated by the American decision to continue administering the islands. The goal of fundamental social change, manifest in the nationalization of friar lands by the Malolos Republic, was ultimately frustrated by the power and resilience of entrenched institutions. Share tenants who had rallied to Aguinaldo’s cause, partly for economic reasons, merely exchanged one landlord for another. In any case, the proclamation of a republic in 1898 had marked the Filipinos as the first Asian people to try to throw off European colonial rule.

The period of U.S. influence

The juxtaposition of U.S. democracy and imperial rule over a subject people was sufficiently jarring to most Americans that, from the beginning, the training of Filipinos for self-government and ultimate independence—the Malolos Republic was conveniently ignored—was an essential rationalization for U.S. hegemony in the islands. Policy differences between the two main political parties in the United States focused on the speed with which self-government should be extended and the date on which independence should be granted.

In 1899 Pres. William McKinley sent to the Philippines a five-person fact-finding commission headed by Cornell University president Jacob G. Schurman. Schurman reported back that Filipinos wanted ultimate independence, but this had no immediate impact on policy. McKinley sent out the Second Philippine Commission in 1900, under William Howard Taft; by July 1901 it had established civil government.

In 1907 the Philippine Commission, which had been acting as both legislature and governor-general’s cabinet, became the upper house of a bicameral body. The new 80-member Philippine Assembly was directly elected by a somewhat restricted electorate from single-member districts, making it the first elective legislative body in Southeast Asia. When Gov.- Gen. Francis B. Harrison appointed a Filipino majority to the commission in 1913, the American voice in the legislative process was further reduced.

Harrison was the only governor-general appointed by a Democratic president in the first 35 years of U.S. rule. He had been sent by Woodrow Wilson with specific instructions to prepare the Philippines for ultimate independence, a goal that Wilson enthusiastically supported. During Harrison’s term, a Democratic-controlled Congress in Washington, D.C., hastened to fulfill long-standing campaign promises to the same end. The Jones Act, passed in 1916, would have fixed a definite date for the granting of independence if the Senate had had its way, but the House prevented such a move. In its final form the act merely stated that it was the “purpose of the people of the United States” to recognize Philippine independence “as soon as a stable government can be established therein.” Its greater importance was as a milestone in the development of Philippine autonomy. Under Jones Act provisions, the commission was abolished and was replaced by a 24-member Senate, almost wholly elected. The electorate was expanded to include all literate males.

Some substantial restrictions on Philippine autonomy remained, however. Defense and foreign affairs remained exclusive U.S. prerogatives. American direction of Philippine domestic affairs was exercised primarily through the governor-general and the executive branch of insular government. There was little more than one decade of thoroughly U.S. administration in the islands, however—too short a time in which to establish lasting patterns. Whereas Americans formed 51 percent of the civil service in 1903, they were only 29 percent in 1913 and 6 percent in 1923. By 1916 Filipino dominance in both the legislative and judicial branches of government also served to restrict the U.S. executive and administrative roles.

By 1925 the only American left in the governor-general’s cabinet was the secretary of public instruction, who was also the lieutenant governor-general. This is one indication of the high priority given to education in U.S. policy. In the initial years of U.S. rule, hundreds of schoolteachers came from the United States. But Filipino teachers were trained so rapidly that by 1927 they constituted nearly all of the 26,200 teachers in public schools. The school population expanded fivefold in a generation; education consumed half of governmental expenditures at all levels, and educational opportunity in the Philippines was greater than in any other colony in Asia.

As a consequence of this pedagogical explosion, literacy doubled to nearly half in the 1930s, and educated Filipinos acquired a common language and a linguistic key to Western civilization. By 1939 some one-fourth of the population could speak English, a larger proportion than for any of the native dialects. Perhaps more important was the new avenue of upward social mobility that education offered. Educational policy was the only successful U.S. effort to establish a sociocultural basis for political democracy.

