Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
 


Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux.


If the high tide of Romanticism is to be found among the French sculptors born during the first decade of the century, those born during the second may, with some hes
itation, be designated late (or belated) Romantics, but we again look in vain for a major talent among them. The third decade, in contrast, saw the birth of several important sculptors. Of these, the greatest and best known was Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-1875). Carpeaux's masterpiece came at the end of the Second Empire, which succeeded the short-lived Second Republic in 1852. In 1861 his old friend the architect Charles Gamier began the Paris Opera and entrusted him with one of the four sculptural groups across the facade. The Dance (fig. 922) perfectly matches Garnier's Neo-Baroque architecture. (The plaster model in our illustration is both livelier and more precise than the final stone group, visible in fig. 935, lower right). The group created a scandal after the unveiling in 1869. The nude dancing bacchantes around the winged male genius in the center were denounced as drunk, vulgar, and indecentand small wonder, for their coquettish gaiety derives from small Rococo groups such as Clodion's (see fig. 830). But unlike Clodion's, Carpeaux's enormous figures (they are 15 feet tall) look undressed rather than nude, so that we do not accept them as legitimate denizens of the realm of mythology. Public opinion insisted that it be replaced, but after the war with Germany ended in 1871 the old complaints were forgotten and The Dance was acclaimed as a masterpiece. It is as obviously superior to the other three Opera groups by more conservative authors as Rude's Marseillaise is to its neighbors on the Arc de Triomphe.
 


922. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The Dance. 1867-69. Plaster model, 4.6 x 2.6 m. Musee d'Orsay, Paris




922. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The Dance. (detail)
 

 


Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, (born May 11, 1827, Valenciennes, France—died Oct. 12, 1875, Courbevoie), the leading French sculptor of his time. His works, containing a lively realism, rhythm, and variety that were in opposition to contemporary French academic sculpture, form a prelude to the art of Auguste Rodin, who revered him.

For some time, Carpeaux was a student of the prominent French sculptor François Rude. Winning the 1854 Prix de Rome enabled him to live in Rome (1856–62), where he was influenced by the works of such Italian Renaissance sculptors as Michelangelo, Donatello, and Verrocchio. He established his reputation with Neapolitan Fisherboy (1857) and Ugolino and His Sons (1861), a dramatic bronze for the Tuileries Gardens, Paris, and won favour at the court of Napoleon III, receiving many commissions for portrait busts. His most famous work, The Dance (completed 1869), a sculptural group for the facade of the Paris Opéra, created a sensation and was attacked as immoral. His works were the subject of some of the most significant debates about sculpture during the mid-19th century. In order to allay the huge costs of his monumental projects he produced reductions and variants of them and many celebrated portraits that earned considerable sums of money and made his work widely available to private buyers, both the wealthy and those of modest means.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Statue of Philoctetes

 


Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Ugolino
1860
Bronze, height 194 cm
Musee d'Orsay, Paris




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Ugolino and his Sons
1860-c1867
Marble
Metropolitan Museum of Art (Manhattan, New York, United States)




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Ugolino and his Sons
1860-c1867
Marble
Metropolitan Museum of Art (Manhattan, New York, United States)




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Eve Tempted
1871
Marble




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Flore Accroupie
1875
Terracotta




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The Neapolitan Fisherboy
1857
Golden brown patina




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Fisherboy




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Ragazza con una conchiglia




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Venus. Uffizi Gallery




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The Three Graces




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The Three Graces




Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. L'amour a la folie

 
 

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