Visual History of the World

(CONTENTS)
 

 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
Prehistory
First Empires
The Ancient World
The Middle Ages
The Early Modern Period
The Modern Era
The World Wars and Interwar Period
The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 



 


 



United Nations General Assembly hall

 

 


Liberia
 

 

Overview
Republic, western Africa.

Area: 37,743 sq mi (97,754 sq km). Population (2005 est.): 2,900,000. Capital: Monrovia. Liberia’s ethnic groups include the Americo-Liberians, descendants of the black freedmen who emigrated from the U.S. in the 19th century; and 16 indigenous peoples of the Mande, Kwa, and Mel linguistic groups. Languages: English (official), indigenous languages. Religions: traditional beliefs, Christianity, Islam. Currency: Liberian dollar. Liberia has coastal lowlands extending 350 mi (560 km) along the Atlantic; farther inland are hills and low mountains. Roughly one-fifth of Liberia consists of tropical rainforest. Agriculture is the main component of the economy, but only a portion of the arable land is cultivated. The country also has rich iron ore reserves, which are a major source of exports. The principal cash crops are rubber, coffee, and cacao; the staple crops are rice and cassava. Constitutionally, Liberia is a republic with two legislative houses, and its head of state and government is the president. Africa’s oldest republic, Liberia was established on land acquired for freed U.S. slaves by the American Colonization Society, which founded a colony at Cape Mesurado in 1821. In 1822 Jehudi Ashmun, a Methodist minister, became the director of the settlement and Liberia’s real founder. In 1824 the territory was named Liberia, and its main settlement was named Monrovia. Joseph Jenkins Roberts proclaimed Liberian independence in 1847 and expanded its boundaries. Border disputes with the French and British lasted until 1892, when its boundaries were officially established. In 1980 a coup led by Gen. Samuel K. Doe marked the end of the Americo-Liberians’ long political dominance over the indigenous Africans. A rebellion in 1989 escalated into a destructive civil war in the 1990s. A peace agreement was reached in 1996, but fighting broke out again in 1999 and lasted until 2003. The National Transitional Government, supported by United Nations peacekeeping troops, was established later that year and ruled until a new administration was democratically elected and installed. Presidential elections were held in late 2005, and Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf was declared the winner; she became the first woman to be elected head of state in Africa.

Profile
Official name Republic of Liberia
Form of government multiparty republic with two legislative bodies (Liberian Senate [30]; House of Representatives [64])
Head of state and government President
Capital Monrovia
Official language English
Official religion none
Monetary unit Liberian dollar (L$)
Population estimate (2008) 3,543,000
Total area (sq mi) 37,743
Total area (sq km) 97,754

Main

country along the coast of western Africa. Liberia’s terrain ranges from the low and sandy coastal plains to rolling hills and dissected plateau further inland. The country is home to a lush rainforest containing a rich diversity of flora and fauna.

Liberia is the only black state in Africa never subjected to colonial rule and is Africa’s oldest republic. It was established on land acquired for freed U.S. slaves by the American Colonization Society, which founded a colony at Cape Mesurado in 1821. In 1824 the territory was named Liberia, and its main settlement was named Monrovia, which is the present-day capital. Liberian independence was proclaimed in 1847, and its boundaries were expanded. The country enjoyed relative stability until a rebellion in 1989 escalated into a destructive civil war in the 1990s that did not fully cease until 2003. The country’s first post-conflict elections, held in 2005, were noteworthy for the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf to the presidency, as she was the first woman to be elected head of state in Africa.

Land
Liberia is bounded by Sierra Leone to the northwest, Guinea to the north, Côte d’Ivoire to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and west.


Relief
The four physiographic regions of Liberia parallel the coast. The coastal plains are about 350 miles (560 km) long and extend up to 25 miles (40 km) inland. They are low and sandy, with miles of beaches interspersed with bar-enclosed lagoons, mangrove swamps, and a few rocky promontories—the highest being Cape Mount (about 1,000 feet [305 metres] in elevation) in the northwest, Cape Mesurado in Monrovia, and Cape Palmas in the southeast. Parallel to the coastal plains is a region of rolling hills some 20 miles (32 km) wide with an average maximum elevation of about 300 feet (90 metres); a few hills rise as high as 500 feet (150 metres). It is a region suitable for agriculture and forestry. Behind the rolling hills, most of the country’s interior is a dissected plateau with scattered low mountains ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet (180 to 305 metres) in elevation; some mountains rise to 2,000 feet (600 metres). A striking feature of the mountainous northern highlands along the Guinea frontier is Mount Nimba.


