Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
 

Part I. ARCHITECTURE - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
Part II. ARCHITECTURE - 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
Part III. ARCHITECTURE - 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
 

 


ARCHITECTURE
 


Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.

 

 


Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural and engineering firm that was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest architectural firms in the world. Their primary expertise is in high-end commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of the modern international-style or "glass box" skyscraper. They have built several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the John Hancock Center (1969, second tallest in the world when built), Sears Tower (1973, tallest in the world for over twenty years), and Burj Khalifa (2010, current world's tallest building). SOM provides services in Architecture, Building Services/MEP Engineering, Digital Design, Graphics, Interior Design, Structural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Sustainable Design and Urban Design & Planning.
 

 



Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.
Administrtion Building for theLevel Brothers Company in New York, 1951-1952





Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.
US Air Force Academy Church in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1956-1962




Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.
Solar Telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory,
Pima County, Arizona, 1962

 

 

Helmut Hentrich, Hubert Petschnigg, Fritz Eller, Erich Moser, Robert Walter, Josef Ruping.
 



Helmut Hentrich and Hubert Petschnigg with Fritz Eller, Erich Moser,
Robert Walter and Josef Ruping.
Administration Building for Phoenix-Rheinrohr AG in Dusseldorf,
Germany, 1955-1960

 

 

Egon Eiermann.
 

 


Egon Eiermann

Egon Eiermann (September 29, 1904, Neuendorf July 20, 1970, Baden-Baden) was one of Germany's most prominent architects in the second half of the 20th century.

Eiermann studied at the Technical University of Berlin. He worked for the Karstadt building department for a time, and before World War II had an office with fellow architect Fritz Jaenecke. He joined the faculty of the university in Karlsruhe in 1947, working there on developing steel frame construction methods.

A functionalist, his major works include: the textile mill at Blumberg (1951); the West German pavilion at the Brussels World Exhibition (with Sep Ruf, 1958); the West German embassy in Washington, D.C. (1958-1964); a building for the German Parliament (Bundestag) in Bonn (1965-1969); the IBM-Germany Headquarters in Stuttgart (1967-1972); and, the Olivetti building in Frankfurt (1968-1972). By far his most famous work is the new church on the site of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church in Berlin (1959-1963).
 

 

 



Egon Eiermann.
Pavilions for the Federal Republic of Germany at the
World's Fair in Brussels, 1956-1958





Egon Eiermann.
Josef Neckermann KG Distribution Centre, Frankfurt am Main, 1958-1961





Egon Eiermann.
Josef Neckermann KG Distribution Centre, Frankfurt am Main, 1958-1961





Egon Eiermann.
Headquarters of Olivetti Deutschland in Frankfurt am Main,
1968-1972

 

 

C. F. Murphy and Helmut Jahn; Jacgues Brownson, Gene Summers.
 

 

 

C. F. Murphy

Charles Francis Murphy (1890 1985) was an American architect based in Chicago, Illinois.
Born in Jersey City, New Jersey, Murphy was educated at the De La Salle Institute in Chicago.

Murphy's first job was as a secretary, joining the offices of D.H. Burnham & Company in 1911, where he was steadily promoted to become personal secretary to the architect Ernest Graham. When Graham died in 1937, Murphy moved on to co-found the architectural practice Shaw, Naess & Murphy, despite that fact that he still had no formal training as an architect. The practice was later renamed C.F. Murphy Associates and then Murphy/Jahn Inc. in 1981 as Helmut Jahn took over as president.

Murphy was awarded an honorary degree from St. Xavier University in 1961, and became a fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1964.
 

C. F. Murphy Associates
Chicago architecture firm, strongly influenced by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, succeeded by Murphy/Jahn.

 

 

 

 

 

Helmut Jahn
(b. Nuremberg, Germany 1940)

Helmut Jahn was born in Nuremberg in 1940. From 1960 to 1965 he trained at the Technische Hochschule in Munich, after which he emigrated to the U.S. where he spent a year at the Illinois Institute of Technology studying under Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In 1967 he joined the office of C.F. Murphy Associates and six years later became partner and Director of Design. The practice was renamed Murphy/Jahn in 1981.

During the 1960s the firm designed some of the more distinguished buildings in Chicago using a vocabulary of Miesian geometry. In later works Jahn's rigid adherence to pure Modernist doctrine lessened as he began to embrace an architectural philosophy which stressed the intuitive nature of creative rationalism. This shift led to a more flexible approach to design and signalled a decisive break with the unchallenged ideology of the Modernist past.

Using a "variable, wide-ranging architectural language" to describe a buildings' contextual relationship, Jahn generated a symbolic code which could be appreciated by both professional architects and the general public.

