Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE
 

SCULPTURE


England

 

John Flaxman.
 

 


John Flaxman

John Flaxman, (born July 6, 1755, York, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 7, 1826, London), sculptor, illustrator, and designer, a leading artist of the Neoclassical style in England.

As a youth, Flaxman worked in his father’s plaster-casting studio in London while studying Classical literature, which was to be a continual source of inspiration. In 1770 he entered the Royal Academy schools. After 1775 he began to work for the potter Josiah Wedgwood. The discipline of producing designs, usually based on antique models and executed in wax, which could be translated into the silhouette technique of Wedgwood’s jasperware, strengthened Flaxman’s innate feeling for line. His design of the Apotheosis of Homer (1778) relief was adapted from an ancient Greek vase for use on pots, chimneypieces, and plaques. It has rarely been out of production since it was executed. Flaxman also designed profile portraits in antique style for execution as jasperware medallions. While at the academy he formed a lifelong friendship with William Blake, who stimulated his interest in medieval art.

In 1787 he went to Rome to continue his study of the antique. Intending to stay only two years, he obtained enough commissions to remain until 1794. His artistic creed was formed in these years. He drew assiduously, not only from the antique but also from Italian medieval and Renaissance art, and was determined to give his work a moral purpose. Between 1790 and 1794 he produced ambitious academic groups such as The Fury of Athamas (1790–92) and Cephalus and Aurora, but his book illustrations had far greater importance. His Iliad and Odyssey (1793), Aeschylus (1795), and Dante’s Divine Comedy (1802) soon became widely known and, with their clean linear rhythms, contributed much to the spread of Neoclassicism in England. Later in life he designed a Hesiod, engraved by William Blake in 1817.

On his return to London his designs for a large monument to the earl of Mansfield (Westminster Abbey, 1793–1801) established his reputation as a sculptor on a grand scale. He became a member of the Royal Academy in 1800 and its first professor of sculpture in 1810. He produced a wide range of works after 1800, from small monuments in relief to very large commissions in the round (the Nelson monument in St. Paul’s Cathedral; 1808–18). He also made some designs for silversmiths, the most famous being The Shield of Achilles (1818).

Flaxman’s chief strength lies in the sincerity, humanity, and remarkable fecundity of his designs, which include figures in the Classical manner and in contemporary dress as well as religious subjects. In his own day his reputation as a sculptor rivalled those of his great contemporaries Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


John Flaxman. Cephalus and Aurora, 1789-90




John Flaxman. Monument to Lord Mansfield




John Flaxman. Monument to Lord Mansfield (details)




John Flaxman. The Fury of Athamas
1790-94
Marble
Ickworth, Suffolk


John Flaxman. Monument to Agnes Cromwell
1797-1800
Marble
Cathedral, Chichester




John Flaxman. Tomb of Harriet Susan, Viscountess Fitzharris
Priory, Christchurch, Dorset, England 1815




John Flaxman. Monument to Sarah Morley
Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, 1784

 


John Flaxman. Monument to Sarah Morley (details)




John Flaxman. Monument to Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson
1808-18
Marble
St. Paul's Cathedral, London
 



John Flaxman. Monument to Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (details)




John Flaxman. Monument to Admiral Earl Howe
South transept, St Paul's Cathedral, London, England, 1803




John Flaxman. Bust of Henry Philip Hope
Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark




John Flaxman. Bust of John Hunter
Royal College of Surgeons, London, England, 1805




John Flaxman. Bust of Alexander Monro
Old Library, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Scotland




John Flaxman. Monument to John Philip Kemble
North transept, Westminster Abbey, London, England, 1826




John Flaxman. Statue of Sir Joshua Reynolds
St Paul's Cathedral, London, England, 1813




John Flaxman. Deliver Us from Evil

 
 

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