Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
 



Antoine-Louis Barye.

The ultimate source of La Marseillaise is pictorial. In a similar way, Stubbs' Lion Attacking a Horse (see fig.
863) is the sire of animal groups by Antoine-Louis Barye (1795—1875). Barye followed in his father's footsteps as a goldsmith, but spent all his free hours at the Paris zoo, sketching live animals and studying their anatomy. He also became a friend of Delacroix, who shared these interests and sometimes treated the same themes. Barye scored his first public success at the Salon of 1831 with the plaster model of Tiger Devouring a Gavial of the Ganges (see fig. 920). His group displays a realism based on thorough zoological knowledge, but what really impressed critics and public alike was the ferocity of the tiger, the pitiless display of "nature red in tooth and claw" so exciting to the Romantic imagination. Animal combats had a long tradition in Western art going all the way back to classical antiquity, but these followed well-established formal conventions that governed both the choice of animals and their compositional relationship. Barye disregarded all such precedents. Not only did he study his animals directly from nature, he chose exotic species and combinations. What mattered was not the zoological implausibility of the group (gavials are unlikely prey for tigers) but its expressive power, intensified by the monumental compactness of design.



920. Antoine-Louis Barye. Tiger Devouring a Gavial of the Ganges. 1831-32. Bronze, 100.3 cm. Musee du Louvre, Paris

 

 


Antoine-Louis Barye

Antoine-Louis Barye, (born Sept. 24, 1796, Paris, France—died June 25, 1875, Paris), prolific French sculptor, painter, and printmaker, whose subject was primarily animals. He is known as the father of the modern Animalier school.

The son of a jeweler, Barye was apprenticed to an engraver of military equipment at age 13; after serving in the army, he worked for a time in the jewelry trade. In about 1817 he began to sculpt while working in the studio of the sculptor François Bosio. He was also influenced by the Romantic paintings of Théodore Géricault. From 1823 to 1831 he worked with Jacques-Henri Fauconnier, a goldsmith.

Barye’s talent for rendering dynamic tension and exact anatomical detail is especially evident in his most famous bronzes, those of wild animals struggling with or devouring their prey.

Barye gradually gained a reputation as a monumental sculptor with government commissions for images of wild animals in the 1830s, figure groups and portraits for the facade of the Louvre in the 1850s, and freestanding Napoleonic monuments in the 1860s. He first exhibited his bronzes at the Salons of 1827 and 1831, receiving a second prize for his Lion Devouring a Gavial. He withdrew from exhibiting in the Salon in the 1830s after a celebrated small-scale project was rejected as goldsmithery (i.e., not “high art”), but he returned in 1850, to great acclaim.

Generally speaking, Barye was responsible for having improved the status of animal sculpture, a category famous since antiquity, and for demonstrating its suitability as a modern expressive form. He also gained special fame as an artist who, regardless of subject matter, could meld grandeur and artistic refinement with realism in both public monuments and in small-scale bronzes for the home at a wide range of prices that the middle class could afford.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 






Antoine-Louis Barye. Panther Seizing a Stag
c. 1833
Bronze, height 37 cm
Art Institute, Chicago


Antoine-Louis Barye. Bull Attacked by a Bear
c. 1840
Bronze, height 14,5 cm
Private collection


Antoine-Louis Barye. Theseus Slaying Minotaur
1843


Antoine-Louis Barye. Theseus Slaying the Minotaur
1841-46
Bronze, height 47 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Antoine-Louis Barye. Roger and Angelica
1844
Bronze, height 51 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Antoine-Louis Barye. Cheval Turk
Bronze, height 28 cm
Art Institute, Chicago


Antoine-Louis Barye. Jaguar Devouring a Hare
1850
Bronze, 42 x 95 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Antoine-Louis Barye. Lion Bitten by a Snake
1831
Bronze, 135 x 178 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris


Antoine-Louis Barye. Strength
1854
Patinated gypsum, 100 x 81 cm
Musee d'Orsay, Paris



Antoine-Louis Barye. Cheval Percheron
Bronze and patina
Private collection




Antoine-Louis Barye. Python Killing a Gnu
1834-1835
Red wax and plaster
Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, United States)




Antoine-Louis Barye. Theseus slaying the Centaur Bienor
1849
Bronze
National Gallery of Australia (Canberra, Canberra, Australia)




Antoine-Louis Barye. Horse attacked by a tiger
1837
Bronze
National Gallery of Australia (Canberra, Canberra, Australia)




Antoine-Louis Barye. Theseus slaying the Centaur Bienor
1849
Bronze
National Gallery of Australia (Canberra, Canberra, Australia)




Antoine-Louis Barye. Theseus slaying the Centaur Bienor
1849
Bronze
National Gallery of Australia (Canberra, Canberra, Australia)




Antoine-Louis Barye. Bull Attacked by a Bear
1840
Bronze
Private collection

 
 

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