Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
 


ARCHITECTURE

 

LATROBE.

By 1800 the Gothic was a fully acceptable alternative to the Greek revival as a style for major churches. Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820), an Anglo-American who under Jefferson became the most influential architect of "Federal" Neoclassicism, submitted a design in each style for the Cathedral in Baltimore. In this he may be called a disciple of the English architect John Soane (1753-1837), who also worked in a variety of revival styles. The Neoclassic one was chosen, but it might well have been the Neo-Gothic. The exterior of the present building (fig. 928) has walls that resemble Soufflot's Pantheon (see fig. 871), a dome of more severe design, a temple front, and bell towers of disguised Gothic-Baroque ancestry. (The bulbous crowns are not his work.)

Far more distinguished is the interior (fig. 929). Although inspired by the domed and vaulted spaces of ancient Rome, especially the Pantheon (see fig. 250), Latrobe was not interested in archaeological correctness. The "muscularity" of Roman structures has been suppressed. The delicate moldings, profiles, and coffers are derived straight from Robert Adam (compare fig. 874); they are no more than linear accents that do not disturb the continuous, abstract surfaces. Here Latrobe shows how much he had learned from Soane's masterpiece, the Bank of England in London, before his departure from that city in 1796. Unfortunately, the bank was largely destroyed in 1927, but it is still known from photographs (see fig. 931). Like Adam, Soane was enthused by Piranesi's epic architectural fantasies, which he joined with the latest French theories. In Latrobe's Romantic interpretation, the spatial qualities of ancient architecture have acquired the visionary quality of Boullee's memorial to Isaac Newton (see fig. 872)vast, pure, sublime. The strangely weightless interior presents almost that combination of classic form and Gothic lightness first postulated by Soufflot. It also shows the free and imaginative look of the mature Neoclassic style, when handled by a gifted architect.

Had the Gothic design (fig.
930) been chosen, the exterior might have been more striking, but the interior probably less impressive. Like most Romantic architects seeking the sublime, Latrobe viewed Gothic churches "from the outside in"as mysterious, looming structures silhouetted against the skybut nourished his spatial fantasy on Roman monuments. After 1800, the choice between classical and Gothic modes was more often resolved in favor of Gothic. Nationalist sentiments, strengthened in the Napoleonic wars, became important factors. England, France, and Germany each tended to think that Gothic expressed its particular national genius. Certain theorists (notably John Ruskin) also regarded Gothic as superior for ethical or religious reasons on the grounds that it was "honest" and "Christian."



928. BENJAMIN LATROBE. Baltimore Cathedral (Basilica of the Assumption), Baltimore, Maryland. Begun 1805
929
.
Interior, Baltimore Cathedral



930. BENJAMIN LATROBE. Alternative design for Baltimore Cathedral

 

 


Benjamin Latrobe

Benjamin Latrobe, in full Benjamin Henry Latrobe (born May 1, 1764, Fulneck, near Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 1820, New Orleans, La., U.S.), British-born architect and civil engineer who established architecture as a profession in the United States. Latrobe was the most original proponent of the Greek Revival style in American building.

Latrobe attended the Moravian college at Niesky, Saxony, and traveled in France and Italy, acquiring a knowledge of advanced French architecture. After returning to England in 1784, he studied with the Neoclassical architect Samuel Pepys Cockerell. Latrobe may also have studied engineering under John Smeaton, a well-known civil engineer. Having begun his own practice about 1790, Latrobe designed Hammerwood Lodge, Sussex, which shows his subsequent combinations of bold geometric forms with classical details.

Latrobe emigrated in 1795 to the United States, where his first important work was the State Penitentiary in Richmond, Va. (1797–98; demolished 1927). Latrobe then moved to Philadelphia and in 1798 received the commission for his Bank of Pennsylvania, whose Ionic porticoes inspired countless imitations; the building is now considered the first monument of the Greek Revival in America. It is clear, however, that Latrobe did not feel himself confined by styles, as his Sedgeley House, Philadelphia, built about the same time, is thought of as the first Gothic Revival structure in the United States.