Drainage
The Mano and Morro rivers in the northwest and the Cavalla in the east and southeast are major rivers and form sections of Liberia’s boundaries. Other major rivers are the Lofa in the north and, moving southward, the St. Paul, St. John, and Cestos, all of which parallel each other and flow perpendicular to the coast. The Farmington River is a source of hydroelectric power. Waterfalls, rapids, rocks, and sandbanks occur frequently in upstream sections of most rivers, inhibiting river traffic, and limiting navigation inland to short distances. During the rainy season there is often severe flooding in the coastal plains.

Liberia forms part of the West African Shield, a rock formation 2.7 to 3.4 billion years old, composed of granite, schist, and gneiss. In Liberia the shield has been intensely folded and faulted and is interspersed with iron-bearing formations known as itabirites. Along the coast lie beds of sandstone, with occasional crystalline-rock outcrops. Monrovia stands on such an outcropping, a ridge of diabase (a dark-coloured, fine-grained rock).


Soils
Four types of soil are found in Liberia. Latosols of low to medium fertility occur in rolling hill country and cover about three-fourths of the total land surface. Shallow, coarse lithosols, in the hilly and rugged terrain, cover about one-eighth of the land. Infertile regosols, or sandy soils, are found along the coastal plains. Highly fertile alluvial soils represent a small percentage of the land area and are utilized largely for agriculture.


Climate
The climate, especially on the coast, is warm and humid year-round, dominated by a dry season from November to April and by a rainy season from May to October. The dusty and dry harmattan (desert winds) blow from the Sahara to the coast in December, bringing relief from the high relative humidity. Deforestation and drought in the Sahel have affected the climate, lengthening the dry season by almost a month in some areas.

Mean annual temperatures range between 65° F (18° C) in the northern highlands to 80° F (27° C) along the coast. Rainfall is irregular, and the rainy season varies in intensity and begins earlier at the coast than in the interior. The greatest amount of rainfall, 205 inches (5,200 mm), occurs at Cape Mount and diminishes inland to about 70 inches (1,800 mm) on the central plateau. The interior has hot but pleasant days and cool nights during the dry season.


Plant and animal life
Liberia has year-round evergreen vegetation. Many trees—such as red ironwood, camwood, whismore, teak, and mahogany—are valuable, but occur with other species, preventing easy harvest. Other trees of value are rubber, cacao, coffee, and the raffia palm.

Liberia’s rainforest used to abound with animals such as monkeys, chimpanzees, small antelopes, pygmy hippopotamuses, and anteaters. However, these animals, along with the already threatened elephants, bush cows (short-horned buffalo), and leopards, were hunted for food during the civil war; their populations are recovering. There are many reptiles, including three types of crocodiles and at least eight poisonous snakes. There are several unique species of bats and birds, and scorpions, lizards, and fish are numerous. Sapo National Park, established in 1983 in the country’s southeast, was expanded in 2003 to encompass an area of some 700 square miles (1,800 square km). The 2000s saw an expansion of protected regions in Liberia, with new and enlarged wildlife reserves at Gola National Forest, the Wonegizi National Forest Reserve, and Lake Piso, and ecotourism was seen as a potential growth industry for the country.


People
Ethnic groups and languages
The people of Liberia are classified into three major groups: the indigenous people, who are in the majority and who migrated from the western Sudan in the late Middle Ages; black immigrants from the United States (known historically as Americo-Liberians) and the West Indies; and other black immigrants from neighbouring western African states who came during the anti-slave-trade campaign and European colonial rule. The Americo-Liberians are most closely associated with founding Liberia. Most of them migrated to Liberia between 1820 and 1865; continued migration has been intermittent. Americo-Liberians controlled the government until a military coup in 1980.