 

 

 

 

 

Jacques Calman Brownson was born in 1923 in Aurora, Illinois. He studied architecture with Mies van der Rohe at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago where he earned his B.S. in 1948 and his M.S. in 1954. For his master's thesis he built his own home in Geneva, Illinois--a house of glass that brought Brownson's work much favorable national attention. He worked for various Chicago architects, including A. James Speyer in 1947 and Frazier & Raftery from 1950 until 1953, before he and Bruno Conterato, another student of Mies's, opened their own office in 1955. In 1959 Brownson joined Naess & Murphy (later C.F. Murphy Associates) where he stayed for six years, during which time he designed the award-winning Chicago Civic Center (now the Daley Center and Plaza). From 1968 until 1972 Brownson worked as managing architect for Chicago's Public Building Commission and in 1972 was appointed director of planning and development of the Auraria Higher Education Center in Denver, Colorado. In 1976 Brownson became director of Colorado's State Buildings Division (1976-1986). Brownson, like his mentor Mies van der Rohe, was both a builder and a teacher. He taught at IIT (1948-59), was chairman of the department of architecture at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1966-68), and was guest lecturer at various academic institutions from 1961 until 1986. Brownson's designs have been included in numerous exhibitions throughout the United States and Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

Gene R. Summers was born in 1928 in San Antonio, Texas. He studied architecture at Texas A & M, where he received his bachelor's degree, and at the Illinois Institute of Technology under Mies van der Rohe, where he received his master's degree in 1951. From 1950 until 1966 Summers served as project architect for Mies van der Rohe, working on important commissions such as the Seagram Building in New York City and the National Gallery in Berlin. In 1967 he became partner in charge of design in the Chicago architectural firm of C. F. Murphy Associates, where he remained until 1973. His best-known project from that time, the McCormick Place convention center in Chicago, was completed in 1970. From 1973 until 1985 Summers, in association with Phyllis Lambert, worked as a real estate developer in California, where they restored, among other projects, several industrial parks, the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, and the Newporter Resort Hotel in Newport Beach. In 1985 Summers moved to France but returned to Chicago in 1989 to become dean of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology, a position he held until 1993. Summers was elected to the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Architects in 1972. He now lives in Healdsburg, California.
 

 

 


C. F. Murphy and Helmut Jahn; Jacgues Brownson, Gene Summers.
Richard Daley Center in Chicago, Illinois, 1965




C. F. Murphy and Helmut Jahn. State of Ollinois Center in Chicago, Illinois, 1979-1984

 

 

Bruce Goff.
 

 


Bruce Alonzo Goff

Bruce Alonzo Goff (June 8, 1904 August 4, 1982) was an American architect distinguished by his organic, eclectic, and often flamboyant designs for houses and other buildings in Oklahoma and elsewhere.

Born in Alton, Kansas, Goff was a child prodigy who apprenticed at the age of twelve to Rush, Endacott and Rush of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Goff became a partner with the firm in 1930. He is credited, along with his high-school art teacher Adah Robinson, with the design of Boston Avenue Methodist Church in Tulsa, one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the United States.

After stints in Chicago and Berkeley, Goff accepted a teaching position with the School of Architecture at the University of Oklahoma in 1942. By 1943, despite a lack of credentials, he was chairman of the school. This was his most productive period. In his private practice, Goff built an impressive number of residences in the American Midwest, developing his singular style of organic architecture that was client- and site-specific.

Goff's accumulated design portfolio of 500 projects (about one quarter of them built) demonstrates a restless, sped-up evolution through conventional styles and forms at a young age, through the Prairie style of his heroes and correspondents Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis Sullivan, then into original design. Finding inspiration in sources as varied as Antoni Gaudi, Balinese music, Claude Debussy, Japanese ukiyo-e prints, and seashells, Goff's mature work had no precedent and he has few heirs other than his former assistant, New Mexico architect Bart Prince, and former student, Herb Greene. His contemporaries primarily followed tight functionalistic floorplans with flat roofs and no ornament. Goff's idiosyncratic floorplans, attention to spatial effect, and use of recycled and/or unconventional materials such as gilded zebrawood, cellophane strips, cake pans, glass cullet, Quonset Hut ribs, ashtrays, and white turkey feathers, challenge conventional distinctions between order and disorder.

A number of Goff's original designs are on display at the Modern Wind at the Art Institute of Chicago.
 

 

 



Bruce Goff. Hause for Eugene and Nancy Bavinger near Norman, Oklahoma, 1950-1955




Bruce Goff. Hause for Eugene and Nancy Bavinger near Norman, Oklahoma, 1950-1955




Hause for Eugene and Nancy Bavinger. Section





Bruce Goff. House for Glen and Luetta Harder near Montain Lake, Minnesota, 1970-1971.
Plan




Bruce Goff. Home for Ruth Van Sickle Ford, Aurora, Illinois, 1947-1950

 
 

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