American attempts to create equality of economic opportunity were more modest and less successful. In a predominantly agricultural country the pattern of landownership is crucial. The trend toward greater concentration of ownership, which began in the 19th century, continued during the American period, despite some legal barriers. Vast American-owned plantations were forestalled, but legal restrictions had little effect on those politically well-connected Filipinos who were intent on amassing fortunes. The percentage of farmers under share tenancy doubled between 1900 and 1935, and the frustration of the tenants erupted in three small rebellions in central Luzon during the 1920s and ’30s.

Nor was U.S. trade policy conducive to the diffusion of economic power. From 1909 the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act allowed free entry of Philippine products into the U.S. market, at the same time U.S. products, mostly manufactured, were exempted from tariff in the Philippines. The free flow of U.S. imports was a powerful deterrent to Philippine industrial growth. Export agriculture, especially sugar, prospered in the protected U.S. market. Owners of mills and large plantations profited most, thus reinforcing the political dominance of the landed elite.

American preparation of the Philippines for democratic self-government suffered from an inherent contradiction, perhaps not recognized at the time. Transferring governmental responsibility to those capable of undertaking it was not consistent with building a social and economic base for political democracy. Self-government meant, of necessity, assumption of power by those Filipinos who were already in positions of leadership in society. But those men came for the most part from the landed elite; preservation of their political and economic position was incompatible with equalizing opportunity. Even the expansion of an educated middle class did not necessarily result in a transformation of the pattern of power. Most middle-class aspirants for political leadership adjusted to the values and the practices of the existing power elite.

Filipino leaders quickly and skillfully utilized the opportunities for self-government that the Americans opened to them. The Filipino political genius was best reflected in an extralegal institution—the political party. The first party, the Federal Party, was U.S.-backed and stressed cooperation with the overlords, even to the point of statehood for the Philippines. But when openly nationalist appeals were allowed in the 1907 election, the Nacionalista Party, advocating independence, won overwhelmingly. The Federalists survived with a new name, Progressives, and a new platform, ultimate independence after social reform. But neither the Progressives nor their successors in the 1920s, the Democrats, ever gained more than one-third of the seats in the legislature. The Nacionalista Party under the leadership of Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña dominated Philippine politics from 1907 until independence.

More significant than the competition between the Nacionalistas and their opposition was the continuing rivalry between Quezon and Osmeña. In fact, understanding this personality conflict provides more insight into the realities of prewar Philippine politics than any examination of policy or ideology.

In 1933 the U.S. Congress passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, which set a date for Philippine independence. The act was a fulfillment of the vague pledge in the Jones Act; it was also responsive to the demands of a series of “independence missions” sent to Washington by the Philippine legislature. But this unprecedented transfer of sovereignty was decided upon in the dark days of the Great Depression of the 1930s—and with the help of some incongruous allies. The Depression had caused American farm interests to look desperately for relief, and those who suffered real or imaginary hurt from the competition of Philippine products sought to exclude those products. They had already failed in a direct attempt to amend the tariff on Philippine imports but found that the respectable cloak of the advocacy of independence increased the effectiveness of their efforts. Tied to independence was the end of free entry into American markets of Philippine sugar, coconut oil, rope, and other less important items. That those economic interests were able to accomplish what they did is partly explainable by the fact that their political clout was great compared with that of the small group of American traders and investors in the Philippines.

The Philippine legislature rejected the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, apparently as a result of the Osmeña-Quezon feud, much to the displeasure of American officialdom. But, when Quezon came to Washington the following year to work for a new bill, the same alliance of forces in the U.S. Congress obliged by producing the almost identical Tydings-McDuffie Act. Endorsed by Quezon and accepted with alacrity by the Manila legislature, it provided for a 10-year commonwealth during which the U.S. would retain jurisdiction over defense and foreign affairs. Filipinos were to draft their own constitution, subject to the approval of the U.S. president.