Liberia’s indigenous ethnic groups may be classified into three linguistic groups, all belonging to the Niger-Congo language family: the Mande, Kwa, and Mel (southern Atlantic). The Mande are located in the northwest and central regions of Liberia and also in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Prominent among them are the Vai, who invented their own alphabet and who, in addition, use Arabic and English; the Kpelle, the largest Mande group, who are also found in Guinea; Loma (also found in Guinea); Ngbandi; Dan (Gio); Mano; Mende; and Malinke. Kwa-speaking peoples include the Bassa, the largest group in this category and the largest ethnic group in Monrovia; the Kru and Grebo, who were among the earliest converts to Christianity; the De; Belleh (Belle); and Krahn. The Kwa-speaking group occupies the southern half of the country. The Mel group includes the Gola and Kisi, who are also found in Sierra Leone and are known to be the oldest inhabitants of Liberia. These people live in the north and in the coastal region of the northwest.

More than two dozen languages are spoken in Liberia. English is the official language. Predominant languages include Kpelle, Bassa, Grebo, Dan, Kru, Mano, Loma, and Mandingo (spoken by the Malinke).


Religion
About two-fifths of Liberians are Christian, about one-fifth are Muslim, and roughly two-fifths profess other religions, primarily traditional beliefs. The largest number of Christians are the Kpelle, followed by the Bassa. Some Liberians who identify themselves primarily as Christian incorporate traditional beliefs into their personal theologies. The Muslims are found predominantly among the Mande peoples in the northwest region of the country.


Settlement patterns
The present pattern of population distribution in Liberia is both a reflection of its migration history and a response to such social, economic, and cultural factors as war, employment, and superstition.

Migrants from north-central Africa, who began to arrive in the 13th century, originally settled in the hinterlands but were driven by overcrowding to the coast. Immigrants from the United States and the West Indies, and from neighbouring African countries, also settled on the coast. The former migrated mostly to selected areas such as Monrovia (the oldest immigrant settlement), Buchanan, Edina, Greenville, Harper, Robertsport, and Marshall. Scattered settlements were created along newly constructed or improved roads, while plantation and mining activities encouraged larger settlements in a few interior and coastal areas. There are more than 2,000 villages, the majority of which are concentrated in central Liberia, in the northwest, and in the coastal region near Monrovia. The predominantly forested regions of south-central and northern Liberia have remained sparsely populated. The trend toward urbanization has had little impact on these villages. The result has been the segmentation of Liberian society into two coexisting subsystems—traditional-rural and modern-urban.

Monrovia, founded in 1822, is the focal point of political, economic, and cultural activities. Situated on the left bank of the St. Paul River on the ridge formed by Cape Mesurado, it commands an imposing view of the Atlantic Ocean and the coastal plains. The city and its outlying districts and suburbs occupy five square miles. The old style of architecture that once characterized it, reminiscent of that of the southern United States before 1860, is giving way to contemporary styles. All of the ethnic groups of Liberia are represented in its population, as are refugees, African nationals from other countries, and Europeans.


Demographic trends
More than two-fifths of the population of Liberia is under age 15; less than 5 percent is older than 65. The country’s birth and death rates are similar to or greater than those of other sub-Saharan African countries and are among the highest in the world. Life expectancy, about 39 years for males and 42 years for females, is lower than that of most neighbouring countries and is among the lowest in the world. It fell as a result of the civil war and strife that began in the late 1980s and continued until 2003. About three-fifths of the population lives in urban communities, and there is a high rural-to-urban movement, especially to Monrovia. Other destinations include enclaves around rubber plantations and mines.


Economy
The Liberian economy is predominantly agrarian, and raw materials, equipment, and consumer goods are imported. Production for export is carried out on a large scale through foreign investment in rubber, forestry, and mining. Foreign ships registering under a Liberian “flag of convenience” have made Liberia one of the world’s foremost countries in registered shipping tonnage. Liberia nevertheless remains primarily agricultural. The distribution of wealth is uneven, the coastal districts receiving a greater share of economic benefits than the hinterland, after which the administrative centres are the next beneficiaries.

