Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER TWO
 

REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3
 

 

SCULPTURE

 

DEGAS.

It is significant of the fundamental difference between painting and modeling that only Edgar Degas among the Impressionists tried his hand at sculpture, producing dozens of small-scale wax figurines that explore the same themes as his paintings and drawings. These are private works made for his own interest; few of them were exhibited during the artist's lifetime, and none were cast until after his death in this century. During the 1870s, there was a growing taste for casts made from artists' working models, reflecting the same appreciation for the qualities of spontaneity and inspiration found in drawings and oil sketches, which had long appealed to collectors. For the first time sculptors felt emboldened to violate time-honored standards of naturalism and craftsmanship for statuettes, and to leave the impress of their fingers on the soft material as they molded it. Nevertheless, when Degas showed the wax original of The Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer at the Impressionist exhibitions of 1880 and 1881, the public was scandalized by its lack of traditional finish and uncompromising adherence to unvarnished truth, although the response from critics was less harsh. The sculpture, reproduced here in a posthumous cast (fig. 974), is nearly as rough in texture as the slightly smaller nude study from life on which it is based.

Instead of sculpting her costume, Degas used real cotton and silk, a revolutionary idea for the time but something the Romantics, with their emphatic naturalism, must often have felt tempted to do. Degas was intrigued by the tension between the concrete surface and the abstract but powerfully directional forces beneath it. The ungainliness of the young adolescent's body is subtly emphasized by her pose, that of a dancer at "stage rest," which becomes in his hands an extremely stressful one, so full of sharply contrasting angles that no dancer could maintain it for more than a few moments. Yet, rather than awkwardness, the statuette conveys a simple dignity and grace that are irresistible. The openness of the stance, with hands clasped behind the back and legs pointing in opposite directions, demands that we walk around the dancer to arrive at a complete image of it. As we view the sculpture from different angles, the surface provides a constantly shifting impression of light comparable to that in Degas' numerous paintings and pastels of the ballet (compare fig. 954).
 




















9
74. Edgar Degas. The Little Yourteen-Year-Old Dancer.
1878-80.
Bronze with gauze tutu and satin hair ribbon, height 99 cm.
Norton Simon Art Foundation, Pasadena
 

 


Edgar Degas. The Little Yourteen-Year-Old Dancer.




Edgar Degas. The Little Yourteen-Year-Old Dancer.
 

 


Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas, in full Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas later Degas (born July 19, 1834, Paris, Franceódied September 27, 1917, Paris), French painter, sculptor, and printmaker who was prominent in the Impressionist group and widely celebrated for his images of Parisian life. Degasís principal subject was the humanóespecially the femaleófigure, which he explored in works ranging from the sombre portraits of his early years to the studies of laundresses, cabaret singers, milliners, and prostitutes of his Impressionist period. Ballet dancers and women washing themselves would preoccupy him throughout his career. Degas was the only Impressionist to truly bridge the gap between traditional academic art and the radical movements of the early 20th century, a restless innovator who often set the pace for his younger colleagues. Acknowledged as one of the finest draftsmen of his age, Degas experimented with a wide variety of media, including oil, pastel, gouache, etching, lithography, monotype, wax modeling, and photography. In his last decades, both his subject matter and technique became simplified, resulting in a new art of vivid colour and expressive form, and in long sequences of closely linked compositions. Once marginalized as a ďpainter of dancers,Ē Degas is now counted among the most complex and innovative figures of his generation, credited with influencing Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and many of the leading figurative artists of the 20th century.


Beginnings
Born in Paris just south of Montmartre, Degas always remained a proud Parisian, living and working in the same area of the city throughout his career. Though detailed knowledge of his middle-class family is limited, it is known that they maintained the outward forms of polite society and that they were related to minor aristocracy in Italy and to the business community in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. The family was also prosperous enough to send Degas in 1845 to a leading boysí school, the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he received a conventional classical education. Music featured prominently in the Degas home, where the artistís mother sang opera arias and his father arranged occasional recitals, one of which is represented in Degasís painting of 1872, Lorenzo Pagans and Auguste De Gas. The artistís mother died when he was 13 years old, leaving three sons and two daughters to be brought up by his father, a banker by profession. Knowledgeable about art but conservative in his preferences, Degasís father helped to develop his sonís interest in painting and in 1855 encouraged him to register at the École des Beaux-Arts under the supervision of Louis Lamothe, a minor follower of J.-A.-D. Ingres. Surviving works from this period show Degasís aptitude for drawing and his attention to the historical precedents he viewed in the Louvre. He also began his first solemn explorations of the self-portrait.