A constitutional convention was quickly elected and a constitution (which bore a strong resemblance to its U.S. model) framed and approved by plebiscite and by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt. The last governor-general, Frank Murphy, became the first high commissioner, with more of a diplomatic than a governing role. The commonwealth was inaugurated on Nov. 15, 1935. The Nacionalista Party patched up its internal quarrels and nominated Quezon for president and Osmeña for vice president. They were elected overwhelmingly.

The commonwealth period was intended to be devoted to preparation for economic and political independence and perfection of democratic institutions. But even before the tragic events of World War II, the transition did not run smoothly.

World War II

Japanese aggression in China prompted much attention to military preparedness. Nearly one-fourth of the national budget was devoted to defense. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, retiring as army chief of staff in Washington, was called by President Quezon to direct plans and preparations. Meanwhile, agrarian unrest festered, and leftist political activity grew. Quezon pushed significant reform legislation through the National Assembly, but implementation was feeble, despite the rapid accumulation of power in his hands.

The Japanese attack of the Philippines on Dec. 8, 1941, came at a time when the U.S. military buildup had hardly begun. Their advance was rapid; before Christmas, Manila was declared an “open city,” while Quezon and Osmeña were evacuated to MacArthur’s headquarters on Corregidor Island. Despite a desire, at one point, to return to Manila in order to surrender, Quezon was persuaded to leave the Philippines in March 1942 on a U.S. submarine; he was never to return. Osmeña also went. Filipino and American forces, under Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright, surrendered in May. An Executive Commission made up of more than 30 members of the old Filipino political elite had been cooperating with Japanese military authorities in Manila since January.

The Executive Commission lasted until September 1943, when it was superseded by an “independent Philippine Republic.” The president, chosen by the Japanese, was José Laurel, former associate justice of the commonwealth Supreme Court and the only Filipino to hold an honorary degree from Tokyo Imperial University. More than half of the commonwealth Senate and more than one-third of the House served at one time in the Japanese-sponsored regime. Yet collaboration with Japan was neither as willing nor as widespread as elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

Even before the fall of Bataan Peninsula to the Japanese in April 1942, guerrilla units were forming throughout the Philippines. Most were led by middle-class officers and were enthusiastically pro-United States; in central Luzon, however, a major force was the Hukbalahap, which, under communist leadership, capitalized on earlier agrarian unrest. Though in a number of instances collaborators secretly assisted guerrillas, many guerrillas in the hills were bitter against those who appeared to benefit from the occupation. The differences between the two groups became an important factor in early postwar politics.

Soon after the U.S. landings on Leyte in October 1944, commanded by MacArthur, civil government was returned to the commonwealth, at least in name. Sergio Osmeña, who had become president in exile on the death of Quezon in August, had few resources to deal with the problems at hand, however. Osmeña’s role was complicated by the fact that MacArthur chose to lionize Manuel A. Roxas, a leading collaborator who had also been in contact with U.S. military intelligence. As president of the Senate, Roxas became, in effect, MacArthur’s candidate for president. Roxas was nominated in January 1946 in a separate convention of the “liberal wing” of the Nacionalista Party, as it was first called. Thus was born the Philippines’ second major political party, the Liberals.

Osmeña, though he had the advantages of incumbency, was old and tired and did not fully use the political tools he possessed. In April Roxas was elected by a narrow margin. The following month he was inaugurated as the last chief executive of the commonwealth, and on July 4, 1946, when the Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed, he became its first president.

The early republic
Roxas, as expected, extended amnesty to all major collaborators with Japan. In the campaign for the election of 1949 there was an attempt to raise the collaboration issue against José Laurel, the Nacionalista presidential candidate, but it was not effective. In the fluidity of Philippine politics, “guerrillas” and “collaborators” were by that time to be found on both sides of all political fences.