After the mid-1970s the once-vibrant economy took a sharp downturn. Between 1976 and 1980 sluggish demand and low prices stagnated the economy and the annual growth rate plunged. But gradual signs of recovery appeared, especially in agriculture and forestry. In the early 1990s, however, civil war disrupted Liberia’s economy. Since the end of the conflict in 2003, and particularly after a democratically elected government was inaugurated in early 2006, efforts to rebuild the country’s economic infrastructure have been under way.

Liberia is a member of two regional economic unions—the Mano River Union, a free trade group to which Sierra Leone and Guinea also belong, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Agriculture is the leading sector of the economy. About half the land area is suitable for cultivation, though a small percentage is actually cultivated. Commercial farms are often operated by foreigners. Traditional farms, which comprise the largest number, are usually cultivated by slash-and-burn methods.

Traditional farmers practice mixed cultivation of rice, cassava (manioc), and vegetables. They also raise goats, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Cultivation of cash crops such as coffee, cacao (grown for its seeds, cocoa beans), oil palm, sugarcane, and swamp rice is increasing. Domestic rice production meets about three-fourths of the country’s needs. The rest is imported, principally from East Asia.

Liberia’s climate is suitable for rubber production; the necessary plants thrive on the country’s poor soils. In 1926 the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of the United States obtained a concession for rubber cultivation. Rubber has become by far the country’s most valuable commercial crop, with coffee and cacao increasing in importance. Kola nuts, peanuts, and cotton are also produced, and cattle and pigs are raised.

Rainforests produce fine hardwood timber, especially in the east of the country, but also in the centre and in the west. Timber concessions operate in the southeast and northwest. Substantial amounts of timber are produced, but exploitation of the forest resources is difficult because of poor roads and shortage of labour. Of the approximately 250 species of forest trees about 90 are marketable. In 2003 the United Nations (UN) placed an embargo on timber exports from Liberia, crippling the domestic forestry sector. These sanctions were lifted in 2006, and the industry was slow to recover.

Deep-sea fishing is important, and the catch is largely mackerel, barracuda, and red snapper. Kru and Fanti fishermen, the latter from Ghana, have traditionally been the suppliers of fish to coastal areas but are supplemented by Liberian fishing companies. Inland fish-breeding ponds provide a source of protein.


Resources and power
Liberia is rich in natural resources. Prior to the civil war, it was among the leading producers of iron ore in Africa. Its sizable reserves are found primarily in four areas: the Bomi Hills, the Bong Range, the Mano Hills, and Mount Nimba, where the largest deposits occur. Other minerals include diamonds, gold, lead, manganese, graphite, cyanite (a silicate of aluminum, with thin bladelike crystals), and barite. There are possible oil reserves off the coast. During the civil war, iron production ground to a halt, and diamond exports were banned by the UN in 2001, in an effort to halt the traffic of “blood” or “conflict” diamonds. (See map illustrating the diamonds-for-weapons trade that had taken place in Africa by the end of the 20th century.) The diamond trade was resumed with the removal of sanctions in 2007, under the auspices of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, an international program that ensures that the rough diamond trade does not finance armed conflict.

There is vast potential for the development of hydroelectric power, as virtually all of Liberia’s installed hydroelectric capacity was damaged or destroyed as a result of the civil war. The Mount Coffee hydroelectric station on the St. Paul River, once responsible for providing much of Monrovia’s power, was destroyed in the early days of the conflict. Reconstruction of the facility and electrification of Liberia’s rural countryside were two critical issues that faced the country in the postwar period.

Access to potable water was severely limited by the civil war, and from 1990 to 2005 tap water was unavailable in Monrovia. However, surface water is abundant, and groundwater reserves are ample and regularly replenished by the country’s heavy rainfall.


Manufacturing
To export the ores, iron interests have built railroads connecting the mines with Monrovia and Buchanan. Iron ore is extracted by open-pit mining, while gold and diamonds are extracted by placer mining. Traditional, small-scale mining for gold and diamonds continues.

Manufacturing enterprises are predominantly private and foreign-owned, and most serve the local market. Near Monrovia there is a petroleum refinery as well as a cement plant. There are also explosives, paint, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics plants. Bricks, tiles, cement blocks, lumber and furniture, soap, and footwear are also manufactured, and there are several distilleries.