In Richmond, Latrobe had met Thomas Jefferson, who, in 1803, made him surveyor of the public buildings of the United States. In this post Latrobe inherited the task of completing the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. In the House of Representatives and the Senate chambers, he incorporated American floral motifs—corn cobs, tobacco leaves—into the classical scheme. His Supreme Court Chamber (designed 1806–07) in the Capitol is a notably original American classical interior.

Latrobe’s most famous work is the Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic cathedral of Baltimore (begun 1805), a severe, beautifully proportioned structure slightly marred by the onion-shaped domes added, after Latrobe’s death, to the towers above the portico. Also in Baltimore is his Exchange (1820).

Latrobe was also active as an engineer, especially in the design of waterworks. His more inventive schemes, involving engines, steamboats, and similar projects, brought him to financial ruin. While supervising his waterworks project for New Orleans, Latrobe contracted yellow fever and died. Latrobe set high standards of design and technical competence that were adopted by his foremost pupils, Robert Mills and William Strickland.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 
 

BARRY AND PUGIN.


All these considerations lie behind the design by Sir Charles Barry (1785-1860) and Augustus Welby Pugin (1812-1852) for the Houses of Parliament in London, the largest monument of the Gothic revival (fig. 932). As the seat of a large and complex governmental apparatus, but at the same time as a focus of patriotic feeling, it presents a curious mixture: repetitious symmetry governs the main body of the structure and picturesque irregularity its silhouette. The building is indeed a contradiction in terms, for it imposes Pugin's Gothic vocabulary, inspired by the later English Perpendicular (compare fig. 471), onto the classically conceived structure by Barry, with results that satisfied neither. Nevertheless the Houses of Parliament admirably convey the grandeur of Victorian England at the height of its power.



932. SIR CHARLES BARRY and A. N. WELBY PUGIN. The Houses of Parliament, London. Begun 1836




932. SIR CHARLES BARRY and A. N. WELBY PUGIN. The Houses of Parliament, London. Begun 1836




932. SIR CHARLES BARRY and A. N. WELBY PUGIN. The Houses of Parliament, London. Begun 1836
 

 


Sir Charles Barry

Sir Charles Barry, (born May 23, 1795, London, Eng.—died May 12, 1860, London), one of the architects of the Gothic Revival in England and chief architect of the British Houses of Parliament.

The son of a stationer, Barry was articled to a firm of surveyors and architects until 1817, when he set out on a three-year tour of France, Greece, Italy, Egypt, Turkey, and Palestine to study architecture. In 1820 he settled in London. One of his first works was the Church of Saint Peter at Brighton, which he began in the 1820s. In 1832 he completed the Travellers’ Club in Pall Mall, the first work in the style of an Italian Renaissance palace to be built in London. In the same style and on a grander scale he built (1837–41) the Reform Club. He was also engaged on numerous private mansions in London, the finest being Bridgewater House, which was completed in the 1850s. In Birmingham one of his best works, King Edward’s School, was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style between 1833 and 1837. For Manchester he designed the Royal Institution of Fine Arts (1824–35) and the Athenaeum (1836–39), and for Halifax the town hall (completed in the early 1860s).

In 1835 a design competition was held for a new Houses of Parliament building, also called Westminster Palace, to replace the one destroyed by fire in 1834. Barry won the contest in 1836, and the project occupied him for the rest of his life. With the help of Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, Barry designed a composition ornamented in the Gothic Revival style and featuring two asymmetrically placed towers. The complex of the Houses of Parliament (1837–60) is Barry’s masterpiece.

Barry was elected an associate of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1840 and a royal academician in the following year and received many foreign honours. He was knighted in 1852 and, on his death, was buried in Westminster Abbey.

His son, Edward Middleton Barry (1830–80), also a noted architect, completed the work on the Houses of Parliament.

 

 

 


A.W.N. Pugin

A.W.N. Pugin, in full Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (born March 1, 1812, London, Eng.—died Sept. 14, 1852, London), English architect, designer, author, theorist, and leading figure in the English Roman Catholic and Gothic revivals.