The Philippines had gained independence in the “ashes of victory.” Intense fighting, especially around Manila in the last days of the Japanese retreat (February–March 1945), had nearly destroyed the capital. The economy generally was in disarray. Rehabilitation aid was obviously needed, and President Roxas was willing to accept some onerous conditions placed implicitly and explicitly by the U.S. Congress. The Bell Act in the United States extended free trade with the Philippines for 8 years, to be followed by 20 years of gradually increasing tariffs. The United States demanded and received a 99-year lease on a number of Philippine military and naval bases in which U.S. authorities had virtual territorial rights. And finally, as a specific requirement for release of U.S. war-damage payments, the Philippines had to amend its constitution to give U.S. citizens equal rights with Filipinos in the exploitation of natural resources—the so-called Parity Amendment.

The changing character of Philippine–U.S. relations was a major theme in Philippine history for the first several decades after the war. The trend was toward weakening of the link, achieved partly by diversifying Philippine external ties and partly by more articulate anti-American feeling. Economic nationalism, though first directed against the local Chinese community’s dominance of retail trade, by the 1950s was focused on the special status of American business firms.

At independence the military ties with the United States were as strong as the economic ones. Filipino troops fought against communist forces in Korea, and noncombatant engineers augmented U.S. forces in the Vietnam War. Crucial to U.S. military action in Vietnam were bases in the Philippines. The Military Bases Agreement was the greatest single cause of friction in relations between the United States and the Philippines. Beginning in 1965, however, a series of agreements between the two countries reduced the size and number of the U.S. bases and shortened base leases. In 1979 formal jurisdiction over the base areas passed to the Philippine government; and the constitution of 1987 formalized the process by which the bases agreement could be extended beyond the expiration in 1991 of base leases. Extension of the agreement was ultimately rejected by the Philippine Senate, however, and U.S. forces were pulled from the Philippine bases in 1992.

The nature and effectiveness of Filipino political institutions since independence has been a special concern of the former colonial power that helped establish them. For Filipinos, those institutions have determined the ability or inability to maintain domestic social order. Clumsy repression of dissent and the fraudulent election of the country’s second president, Elpidio Quirino, in 1949 set the stage for an intensification of the communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) Rebellion, which had begun in 1946. The rebellion also reflected a growing sense of social injustice among tenant farmers, especially in central Luzon. Suppression of the rebellion five years later, however, was attributable to American military aid as well as to the opening of the political process to greater mass participation, particularly during the campaign of Ramon Magsaysay, a uniquely charismatic figure in Filipino politics who was elected president in 1953. Magsaysay’s attempts at social and economic reform failed largely because of the conservative outlook of the legislature and the bureaucracy. When Magsaysay died in a plane crash in 1957, leadership of the country fell to his vice president, Carlos P. Garcia. During Garcia’s presidential term and that of his reform-minded successor, Diosdado Macapagal (1961–65), unrest was usually channeled through the electoral process and peaceful protest.

The Marcos and early post-Marcos era
In November 1965, Ferdinand E. Marcos was elected to the presidency. His administration faced grave economic problems that were exacerbated by corruption, tax evasion, and smuggling.

In 1969 Marcos became the first elected president of the Philippines to win reelection. His campaign platform included the renegotiation of major treaties with the United States and trade with communist countries. These promises reflected a change in the self-concept of the country during the 1960s. The idea of the Philippines as an Asian outpost of Christianity was increasingly supplanted by a desire to develop an Asian cultural identity. Artists, musicians, and writers began to look to pre-Spanish themes for inspiration. More important was the trend toward seeking cultural identity through the national language, Pilipino. English, however, remained the language of business, of most government documents, and of the greater part of higher education. Demands that the government meet the social and economic needs of its citizenry continued.

A short-lived sign that the Filipino political system was again attempting to respond constructively to those needs was the choosing in 1970 of a widely representative Constitutional Convention in one of the most honest and peaceful elections in Philippine history. Large student demonstrations urged the convention to undertake a fundamental restructuring of political power.