Finance
The U.S. dollar, previously the sole legal tender in Liberia, circulates alongside the Liberian dollar, the official currency minted by the Central Bank of Liberia (CBL). Government revenues are derived from income, profits, property, domestic transaction, foreign trade, and maritime taxes. About one-third of economic development funding has generally been derived from foreign sources, both bilateral and multilateral.

Among the several government-sponsored banks are the CBL, the National Housing and Savings Bank, the Agricultural and Cooperative Development Bank, and the Liberian Bank for Development and Investment. In addition there are private banks, insurance companies, and credit unions.


Trade
The United States and the countries of the European Union are the principal markets for Liberian exports. Rubber accounts for the overwhelming majority of Liberian export earnings, followed by gold, diamonds, coffee, and cocoa. Petroleum products and food are primary imports; others include machinery and transport equipment, beverages, tobacco, manufactured goods, lubricants, and chemicals. Asian countries, including South Korea, Japan, and Singapore, are the largest suppliers of imports.


Services
Instability and civil war have held Liberia’s potentially lucrative tourist industry in check. Tourist facilities are concentrated near beaches in Monrovia and Robertsport and near Lake Piso. Many cultural attractions, such as the Monrovia Zoo and the National Cultural Center at Kendeja, were destroyed or looted during the war. Providence Island near Monrovia and the Kpatawee Waterfalls on the Zor River near Suakoko remain popular destinations for Liberia’s emerging tourist trade.


Labour and taxation
About one-fourth of the workforce is employed in agriculture; an equal number work in trade and tourism and the public sector. The rest work in manufacturing, sales, services, and administration and management. Some two-fifths of the total labour force is made up of women. More women than men are employed in agriculture.

Liberia’s economy is mixed and there is no nationalization of industry. The government, which is the largest single employer, operates several public corporations. There is a national Federation of Labour Unions, a federation of trade unions, and several other employees’ unions.


Transportation
Only a small percentage of Liberian roads are paved. Primary roads connect administrative and economic centres and provide access to the road systems of neighbouring countries.

Monrovia is the principal commercial port, and it also has facilities for transshipping iron ore and liquid latex. Nimba Range iron ore is shipped from Buchanan, while the ports at Greenville and Harper are used primarily for the shipment of rubber and forest products. All ports are administered by the National Port Authority of Liberia.

Liberia has two major airports, Robertsfield International, and James Spriggs Payne Airport, both near Monrovia. More than 100 airfields and airstrips dot the country’s interior.


Government and society
Constitutional framework
Liberia’s government was patterned after that of the United States, with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Political parties were legalized in 1984, and civilian rule was established in 1986. However, considerable political unrest and violence precluded any stable leadership in power from the mid-1990s to the early 2000s. A power-sharing agreement in 2003 largely ended the fighting and created a National Transitional Government (NTG). The NTG, supported by United Nations peacekeeping troops, replaced the government under the 1986 constitution and ruled until a democratically elected administration was installed in 2006.

According to the 1986 constitution, the country is led by a president who is directly elected for a six-year term. Members of the bicameral National Assembly, who serve six-year terms in the House of Representatives and nine-year terms in the Senate, are also elected directly.


Local government
For administrative purposes, Liberia is divided into 15 counties. Each of the counties is headed by a superintendent, who is appointed by the president.


Justice
The judicial system comprises the Supreme Court, an appeals court, magistrate courts, and criminal courts. There are also traditional courts in some communities; the ethnic groups are allowed, as far as possible, to govern themselves according to customary law.


Political process
The 1986 constitution calls for a multiparty system. Major political parties and organizations include the Unity Party, the Congress for Democratic Change, the Alliance for Peace and Democracy, the United People’s Party, the National Patriotic Party, and the Liberty Party.

The participation of women in Liberia’s political process was highlighted in late 2005 when Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected president, becoming the first woman to be elected head of state in Africa. In the first decade of the 21st century, women held about one-seventh of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate and some one-third of local government posts. In addition, women have served as ministers and deputy ministers in the cabinet and as justices on the Supreme Court.


Health and welfare
Conditions in Liberia were poor prior to the civil war, and they deteriorated further after years of war and unrest. Although much progress had been made in providing better health facilities, after the conflict subsided, the majority of these facilities were left in shambles or completely destroyed, especially in the areas beyond Monrovia. International relief organizations operated makeshift hospitals to serve the country’s health care needs, and reestablishing the health care infrastructure was a priority of the government.