In 1856 Degas surprisingly abandoned his studies in Paris, using his fatherís funds to embark on a three-year period of travel and study in Italy, where he immersed himself in the painting and sculpture of antiquity, the trecento, and the Renaissance. Staying first with relatives in Naples, he later worked in Rome and Florence, filling notebooks with sketches of faces, historic buildings, and the landscape, and with hundreds of rapid pencil copies from frescoes and oil paintings he admired. Among these were copies after Giotto, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Titian, artists who were to echo through his compositions for decades; the inclusion of less-expected works, however, such as those by Sir Anthony Van Dyck and Frans Snyders, hinted at wider interests. The same sketchbooks include written notes and reflections, as well as drafts for his own figure-based paintings in a variety of eclectic styles. Together they suggest a literate and serious young artist with high ambitions, but one who still lacked direction.


Colour and line
From his beginnings, Degas seemed equally attracted to the severity of line and to the sensuous delights of colour, echoing a historic tension that was still much debated in his time. In Italy he consciously modeled some drawings on the linear restraint of the Florentine masters, such as Michelangelo, although he gradually acknowledged the lure of the Venetian painters, such as Titian, and their densely hued surfaces. Characteristically, the young Degas developed a near reverence for Ingres, the 19th-century champion of Classical line, while almost guiltily imitating Eugène Delacroix, who was the leading proponent of lyrical colour in the century and considered to be Ingresís antithesis. Many of the pictures of Degasís maturity grew out of a confrontation between these impulses, which arguably found resolution in the vigorously drawn and brilliantly coloured pastels of his later years.

Returning to Paris in April 1859, Degas attempted to launch himself through the established art-world channels of the day, though with little success. He painted large portraits of family members and grandiose, historically inspired canvases such as The Daughter of Jephthah and Semiramis Building Babylon, intending to submit them to the annual state-sponsored Salon. Each work was painstakingly prepared in drawings that still rank among the most beautiful of his career, but he found the paintings themselves difficult to complete to his satisfaction. Perhaps humbled by his exposure to the Italian masters, Degas scraped down and reworked parts of his own canvases, initiating a habit of technical self-criticism that was to last a lifetime. In 1865 his more simply executed Scene of War in the Middle Ages was accepted by the Salon jury, but it remained almost unnoticed in the thronged exhibition halls. The following year his dramatic painting The Steeplechase was again met with indifference, despite its startlingly close-up view of a contemporary horse race that seems, in retrospect, like the public announcement of a transformation in his art.


Realism and Impressionism
Degasís transition to modern subject matter, evident in The Steeplechase, was a long and gradual one, not an overnight conversion. Before he left Italy, he had made drawings of street characters and paintings of fashionable horse-riders, but always on a small scale. In Paris in the early 1860s, his pictures of French racing events broke new ground both for their decidedly contemporary subject matter and for their surprising viewpoints and bold colours, which preceded the canvases of similar scenes by his renowned contemporary Édouard Manet. Degasís portraits, too, at this time became less remote and more actively engaged with the top-hatted, restless world in which he lived. When he met Manet around 1862, Degas developed an affectionate but pointed rivalry with the slightly older man and soon shared something of Manetís oppositional stance toward the artistic establishment and its traditional subject matter. Degasís notebooks from these years teem with contrary possibilities for the direction of his art, as sketches of the countryside follow glimpses of theatrical performances, and studies from objects in the Louvre are interspersed among topical caricatures. After mid-decade he abandoned historical themes, sending a portrait of a current ballet star at the Paris Opéra, Eugénie Fiocre, to the Salon of 1868; he would soon reject such official exhibitions altogether.

By 1870 Degas was a familiar figure in independent art circles in Paris, at home with Realists such as James Tissot and Henri Fantin-Latour, acquainted with the vanguard critics Edmond Duranty and Champfleury, and involved as an occasional but forceful presence at the Café Guérbois, where avant-garde artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Claude Monet would also meet. He was famously opinionated, supporting these radical artistsí shared belief that painting should engage with the sights and subjects of the modern world. As part of his own process of engaging with modernity, he self-consciously aligned himself with Realist novelists such as Émile Zola and Edmond and Jules Goncourt, drafting illustrations for their novels and briefly adopting a similar social descriptiveness.