Marcos, who was approaching the end of his constitutionally delimited eight years in office, had narrower goals: he pressed for the adoption of a parliamentary style of government, which would allow him to remain in power. He feared that the new constitution would not come into force before he lost the advantages of incumbency. At the same time, foreign investors, predominantly American, felt increased pressure from economic nationalists in the legislature.

Martial law
In September 1972 Marcos declared martial law, claiming that it was the last defense against the rising disorder caused by increasingly violent student demonstrations, the alleged threats of communist insurgency by the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the Muslim separatist movement of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). One of his first actions was to arrest opposition politicians in Congress and the Constitutional Convention. Initial public reaction to martial law was mostly favourable except in Muslim areas of the south, where a separatist rebellion, led by the MNLF, broke out in 1973. Despite halfhearted attempts to negotiate a cease-fire, the rebellion continued to claim thousands of military and civilian casualties. Communist insurgency expanded with the creation of the National Democratic Front (NDF), an organization embracing the CPP and other communist groups.

Under martial law the regime was able to reduce violent urban crime, collect unregistered firearms, and suppress communist insurgency in some areas. At the same time, a series of important new concessions were given to foreign investors, including a prohibition on strikes by organized labour, and a land-reform program was launched. In January 1973 Marcos proclaimed the ratification of a new constitution based on the parliamentary system, with himself as both president and prime minister. He did not, however, convene the interim legislature that was called for in that document.

General disillusionment with martial law and with the consolidation of political and economic control by Marcos, his family, and close associates grew during the 1970s. Despite growth in the country’s gross national product, workers’ real income dropped, few farmers benefited from land reform, and the sugar industry was in confusion. The precipitous drop in sugar prices in the early 1980s coupled with lower prices and less demand for coconuts and coconut products—traditionally the most important export commodity—added to the country’s economic woes; the government was forced to borrow large sums from the international banking community. Also troubling to the regime, reports of widespread corruption began to surface with increasing frequency.

Elections for an interim National Assembly were finally held in 1978. The opposition—of which the primary group was led by the jailed former senator Benigno S. Aquino, Jr.—produced such a bold and popular campaign that the official results, which gave Marcos’s opposition virtually no seats, were widely believed to have been illegally altered. In 1980 Aquino was allowed to go into exile in the United States, and the following year, after announcing the suspension of martial law, Marcos won a virtually uncontested election for a new six-year term.

The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government
The assassination of Benigno Aquino as he returned to Manila in August 1983 was generally thought to have been the work of the military; it became the focal point of a renewed and more heavily supported opposition to Marcos’s rule. By late 1985 Marcos, under mounting pressure both inside and outside the Philippines, called a snap presidential election for February 1986. Corazon C. Aquino, Benigno’s widow, became the candidate of a coalition of opposition parties. Marcos was declared the official winner, but strong public outcry over the election results precipitated a revolt that by the end of the month had driven Marcos from power. Aquino then assumed the presidency.

Aquino’s great personal popularity and widespread international support were instrumental in establishing the new government. Shortly after taking office, she abolished the constitution of 1973 and began ruling by decree. A new constitution was drafted and was ratified in February 1987 in a general referendum; legislative elections in May 1987 and the convening of a new bicameral congress in July marked the return of the form of government that had been present before the imposition of martial law in 1972.

Euphoria over the ouster of Marcos proved to be short-lived, however. The new government had inherited an enormous external debt, a severely depleted economy, and a growing threat from Moro and communist insurgents. The Aquino administration also had to weather considerable internal dissension, repeated coup attempts, and such natural disasters as a major earthquake and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The resumption of active partisan politics, moreover, was the beginning of the end of the coalition that had brought Aquino to power. Pro-Aquino candidates had won a sweeping victory in the 1987 legislative elections, but there was less support for her among those elected to provincial and local offices in early 1988. By the early 1990s the criticisms against her administration—i.e., charges of weak leadership, corruption, and human rights abuses—had begun to stick.