Malaria and measles are major health problems, and yellow fever, cholera, tuberculosis, and malnutrition are also prevalent. Dysentery, malaria, and diarrhea are major causes of infant mortality, which, at about 150 per 1,000 births, is high by world standards. The occurrence of HIV/AIDS in Liberia is increasing and is of growing concern. Liberia’s rate of HIV/AIDS, although higher than the world average, is comparable to that of most neighbouring countries and is much lower than that of many other sub-Saharan African countries.


Housing
Housing in much of the country was damaged or destroyed by civil war and the following years of unrest; hundreds of thousands of Liberians were displaced. The country’s utilities infrastructure was also destroyed. When the fighting subsided in 2003, privately owned generators were, for the most part, the only source of power in the country. Water delivery and sanitation systems were adversely affected by warfare as well, and unsafe water conditions were a major source of disease during and after the conflict.


Education
Since 1939 education has been compulsory for children between ages 7 and 16 and is free at the primary and secondary levels. Institutes providing higher education include the University of Liberia (1951) in Monrovia, Cuttington University College (1889; Episcopalian) in Suakoko, and the William V.S. Tubman College of Technology (1970) in Harper. There are several vocational schools, including the Booker Washington Institute at Kakata, a government school.

The years of civil war and strife that began in the late 1980s and continued into the early 2000s disrupted education in Liberia: students were forced to flee with their families from the violence, and the majority of educational facilities and supplies were destroyed. After the peace accord of 2003, Liberia began the arduous task of rebuilding the country’s educational system.


Cultural life
Traditional and Western lifestyles coexist; however, traditional values, customs, and norms influence the Western type considerably. In cities both Western and African music and dancing styles are in vogue, but in rural areas traditional rhythms are favoured. Schools instruct students in the legends, traditions, songs, arts, and crafts of African culture, and the government promotes African culture through such agencies as the National Museum in Monrovia, the Tubman Center for African Culture in Robertsport, and the National Cultural Center in Kendeja, which exhibits architecture of the 16 ethnic groups of Liberia. Mask making is an artistic pursuit that is also related to the social structure of some ethnic groups. Music festivals, predominantly religious, are held in most communities. The University of Liberia has an arts and crafts centre. There are several libraries, including a children’s library in Monrovia and a National Public Library.


Sports and recreation
Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Liberia. An intercounty football competition is held for the annual championship. The University of Liberia and Cuttington University College hold annual sports competitions. Liberia’s best football player and most popular sports figure is George Weah. Weah used his popularity and personal funds to enable Liberia’s national team, known as the Lone Stars, to compete in the African Nations Cup competitions during the mid-1990s, despite the ongoing civil war. He also founded a sports school and a youth football club.


Media and publishing
Monrovia has a number of daily newspapers, including the Daily Observer and The Analyst. A few magazines are published annually. Officially, there is press freedom, but newspapers are banned occasionally for violating government policies on information.

Monrovia is served by numerous private radio stations, as well as the state-run Liberia Broadcasting System, and programming includes sports, entertainment, and news. Television networks broadcast local news and foreign films, although local and international football matches tend to be the most popular programs. Satellite television is also available on a subscription basis. International telecommunication services are available through direct satellite links between Liberia, the United States, Italy, and France.

Abeodu Bowen Jones
Ed.


History
This discussion focuses on Liberia from the 19th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see western Africa, history of.

Outsiders’ knowledge of the west of Africa began with a Portuguese sailor, Pedro de Sintra, who reached the Liberian coast in 1461. Subsequent Portuguese explorers named Grand Cape Mount, Cape Mesurado (Montserrado), and Cape Palmas, all prominent coastal features. The area became known as the Grain Coast because grains of Melegueta pepper, then as valuable as gold, were the principal item of trade.