Like most of the future Impressionists, Degas lightened his palette and adopted more abrupt, simplified compositions during this period, partly under the influence of Japanese prints, which were very popular among contemporary artists. But, unlike his colleagues, who were experimenting with painting en plein-air, Degas affected disdain toward the improvised outdoor landscape studies for which many of the Impressionists became known. Although he clung to the habit of drawing in preparation for his pictures and insisted on working in the studio rather than outdoors, in 1869 Degas did experiment in private with a series of pastel landscapes executed on the Normandy coast. While he is not generally associated with them, he would turn to other rural subjects on several occasions in later life. Degasís advancing self-confidence at this date, boosted by the first signs of public recognition, is palpable in his letters and the range of his technical accomplishment.

The early 1870s were critical in defining Degasís personal and artistic trajectory, as they were for the other artists who would be known as the Impressionists. Between 1870 and 1873 he painted a pioneering group of ballet rehearsal and performance scenes, such as his Dance Class of 1871, finding eager buyers for many of them and soon becoming identified with their theme. The dance allowed Degas to test his skills in a daring new context: the world of the Paris Opéra was surrounded by sexual intrigue as well as high glamour and had previously been the province of popular illustrators. Degas built on his knowledge of past art, but he cleverly directed it at audiences of his own day in his choice of subject matter; his views of backstage activity are conspicuously casual and occasionally scurrilous. In 1874 he was one of the leading organizers of the first Impressionist exhibition (which he called ďa salon of RealistsĒ), showing his signature repertoire of dancers, horse races, and women ironing.

Astonishingly, these developments coincided with or followed the terrible months of the Franco-German War, when Paris was besieged and Degas and several of his colleagues enlisted in the National Guard to defend the city. Escaping the worst horrors of the Commune, Degas left in 1872 for a protracted visit to his relatives in New Orleans, where he pursued his experiments in family portraiture in spectacular works such as the Cotton Market at New Orleans (1873). Over this same period he began to describe a deterioration in his eyesight, complaining of intolerance to bright light and wondering if he might soon be blind.

The pictures Degas showed at the series of eight Impressionist exhibitions, held between 1874 and 1886, revealed him at his most inventive. Whereas the paintings of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Camille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir were largely concerned with the landscape or with figures of rural toil and urban glamour, Degas specialized in startling and enigmatic scenes of Parisian life. Visitors were frequently disconcerted by his images of popular entertainment or back-street squalor, depicted with a sharp eye for the topical gesture and heightened by a radical use of perspective, which embodied the extreme viewpoints of a newly mobile society. Already famed for his dry humour, Degas seemed to tease his viewers by opting for ambiguity, revealing a glamorous nightclub singer in all her awkwardness, while elevating a tired laundress to near-Classical grandeur. Degas was seen as the leader of a more traditionally skilled faction within the group, and his pictures were sought out by collectors. Critics approvingly pointed out that his work was grounded in a knowledge of the Old Masters and a firm line, qualities they found lacking in some of Degasís peers.


A versatile technician
For much of his long working life, Degas was attracted to the pleasures and difficulties of the artistís materials. His drawings include examples in pen, ink, pencil, chalk, pastel, charcoal, and oil on paper, often in combination with each other, while his paintings were carried out in watercolour, gouache, distemper, metallic pigments, and oils, on surfaces including card, silk, ceramic, tile, and wood panel, as well as widely varied textures of canvas. There was something contradictory about much of this activity: Degas invoked the techniques of the Old Masters while creating anarchic methods of his own. He effectively developed the black-and-white monotype as an independent medium, for example, sometimes with an added layer of pastel or gouache, as in Dancer with a Bouquet Bowing (1877). The results can be exhilarating, notably when the effects of light and texture are subtly expressive of the chosen subject, but he soon tired of the technique. The late 1870s marked the height of Degasís graphic experimentation, after which he moved away from printmaking to concentrate on enriching his use of pastel. Between 1890 and 1892 he briefly returned to monotype, perfecting a new colour procedure in a dazzling series of landscapes, manyólike Wheatfield and Green Hillówith pastel embellishments.