Gregorio C. Borlaza

The Philippines since c. 1990

The presidential election of May 1992, in which Aquino was not a candidate, was a seven-way race in which the winner, Fidel Ramos, received less than 24 percent of the overall vote. Ramos was a former army chief of staff and defense minister under Aquino; he was unpopular in some quarters because he had headed the agency charged with enforcing martial law under Marcos before turning against Marcos to give crucial support to Aquino in 1986. Some observers had wryly noted during the election that the winner might come to envy the losers, and indeed Ramos inherited the onus of having to deal with insurgencies from the right and the left, a severe energy crisis that produced daily electricity outages, an infrastructure in decay, a large foreign debt, and the troubles of a population half of whom lived in deep poverty.

The Ramos administration remedied the energy crisis and proceeded to create a hospitable environment for economic recovery. Peace was successfully negotiated with the military rebels and the MNLF; it proved to be more elusive with the NDF. A more open economy was created through a series of macroeconomic reforms. Consequently, by the time of the Asian financial crisis that swept the region in 1997, the Philippine economy was stable enough to escape serious damage. A proactive foreign and security policy prevented the deterioration of relations with China, one of several countries with which the Philippines disputed a claim to certain islands and islets in the South China Sea. Ramos’s foreign policy also earned positive diplomatic gains for the country abroad.

The election of Joseph Ejercito Estrada—former movie star, mayor of a small town in Metro Manila, senator, and vice president under Ramos—to the presidency in May 1998 brought a reversal of many of the economic, political, and diplomatic accomplishments of the Ramos administration. Although Estrada generally maintained economic growth and political stability in the first year of his administration, he subsequently came under fire largely because of his failure to fulfill promises to reduce poverty and to open the economy further to private enterprise. Estrada was impeached in November 2000, charged with bribery, graft and corruption, betrayal of the public trust, and culpable violation of the constitution. The refusal of Estrada’s senatorial allies to open an envelope that allegedly held evidence against him during the impeachment trial triggered a popular revolt; the uprisings ultimately led to Estrada’s ouster, subsequent arrest, detention, and trial before the Sandiganbayan, the country’s corruption court.

In January 2001 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Estrada’s former vice president, was sworn in as the country’s 14th president. A daughter of former president Diosdado Macapagal with a doctorate in economics, Arroyo was faced with the challenges of leading a democracy that had remained dominated by the elite, stimulating the economy to grow faster than the country’s population, providing jobs for an abundance of the country’s large group of college graduates each year, and relieving poverty. Despite some reduction of poverty, as well as the curbing of corruption in certain arenas, Arroyo struggled with political instability and widespread crime, including the increasingly common kidnappings for ransom. She herself became implicated in corruption, which stirred disillusioned soldiers to attempt a coup in 2003. The coup failed, and Arroyo was reelected to the presidency in 2004. Later allegations of election fixing and an increasingly repressive approach to government, however, sparked a call for impeachment and another coup plot in 2006; once again the coup failed. Arroyo subsequently declared a “state of emergency” and banned all public demonstrations. Although the declaration was quickly lifted, the gesture was broadly perceived as emblematic of authoritarian rule. In September 2007 Estrada, who had been under house arrest outside of Manila since 2001, was convicted on additional graft charges and given a life sentence; however, Arroyo soon pardoned him of all charges.

Throughout the turmoil in the executive branch, political and economic issues have continued to animate the Philippines in other realms. In the Muslim south, increasingly militant and widespread unrest has been a growing concern. In the north, a concerted movement has been under way to reformulate the country’s constitution. In the international arena, remittances from overseas Filipinos (which have become an important component of the economy) increasingly have been jeopardized as neighbouring countries have rewritten their laws regarding foreign employment and have threatened to deport undocumented workers.

Carolina G. Hernandez
Gregorio C. Borlaza



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