Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
 


Auguste Bartholdi.


To defy established society, its values and institutions, was easier for writer and painters than for sculptors. To the latter, the late nineteenth century offered vast opportunities for official commissions. Of the total of such monuments in the Western world, it is a safe guess that the great majority were erected, or at least begun, between
1872 and 1905. The most ambitious of these was the Statue of Liberty (or, to use its official title, Liberty Enlightening the World; fig. 923) by Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904).

This monument in memory of French assistance to America during the War of Independence was a gift of the French people, not of the government. Hence, its enormous cost was raised by public subscription, which took ten years. Bartholdi conceived the Statue of Liberty out of a previous one for a gigantic lighthouse in the form of a woman holding a lamp to be erected at the northern entry to the Suez Canal. All he had to do was exchange the Egyptian headdress for a radiant crown and the lantern for a torch. The final model shows an austere, classically draped young woman holding the torch in her raised right hand and a tablet in her left. With her left foot, on which her weight rests, she steps on the broken shackles of tyranny. The right leg (the "free" one in accordance with the rules of classical contrapposto) is set back, so that the figure seems to be advancing when viewed from the side but looks stationary in the frontal view. As a piece of sculpture, the Statue of Liberty is less original than one might think. Formally and iconographically, it derives from a well-established ancestry reaching back to Canova and beyond. Its conservatism is, however, Bartholdi's conscious choice. He sensed that only a "timeless" statue could embody the ideal he wanted to glorify.

The figure, which stands over 150 feet tall, presented severe structure problems that called for the skills of an architectural engineer. Bartholdi found the ideal collaborator in Gustave Eiffel, the future builder of the Eiffel Tower (fig. 979). The project took more than a decade to complete, The Statue of Liberty was inaugurated at last in the fall of 1886, having been placed on a tall pedestal built with funds raised by the American public. Its fame as the symbolone is tempted to say "trademark"of the United States has been worldwide ever since.



923. Auguste Bartholdi. Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World). 1875-84.
 
Copper sheeting over metal armature, height 46 m.
Liberty Island, New York Harbor





923. Auguste Bartholdi. Statue of Liberty (detail)
 

 



Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi

Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, (born April 2, 1834, Colmar, Alsace, France—died Oct. 4, 1904, Paris), French sculptor of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.

Bartholdi trained to be an architect in Alsace and Paris and then studied painting with Ary Scheffer and sculpture with Antoine Etex and J.-F. Soitoux. He toured the Middle East in 1856 with several “Orientalist” painters, including Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1865 he and several others conceived an idea for a monument to the Franco-American alliance of 1778.

Beginning work in 1870, Bartholdi designed the huge statue on his own initiative and was able to see its construction through using funds he raised in both France and the United States. Dedicated in 1886, the statue was titled, in full, Liberty Enlightening the World and was given to the United States by France. The Statue of Liberty is Bartholdi’s best-known work, but his masterpiece among monumental projects is the Lion of Belfort (completed 1880), which is carved out of the red sandstone of a hill that towers over the city of Belfort in eastern France. Once a macabre collective tomb for the National Guard of Colmar (1872), this is the best known of Bartholdi’s many patriotic sculptures that were inspired by the French defeat in the Franco-German War of 1870–71.

Encyclopædia Britannica




Statue of Liberty

Statue of Liberty, formally Liberty Enlightening the World, colossal statue on Liberty Island in the Upper New York Bay, U.S., commemorating the friendship of the peoples of the United States and France. Standing 305 feet (93 metres) high including its pedestal, it represents a woman holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet bearing the adoption date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) in her left. The torch, which measures 29 feet (8.8 metres) from the flame tip to the bottom of the handle, is accessible via a 42-foot (12.8-metre) service ladder inside the arm (this ascent was open to the public from 1886 to 1916). An elevator carries visitors to the observation deck in the pedestal, which may also be reached by stairway, and a spiral staircase leads to an observation platform in the figure’s crown. A plaque at the pedestal’s entrance is inscribed with a sonnet, “The New Colossus” (1883) by Emma Lazarus. It was written to help raise money for the pedestal, and it reads:

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

A French historian, Edouard de Laboulaye, made the proposal for the statue. Funds were contributed by the French people, and work began in France in 1875 under sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi. The statue was constructed of copper sheets, hammered into shape by hand and assembled over a framework of four gigantic steel supports, designed by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. The colossus was presented to the American minister to France Levi Morton (later vice president) in a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884. In 1885 the completed statue, 151 feet 1 inch (46 metres) high and weighing 225 tons, was disassembled and shipped to New York City. The pedestal, designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt and built within the walls of Fort Wood on Bedloe’s Island, was completed later. The statue, mounted on its pedestal, was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland on Oct. 28, 1886. Over the years the torch underwent several modifications, including its conversion to electric power in 1916 and its redesign (with repoussé copper sheathed in gold leaf) in the mid-1980s, when the statue was repaired and restored by both American and French workers for a centennial celebration held in July 1986. The site was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1984.

The statue was at first administered by the U.S. Lighthouse Board, as the illuminated torch was considered a navigational aid. Because Fort Wood was still an operational Army post, responsibility for the maintenance and operation of the statue was transferred in 1901 to the War Department. It was declared a national monument in 1924, and in 1933 the administration of the statue was placed under the National Park Service. Fort Wood was deactivated in 1937, and the rest of the island was incorporated into the monument. In 1956 Bedloe’s Island was renamed Liberty Island, and in 1965 nearby Ellis Island, once the country’s major immigration station, was added to the monument’s jurisdiction, bringing its total area to about 58 acres (about 24 hectares). Exhibits on the history of the Statue of Liberty, including the statue’s original 1886 torch, are contained in the statue’s base.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Auguste Bartholdi. The Bartholdi Fountain,
located at the United States Botanic Garden in Washington





Auguste Bartholdi. Statue of the Marquis de Lafayette





Auguste Bartholdi. Statue de Jean-François Champollion





Auguste Bartholdi. Lafayette Washington





Auguste Bartholdi. Lion

 
 

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