By the early 1880s the variety of Degasís exhibited art seemed endless, encompassing portraits and theatre scenes, pastels of women at their toilette and of notorious criminals, and series of drawings and prints. During this period Degas began to experiment with making pictures as charcoal drawings on tracing paper and retracing them several times before adding pastel to produce a ďfamilyĒ of related compositions, analogous to the series paintings of Monet. Such sequences were deeply challenging artistic exercises, allowing him to move beyond subject matter and to manipulate the finest nuance of gesture or detail, while seeming to elevate the fundamentals of picture-makingócolour, form, and compositionóto a newly independent level. For some years Degas had also been quietly exploring the medium of sculpture, using wax and other materials to make modest statuettes of horses and a group of figures that culminated in the tantalizingly lifelike wax sculpture, The Little Dancer Aged 14. Shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1881, this work carried the possibilities of visual realism to new extremes by incorporating an actual, reduced-scale tutu, ballet slippers, a human hair wig, and a silk ribbon.


Final years
In 1884 Degas reached the age of 50 and confessed to his friends that he felt some disillusionment about his career. Already known for his abrasiveness toward visitors during working hours, he became notorious for his single-minded dedication to the making of art and for his hostility to journalists and the merely curious. The next decade was one of continuous invention, as he gradually refined his artistic ambitions and shed the preoccupations of his middle years. He abandoned many of the topical themes of the 1870sóthe café-concerts, shop scenes, and brothels, for exampleóand replaced them with a new phase of concentration on the human figure in intimate, if more indistinct, settings. After a controversial sequence of pastels in the 1886 Impressionist exhibition, which showed women bathing and drying themselves indoors and in the open air, Degas produced hundreds of obsessive studies of the nude female form on paper and canvas or in wax and clay. While some of the earlier scenes had been considered voyeuristic and the models identified as prostitutes, these later figures avoid easy classification. The figure in The Morning Bath (c. 1892Ė95) is almost monumental in the manner of the antique sculpture he admired, while others seem overtly sensual or burdened by their massiveness.

The second great subject of Degasís later years was the dancer, now infrequently on stage or in compromising situations, but rather more often waiting in the wings. He hired models to pose in his studio for both his ballet and bathing scenes, often freely improvising his settings or utilizing familiar props. Though they never became abstract in any sense that Degas would have understood, the works of this period moved significantly away from the urban context that had formerly inspired him. His late pictures of dancers are essentially engagements with the human form, at times in rhythmic relationships with each otherís bodies, and at times expressing a forceful individual presence. In a large oil painting of around 1900, Dancers at the Barre, for example, Degas created a vital equilibrium between the energy of the two women in a tense composition of verticals and diagonals and of green skirts and orange walls.

In such works Degas seemed to be confronting the beginnings of a new art, where documentary description counts for little and the preoccupations with structure and expression of the early 20th century are spelled out. As in his nude studies, his pastels of dancers were sometimes lightly tinted over an energetic charcoal drawing, or were otherwise densely built up in crusty layers of brilliant, unnatural hue. The old dialogue between colour and line continued, but in an emphatically modern idiom. A fascination with varied techniques haunted Degas to the end, resurfacing in dramatic and occasionally bizarre late canvases that involved finger-painting, glazes of contrasting colour, and heavily impastoed surfaces.

The audacity of Degasís art during this period was often at odds with the narrowness of his life. In 1890 he took over a large studio on the rue Victor Massé, later moving into an adjoining apartment that was to remain his home until 1912. He never married but was a fiercely loyal friend, counting among his intimates a number of women, including Mary Cassatt. Degas enjoyed society on his own terms, dining out within a trusted circle and regaling families such as Ludovic and Louise Halévy with his trenchant opinions and humorous aphorisms on art, literature, and politics. His letters from these years are typically brief and businesslike, but occasionally allow glimpses of a melancholy, strong-willed personality. Degas relished the company of the young, from small children to the new generation of writers and artists who increasingly sought him out. With the flamboyant artist Paul Gauguin, for example, he exchanged both ideas and works of art, learning much from the younger manís views on colour while also prompting Gauguin to make experimental prints and boldly drawn figure compositions. Degas himself remained sombre in appearance, wearing a dark suit and top hat on formal occasions and remaining aloof from the mores of bohemianism.