Pugin was the son of the architect Augustus Charles Pugin, who gave him his architectural and draftsmanship training. His mature professional life began in 1836 when he published Contrasts, which conveyed the argument with which Pugin was throughout his life to be identified, the link between the quality and character of a society with the calibre of its architecture. Pugin, who became a Roman Catholic in 1835, contended that decline in the arts was a result of a spiritual decline occasioned by the Reformation.

Between 1837 and 1840 Pugin enjoyed a growing architectural practice. His employment by John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, and other Roman Catholic laymen and clergy resulted in his identification with the leadership of the Roman Catholic revival. His plans for St. Chad’s Cathedral, Birmingham, and St. George’s Cathedral, Southwark, suffered from the limited funds available for their construction, but they nevertheless show his imaginativeness and brilliance. The Church of St. Oswald, Old Swan, Liverpool (1839; demolished), was the finest of his designs of these years and the one that set the pattern for Gothic revival parish churches in England and abroad. His True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) was used by John Ruskin as a foundation for his criticism.

Pugin reached the height of his influence between 1840 and 1844: his theoretical position on the need for a revival of Gothic was refined and expressed with a literary skill equal to his powers as an architectural caricaturist and illustrator; and his circle of patrons loyally supported him. From these years come Pugin’s splendid drawings for Balliol College, Oxford (1843), which convey the excitement and fervour of the Oxford Movement; the richly brilliant St. Giles, Cheadle, Staffordshire (1841–46); and extensive repairs and additions to Alton Towers, Staffordshire.

Pugin’s last major works are his own house, The Grange, and St. Augustine’s Church, both at Ramsgate, Kent. The Rolle family chapel at Bicton, Devon, the decorations of the House of Lords, and the chapel at St. Edmund’s College, Old Hall Green, Hertfordshire, well represent the elegant, erudite, yet original Gothic of which he was capable.

The death of his second wife in 1844 and the recurrence of an old illness cast a shadow over Pugin’s last years. His practice declined as other architects emerged to serve Roman Catholic clients. During his last years he worked with Sir Charles Barry on the new Palace of Westminster.

 

 

 


Houses of Parliament

Houses of Parliament, also called Palace of Westminster, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the seat of the bicameral Parliament, including the House of Commons and the House of Lords. It is located on the left bank of the River Thames in the borough of Westminster, London.

A royal palace was said to have existed at the site under the Danish king of England Canute. The building, however, spoken of by William Fitzstephen as an “incomparable structure,” was built for Edward the Confessor in the 11th century and enlarged by William I (the Conqueror). In 1512 the palace suffered greatly from fire and thereafter ceased to be used as a royal residence. St. Stephen’s Chapel was used by 1550 for the meetings of the House of Commons, held previously in the chapter house of Westminster Abbey; the Lords used another apartment of the palace. A fire in 1834 destroyed the whole palace except the historic Westminster Hall, the Jewel Tower, the cloisters, and the crypt of St. Stephen’s Chapel.

Sir Charles Barry, assisted by A.W.N. Pugin, designed the present buildings in the Gothic Revival style. Construction was begun in 1837, the cornerstone was laid in 1840, and work was finished in 1860. The Commons Chamber was burned out in one of the numerous air raids that targeted London during World War II, but it was restored and reopened in 1950. The House of Lords is an ornate chamber 97 feet (29.5 metres) in length; the Commons is 70 feet (21 metres) long. The southwestern Victoria Tower is 336 feet (102 metres) high. St. Stephen’s Tower, 320 feet (97.5 metres) in height, contains the famous tower clock Big Ben. Along with Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret’s Church, the Houses of Parliament were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




All Saints Church on Church Lane in Whitefield, Greater Manchester, England.




Manchester Art Gallery's main entrance along Mosley Street




Harewood House, south front as remodelled by Barry




North front, Highclere Castle




St Francis Xavier's Church




Church of Our Lady and St Wilfrid, 1840-41




Church of St Barnabas, 1841-44




St Chad's Roman Catholic Cathedral, 1839-41

 
 

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