History of Photography


Introduction History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")


 

 



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")

 
 

 

 

Irving Penn

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Irving Penn (born 16 June 1917) is an American photographer known for his portraiture and fashion photography.
Irving Penn studied under Alexey Brodovitch at the Philadelphia Museum School from which he graduated in 1938. Penn's drawings were published by Harper's Bazaar and he also painted. As his career in photography blossomed, he became known for post World War II feminine chic and glamour photography.
Penn has worked for many years doing fashion photography for Vogue magazine. He was among the first photographers to pose subjects against a simple grey or white backdrop and used this simplicity more effectively than other photographers. Expanding his austere studio surroundings, Penn constructed a set of upright angled backdrops, to form a stark, acute corner. Posing his subjects within this tight, unorthodox space, Penn brought an unprecedented sense of drama to his portraits, driving the viewer's focus onto the person and their expression. In many photos, the subjects appeared wedged into the corner. Subjects photographed with this technique included Martha Graham, Marcel Duchamp, Georgia O'Keeffe, W. H. Auden, Igor Stravinsky and Marlene Dietrich.
While a master of the studio flash, most of Penn's portraits are lighted with window light. For travelling to New Guinea and other locations to photograph indigenous people, Penn created a portable studio with a skylight deployed facing north with impressive results. These pictures had the same feel as his portraits of celebrities; fully adorned, naturally lighted, yet placed before the neutral backdrop, his tribal subjects appear as strangely defined models for a 19-century ethnographic investigation.
In 1950, Penn married his favorite model, Lisa Fonssagrives and he founded his studio in 1953. They have one son together, who is named Tom.
Clarity, composition, careful arrangement of objects or people, form, and the use of light characterize Penn's work. Penn also photographs still life objects and found objects in unusual arrangements with great detail and clarity.
While his prints are always clean and clear, Penn's subjects vary widely. Many times his photographs are so ahead of their time that they only came to be appreciated as important works in the modernist canon years after their creation. For example, a series of posed nudes whose physical shapes range from thin to plump were shot in 1949-1950, but were not exhibited until 1980.
His still life compositions are skilfully arranged assemblages of food or objects; at once spare and highly organized, the objects are raised to a graphic perfection, articulating the abstract interplay of line and volume.
He has published numerous books including the recent, "A Notebook at Random" which offers a generous selection of photographs, paintings, and documents of his working methods. Penn's wife, Lisa Fonssagrives, died in 1992.

 


Kate Moss

 


Kate Moss (Hand on Neck), New York

 


Pablo Picasso

 


Truman Capote

 


John Osborne

 


S. Perelman

 


Lion Skull

 


Tulip

 


Black and white Vogue cover

 


Untitled

 


Colette

 


New Guinea

 


New Guinea

 


New Guinea

 


New Guinea

 


New Guinea

 


Morocco

 


Morocco

 


Untitled

 


Two Guedras, Morocco

 


Untitled

 


Sanett Newman

 


James Van Der Zee

 


C. Levi-Strauss

 


Jean Cocteau

 


Alberto Giacometti

 


Still Life with Watermelon
New York, c. 1947

 


Untitled

 


After-dinner Games
 New York, 1947

 


Woman with Roses (Lisa Fonssagrives-Penn in Lafaurie Dress), Paris
, 1950

 


Nude No. 1, 1947

 


Ballet Society, New York, 1948

 


Ballet Theater
New York, 1947

 


Mrs. Amory Carhart
New York 1947

 


Salad Ingredients
New York, 1947

 


Summer Sleep
New York, 1949

 


Nude 119, 1949

 


Bouchers
Paris, 1950

 


Tennessee Williams
New York, 1951

 


Three Asaro Mud Men
New Guinea, 1970

 


Man with Pink Face
New Guinea, 1970

 


Three Rissani Women
1971

 


Cigarette 17
New York, 1972

 


Street Findings
New York, 1999

 


Hell's Angels, San Francisco

 


Spilled Cream

 


Mermaid Dress

 


Moroccan Palace

 


Cuzco children

 


Harlequin dress - Lisa Fonssagrives-Penn, New York

 


Sunny Harnett

 


Iceland Poppy, New York

 


Rock Groups (Big Brother and the Holding Company and The Grateful Dead), San Francisco

 


Hippie Group, San Francisco

 


Marlene Dietrich

 


Cafe in Lima

 


Black and White Handbag

 


Girl in Bed

 


Sitting Man with Pink Face

 


Woman with Fan

 


Dorian Leigh and Maurice Tillet

 


Woman with Umbrella

 


Diane von Furstenberg for Vogue

 

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