Despite many myths about Degasís later years, some encouraged by the artist himself, he did not (until the very end) retreat from the art world, but rather he promoted his work energetically and closely followed the careers of perceived rivals such as Monet and Cézanne. In 1892 he staged a much-noted exhibition of his landscape monotypes at the Durand-Ruel Gallery, partly as a riposte to Monetís gathering fame and the recent success of Pissarroís and Cassattís own prints. Becoming an avid collector, he also acquired the art of many of his contemporaries, as well as hundreds of drawings and paintings by his lifelong idols, Delacroix and Ingres. And, while he remained loyal to his Montmartre studio when his contemporaries painted abroad or in their country retreats, he also traveled regularly through France, Switzerland, and Italy (his last visit was in 1906, at the age of 72) to visit acquaintances and make occasional landscapes. His world began to narrow at the turn of the 20th century, however, partly because of his reactionary views and violently anti-Semitic response to the Dreyfus Affair, which alienated many of his friends. His declining health also began to preoccupy him; although Degas never went completely blind, a complex of eye troubles obliged him to wear dark glasses outdoors and take frequent rests from work. (His emphasis on the strikingly simplified yet eloquent forms of his final decades was partly linked to his declining sight.)

In an unusual move for an artist of his renown, Degas gave up work in old age after being obliged to move from his last studio in 1912. Suffering from reduced sight and hearing, he surrounded himself with pictures he had made and collected, retreating into his memories. His reputation in France and beyond grew steadily, with his work reaching prices of unprecedented heights and beginning to enter major museums. With his cooperation, dealers such as Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard placed pictures from all periods with leading collectors, among them the American Louisine Havemeyer, the Russian Shchukin family, and the German Count Harry Kessler. Degas was idolized by artists of several early 20th-century persuasionsóincluding Suzanne Valadon, Walter Richard Sickert, Maurice Denis, Georges Rouault, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Edward Hopperówho visited his studio or emulated him from afar.

It was not until after Degasís death in 1917, however, that the wealth of his output was revealed in a succession of vast public sales in the war-shocked Paris of 1918 and 1919. Thousands of his previously unexhibited works on paper and canvas were sold, and some of the later, less naturalistic examples distressed even his most loyal admirers. Certain aspects of his achievement gained prominence for the first time, principally the wide range of his printmaking. Also surprising was the extent of his collection of pictures by El Greco, Ingres, Delacroix, Manet, Gauguin, and Cézanne. In the early 1920s, when the first series of posthumous bronze casts were unveiled in Europe and the United States, Degasís sculpture provided a further revelation to the art world.


Assessment
Degasís greatness is summarized in his ability to explore the language of artóits technical and tactile complexity, its refinement as well as its implicit energyóto a more extreme degree than any of his contemporaries, yet without losing sight of his subject of the human animal in its most public and private moments. He combined a Romantic sensibility with a Classical command of his means, fusing sensuality with unsparing observation and an insistence on visual structure. More than any of the other Impressionists, Degasís art has long been simplified or over-categorized: in reality, the evolution from the gloomy academicism of his youth to the full-blooded social realism of the 1870s, and then to the pyrotechnical, defiant breadth of his last two- and three-dimensional work, is one of the most awe-inspiring of the modern period. In a single lifetime, Degas abandoned the certainties of a state-controlled, historical culture for an art of individual crisis, even approaching the nihilism of the following generation.

Degasís reputation has followed an unusual trajectory, rising steeply in his maturity but suffering from the angry retreat of his old age, and from the preference for nonfigurative modes in the new century. Though respected in subsequent decades, he was sidelined by formalist criticism and relegated too often to the role of mere social commentator. The 1960s and í70s saw the beginnings of a major reevaluation of Degasís significance, with specialist publications on his portraits, drawings, prints, monotypes, notebooks, and sculpture, and a growing wave of popular exhibitions. His imagery became a battleground for feminist critics, who centred on the artistís alleged misogyny and the perceived prurience of his brothel and backstage scenes. More recently, the self-consciously elusive quality of much of Degasís depiction has been increasingly acknowledged, as well as his underestimated shift away from topicality in later years. Such debates and discoveries continue to attract vast crowds and to stimulate curators, academics, and practicing artists, suggesting that Degasís full stature has yet to be fully measured.

Richard J. Kendall

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 



Edgar Degas. The Spanish Dance





Edgar Degas. Dancer in the Role of Harlequin





Edgar Degas. Woman Getting Out of the Bath





Edgar Degas. Woman Stretching





Edgar Degas. First Arabesque Penchée





Edgar Degas. Dressed Dancer at Rest





Edgar Degas. Dancer Looking at the Sole of Her Right Foot





Edgar Degas. Woman Seated in an Armchair Wiping Her Left Armpit





Edgar Degas. The Tub





Edgar Degas. Bather

 


Edgar Degas. Horse Trotting, the Feet Not Touching the Ground





Edgar Degas. Horse with Head Lowered

 
 

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