Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER ONE
 

NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
 

NEOCLASSICISM
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE- Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
PAINTING
SCULPTURE and ARCHITECTURE - Part1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

PHOTOGRAPHY
 

 


THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
 

France

It was in France that the main development of Romantic sculpture took place. Although the doctrine of the Academy came to be broadened and modified in the course of time, its core lasted until Rodin. This core might be defined as the belief that the human body is nature's noblest creation and, hence, the sculptor's noblest subject. Translated into practice, this meant that every student of sculpture at such academies as the Paris Ecole des Beaux-Arts received a rigorous training. Since the level of teaching was far higher than it was in painting, the limitations of the academic sculptural tradition became apparent much later. The Romantic reaction against the ideal of the "modern classic" asserted itself in the sculpture sections of the French Salons right after the Revolution of 1830, which brought the fall of the ancient regime of the Bourbons, but the antiacademic tradition did not become dominant until the last two decades of the century, when Michelangelo, Rodin's ideal, at last won out over Canova. What ultimately destroyed it was the cult of the fragmentary and the unfinished.

That the Romantic "rebellion" started so much later than in painting also attests to how closely sculpture and politics were linked in nineteenth-century France. Artists were often passionately involved in politics during an era when political feelings were especially intense, but because the state remained the largest single source of commissions, the fortunes of the sculptors were more directly affected than those of the painters by changes in regime. This is not meant to suggest that French sculpture was dominated by its social and political environment. Yet, to the extent that it was a public art, sculpture responded to the pressure of these forces, directly or indirectly, far more than did painting, and was shaped by them in varying degrees, depending on local circumstances. Thus we cannot understand its development without reference to the changing politics around it.



Francois Rude.

Francois Rude
(1784-1855), who enthusiastically took Napoleon's side after the emperor's return from Elba, sought refuge in Brussels from Bourbon rule, as had Jacques-Louis David, whom he knew and revered. Following his return to Paris, Rude must have felt that artistically he had reached a dead end and decided to strike out in new directions. He conceived a new interest in the French Renaissance tradition of the School of Fontainebleau and Giovanni Bologna. which would eventually lead him back to Glaus Sluter. This rediscovery of national sculptural traditions, so characteristic of Romantic revivalism, was part of a new nationalism, which was also exemplified by a passion for historic portraits as "morally elevating for the public." These concerns are manifest in Rude's masterpiece, The Departure of the Volunteers of 1792, commonly called La Marseillaise (fig. 919), for Napoleon's unfinished triumphal arch on the Place de l'Etoile. Louis-Philippe and his energetic minister of the interior Adolphe Thiers saw its completion as an opportunity to demonstrate that the new government was one of national reconciliation. Hence, the sculptural program had to offer something to every segment of the French political spectrum. Rude was fortunate in getting a commission for one of the four groups that flank the opening. He raised his subjectthe French people rallying to defend the Republic against attack from abroadto the level of mythic splendor. The volunteers surge forth, some nude, others in classic armor, inspired by the great forward movement of the winged genius of Liberty above them. No wonder the work engendered an emotional response that made people identify the group with the national anthem itself. For Rude, the group had a deeply felt personal meaning: his father had been among those volunteers. When the arch was officially unveiled in 1836, there was almost unanimous agreement that Rude's group made the other three pale into insignificance. Despite its great public acclaim. The Departure failed to gain Rude the official honors he so clearly deserved. He found himself more and more in opposition to the regime, and his most important works between 1836 and 1848 were direct expressions of his Bonapartist political beliefs.




919. Francois Rude. La Marseillaise.
1833-36.
Stone, 12.8 x 7.9 m.
Arc de Triomphe, Paris




919. Francois Rude. La Marseillaise.
(details)




919. Francois Rude. La Marseillaise.
(details)

 


919. Francois Rude. La Marseillaise.
(details)


 


François Rude

François Rude, (born Jan. 4, 1784, Dijon, France—died Nov. 3, 1855, Paris), French sculptor, best known for his social art (art that inspires and captures the interest of a broad public), including public monuments such as the Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 (1833–36), popularly called La Marseillaise. Rude rejected the classical repose of late 18th- and early 19th-century French sculpture in favour of a dynamic, emotional style and created many monuments that stirred the public for generations.

After the death of his father, whom he had assisted in his metalworking shop, Rude went to Paris determined to perfect himself in the art of sculpture. He won the Prix de Rome in 1812 but could not go to Rome because of the Napoleonic Wars. The attention of the public was first attracted to Rude by Mercury Attaching His Winged Sandals (1828), a work that strictly conformed to the rules of the Neoclassical school of French sculpture. He moved quickly into other modes that reconciled the traditional demand for the simple, clearly understood figure with a modern expressive language. In his Young Neapolitan Fisherboy Playing with a Tortoise (1831), the informal pose and the smile both break with the traditional treatment of heroic subjects in high sculpture. In the statue of Marshal Ney in the Place de l’Observatoire in Paris, the hand with the sword raised above the head and the open mouth again violated Neoclassic principles. The group of volunteers (for the Revolutionary campaign of 1792) on the Arc de Triomphe, although classical in detail, is romantic and impetuous in feeling.

Many critics have felt that Rude’s liberal passions were more powerful than his aesthetic judgment, causing his memorial Bonaparte Awakening to Immortality (1847) at Fixin near Dijon to be a grandiloquent failure, though others have admired its subtle poetry. Toward the end of his life, Rude returned to his early, classical style but achieved little that captured France again under this process of rethinking sculpture.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Francois Rude. Neapolitan Fisherboy Playing with a Tortoise
1831-33
Marble, 77 x 47 cm
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Napoleon Rising to Immortality
1845-47
Bronze, width 251 cm
Parc Noirot, Fixin-les-Dijon




Francois Rude. Napoleon Rising to Immortality (detail)

 


Francois Rude. The Imperial Eagle Watching over Napoleon
c. 1845
Bronze
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon



Francois Rude. Marshal Ney
1853
Bronze
Place de l'Observatoire, Paris




Francois Rude. Hebe
Marble
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, Bourgogne, France




Francois Rude. Bust
Bronze
Private collection




Francois Rude. Head of the Old Warrior
Terracotta, 58.4 x 23 cm
Private collection




Francois Rude. Hebe
 Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Jeanne d' Arc
1852
Louvre museum




Francois Rude. Jeanne d'Arc
1852
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Le Bapteme du Christ
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Lutteur deposant son ceste
Marbre, 1828
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Expressive head: Attention and Fear
Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, France




Francois Rude. Mercury fastening his sandals
Musee du Louvre, Paris




Francois Rude. Bust of La Perouse
1828

 
 

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