In the beginning of the 19th century the tide started to rise in favour of the abolition of slavery, and the Grain Coast was suggested as a suitable home for freed American slaves. In 1818 two U.S. government agents and two officers of the American Colonization Society (founded 1816) visited the Grain Coast. After abortive attempts to establish settlements there, an agreement was signed in 1821 between the officers of the society and local African chiefs granting the society possession of Cape Mesurado. The first American freed slaves, led by members of the society, landed in 1822 on Providence Island at the mouth of the Mesurado River. They were followed shortly by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, who became the real founder of Liberia. By the time Ashmun left in 1828 the territory had a government, a digest of laws for the settlers, and the beginnings of profitable foreign commerce. Other settlements were started along the St. John River, at Greenville, and at Harper. In 1839 Thomas Buchanan was appointed the first governor. On his death in 1841 he was succeeded by Joseph Jenkins Roberts, the colony’s first black governor, who was born free in Virginia in 1809; Roberts enlarged the boundaries of the territory and improved economic conditions.


The early republic
When the American Colonization Society intimated that Liberia should cease its dependency on it, Roberts proclaimed it an independent republic in 1847. Independence was recognized in 1848–56 by most countries, though formal recognition by the United States did not come until 1862.

At the time independence was declared, a constitution based on that of the United States was drawn up. Roberts, who had been elected the first president of the republic, retained that office until 1856. During that period the slave trade, theretofore illicitly carried on from various nominally Liberian ports, was ended by the activity of the British and U.S. navies.

In 1871 the first foreign loan was raised, being negotiated in London nominally for £100,000. The loan was unpopular, and still more unpopular was the new president, Edward J. Roye, who was deposed and imprisoned at Monrovia. Roberts was called back to office. He served until 1876.

The early days of Liberia were marked by constant frontier troubles with the French on the Ivory Coast and the British at Sierra Leone. The Liberians tried to extend their authority inland, although they were still unable to control all the coastal area they claimed. Efforts to end the frontier disputes resulted in treaties with Great Britain in 1885 and with France in 1892. In 1904 President Arthur Barclay, who was born in Barbados, initiated a policy of direct cooperation with the tribes. Having obtained a loan from London in 1907, he made real efforts at reform. The foreign debt, however, was a burden, and the government was unable to exert effective authority over the interior for more than 20 miles (32 km) inland. In 1919 an agreement was signed transferring to France some 2,000 square miles (5,200 square km) of hinterland that Liberia had claimed but could not control.


Outside intervention
In 1909 a commission appointed by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt investigated political and economic conditions in Liberia and recommended financial reorganization. A loan of $1.7 million (U.S.), secured by customs revenue, was raised by an international consortium of bankers in 1912, and a receivership of customs was set up, administered by appointees of the British, French, and German governments and a U.S. receiver-general. A frontier police force was organized by officers of the U.S. Army, with the result that Liberian authority was better maintained. However, this promising new regime was upset by World War I. Revenues dropped to one-fourth of their previous level, and the financial situation steadily deteriorated.

The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company obtained a concession of 1,000,000 acres (400,000 hectares) for a rubber plantation in 1926. At the same time, a loan was arranged through the Finance Corporation of America, a Firestone subsidiary. Using this private loan, the Liberian government consolidated and bonded all its external and internal debts and placed the country’s finances on a relatively stable basis. Administration of the customs and internal revenue was placed in the hands of a U.S. financial adviser. In 1952 the government was able to liquidate its foreign debt for the first time since accepting the English loan of 1871.

An investigation by the League of Nations of forced labour and slavery in Liberia, involving the shipment of Africans to the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po, brought about the resignations of President Charles King and Vice President Allen Yancy and the election of Edwin Barclay to the presidency in 1931. Liberia appealed to the Council of the League of Nations for financial aid, and a commission of inquiry was established. The next three years were marked by unsuccessful attempts to work out a plan of assistance involving appointing foreign administrators, declaring a moratorium on the Firestone loan, and suspending diplomatic relations with Great Britain and the United States. After the League Council had finally withdrawn its plan of assistance, the Liberian government reached an agreement with Firestone along lines similar to the league’s recommendations.


