(b Philadelphia, PA, 25 Aug 1890; d Paris, 18 Nov 1976).
American photographer and painter. He was brought up in New York, and he
adopted the pseudonym Man Ray as early as 1909. He was one of the leading
spirits of DADA and SURREALISM and the only American artist to play a
prominent role in the launching of those two influential movements.
Throughout the 1910s he was involved with avant-garde activities that
prefigured the Dada movement. After attending drawing classes supervised by
Robert Henri and George Bellows at the Francisco Ferrer Social Center, or
Modern School, he lived for a time in the art colony of Ridgefield, NJ,
where he designed, illustrated and produced several small press pamphlets,
such as the Ridgefield Gazook, published in 1915, and A Book of