World War II and after
The new significance of Liberia became apparent after the outbreak of World War II. During the war Liberia’s rubber plantation was the only source of natural latex rubber available to the Allies, apart from plantations in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). In 1942 Liberia signed a defense agreement with the United States. This resulted in a program of strategic road building and the construction of an international airport and a deepwater harbour at Monrovia. U.S. money was declared legal tender in Liberia in 1943, replacing British West African currency. In 1943 William V.S. Tubman was elected to his first term as president. Liberia declared war against Germany and Japan in January 1944 and in April signed the Declaration of the United Nations. In December 1960 Liberia became a member of the UN Security Council, and from that time it took an active part in African and international affairs. In 1963 the country became a member of the Organization of African Unity (since 2002 the African Union) at its inception.

In 1963 Tubman was elected to his fifth term as president, and the following year the United States and Liberia signed an agreement to transfer the free port of Monrovia to the government of Liberia. Tubman was again elected president in 1967, the only candidate for the office; he died in London on July 23, 1971, shortly after his election to a seventh term as president. He was immediately succeeded by Vice President William R. Tolbert.

A decline in world prices for Liberia’s chief exports, iron ore and natural rubber, brought financial hardship to the country during the 1960s and early ’70s. Foreign loans helped sustain the economy during that period.


Decades of strife
In April 1980 Tolbert was killed in a coup led by Master Sergeant (later General) Samuel K. Doe, who became head of state and chairman of the People’s Redemption Council (PRC). The PRC promised a new constitution—which became effective in 1986—and a return to civilian rule. Elections were held in 1985 with several parties participating but were widely criticized as fraudulent. Doe was inaugurated as the first president of the Second Republic in January 1986. His rule ended in 1990 after civil war—primarily between the Krahn and the Gio and Mano peoples—erupted. A multinational West African force, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Monitoring Group, attempted to restore order, but the leaders of two rebel groups, Charles Ghankay Taylor and Prince Johnson, contended for power after Doe’s downfall and execution. The war dragged on for seven years as new factions arose and neighbouring countries became enmeshed in the strife. The toll on the civilian population and the economy was devastating. After a series of abortive attempts, a truce was achieved in 1996. In elections held the following year, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia Party, led by Taylor, achieved a clear majority.

At first, Taylor’s government was able to maintain a shaky peace, buoyed by the presence of ECOWAS peacekeeping forces. However, those troops left in early 1999, and by the end of the year rebels were on the attack in northern Liberia. The country’s economy, already in shambles, was made worse in 2001 when the UN Security Council imposed sanctions for Liberia’s support of rebel forces in Sierra Leone; Taylor’s alleged role in Sierra Leone’s civil war also resulted in his June 2003 indictment by a UN-sponsored war crimes tribunal. Meanwhile, the rebel insurgency in Liberia had slowly spread southward, killing thousands and displacing tens of thousands in the fighting. Government troops could not stop the rebel advance, and in August 2003 Taylor fled the country and went into exile in Nigeria. In March 2006 the Liberian government requested Taylor’s extradition, and Nigeria announced it would comply with the order. Taylor subsequently attempted to flee Nigeria but was quickly captured. Charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes, he was later sent to The Hague; his trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone began in June 2007.


Return to peace
After Taylor fled Liberia in 2003, the National Transitional Government (NTG), headed by Liberian businessman Gyude Bryant and supported by United Nations peacekeeping troops, was established and ruled until a new administration was democratically elected and installed. Presidential elections were held in late 2005, and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf defeated former football star George Weah in the second round of polling. She became the first woman to be elected head of state in Africa. Sirleaf focused on rebuilding the country’s economy and infrastructure, both of which were devastated from decades of conflict and instability, and worked to promote unity and reconciliation within the country. To that end, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established in 2006. Sirleaf also addressed the culture of corruption that had been rampant for some time: she fired the entire staff of the Ministry of Finance and promised to investigate and prosecute anyone responsible for graft. In December 2007 Bryant, the former NTG head, was arrested for failing to appear in court to face corruption charges stemming from his time as leader of the transitional government; he was accused of embezzling more than $1 million, a charge that he vehemently denied. Bryant was found not guilty in 2009. In October 2008 Taylor’s son, Charles (Chuckie) Taylor, Jr., was convicted in a U.S court on charges of torture and related war crimes; he was sentenced to 97 years in prison in January 2009.

Donald Rahl Petterson
Svend E. Holsoe
Ed.

 

 

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